Extrait de la présentation en ligne :
"Empirical evidence has repeatedly demonstrated that countries do not convergence to the same level of development, they may diverge, and multiple equilibriums are possible. The existence of poverty traps has been offered as one explanation for these different experiences. Poverty traps are observable at the sub-national level, resulting in marginal territories within a country, ghettos within a city, or even at the individual level. [...]
Recent evidence highlights that a broader understanding of the causes for entrapment in poverty is needed. For instance, governance issues, rent seeking, and political economy issues may create a vicious circle where high logistics costs, low traded volumes, capture of rents in services, and increasing marginalization reinforce each other. At the microeconomic level, the lack of human capital has always been identified as one of the main obstacle to convergence. Further, in the case of least developed countries, a recent and fruitful strand of the literature shifts the focus to health issues. Recurrent and widespread diseases like malaria, HIV/AIDS, as well as neglected diseases such as diarrheas and respiratory diseases, are shown to alter dramatically children’s cognitive capacities. This alteration has permanent effects, which affect the quantity/quality of school performance at the macro-level."