Publications des membres du Ceped


  • Touzani Rajae, Schultz Emilien, Holmes Seth M, Vandentorren Stéphanie, Arwidson Pierre, Guillemin Francis, Rey Dominique, Rouquette Alexandra, Bouhnik Anne-Déborah et Mancini Julien (2021) « Early Acceptability of a Mobile App for Contact Tracing During the COVID-19 Pandemic in France: National Web-Based Survey », JMIR mHealth and uHealth, 9 (7) (juillet 19), p. e27768. DOI : 10.2196/27768.
    Résumé : Background Several countries have implemented mobile apps in an attempt to trace close contacts of patients with COVID-19 and, in turn, reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2. However, the effectiveness of this approach depends on the adherence of a large segment of the population. Objective The aims of this study were to evaluate the acceptability of a COVID-19 contact tracing mobile app among the French population and to investigate the barriers to its use. Methods The Health Literacy Survey 2019 questioned 1003 people in France during the COVID-19 pandemic on the basis of quota sampling. The survey collected sociodemographic characteristics and health literacy data, as well as information on participants’ communication with caregivers, trust in institutions, and COVID-19 knowledge and preventive behaviors. The acceptability of a mobile app for contact tracing was measured by a single question, the responses to which were grouped into three modalities: app-supporting, app-willing, and app-reluctant. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the factors associated with the acceptability of a mobile app during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results Only 19.2% (193/1003) of all participants were app-supporting, whereas half of them (504/1003, 50.3%) were reluctant. The factors associated with willingness or support toward the contact tracing app included lower financial deprivation (app-willing: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.8, 95% CI 0.69-0.93; app-supporting: aOR 0.7, 95% CI 0.58-0.84) and higher perceived usefulness of using a mobile app to send completed health questionnaires to doctors (app-willing: aOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.70-3.26; app-supporting: aOR 3.1, 95% CI 2.04-4.82). Furthermore, the likelihood of supporting the mobile app increased with age over 60 years (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.13-3.22), trust in political representatives (aOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.72-4.23), feeling concerned about the pandemic situation (aOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.47-3.32), and knowledge about the transmission of COVID-19 (aOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.39-2.96). Conclusions The most socioeconomically precarious people, who are at a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, are also the most reluctant to using a contact tracing mobile app. Therefore, optimal adherence can only be effective with a targeted discourse on public health benefits to adopt such an app, which should be combined with a reduction in inequalities by acting on structural determinants.

  • Traverson Lola, Stennett Jack, Mathevet Isadora, Zacarias Amanda Correia Paes, Sousa Karla Paz de, Andrade Andrea, Zinszer Kate et Ridde Valéry (2021) « Learning from the resilience of hospitals and their staff to the COVID-19 pandemic: a scoping review », medRxiv. DOI : 10.1101/2021.04.22.21255908.
    Résumé : <h3>Abstract</h3> <h3>Background</h3> <p>The COVID-19 pandemic has brought huge strain on hospitals worldwide. It is crucial that we gain a deeper understanding of hospital resilience in this unprecedented moment. This paper aims to report the key strategies and recommendations in terms of hospitals and professionals’ resilience to the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the quality and limitations of research in this field at present.</p><h3>Methods</h3> <p>We conducted a scoping review of evidence on the resilience of hospitals and their staff during the COVID-19 crisis in the first half of 2020. The Stephen B. Thacker CDC Library website was used to identify papers meeting the eligibility criteria, from which we selected 65 publications. After having extracted data, we presented the results synthesis using an “effects-strategies-impacts” resilience framework.</p><h3>Results</h3> <p>We found a wealth of research rapidly produced in the first half of 2020, describing different strategies used to improve hospitals’ resilience, particularly in terms of 1) planning, management, and security, and 2) human resources. Research focuses mainly on interventions related to healthcare workers’ well-being and mental health, protection protocols, space reorganization, personal protective equipment and resources management, work organization, training, e-health and the use of technologies. Hospital financing, information and communication, and governance were less represented in the literature.</p><h3>Conclusion</h3> <p>The selected literature was dominated by quantitative descriptive case studies, sometimes lacking consideration of methodological limitations. The review revealed a lack of holistic research attempting to unite the topics within a resilience framework. Research on hospitals resilience would benefit from a greater range of analysis to draw more nuanced and contextualized lessons from the multiple specific responses to the crisis. We identified key strategies on how hospitals maintained their resilience when confronted with the COVID-19 pandemic and a range of recommendations for practice.</p>

  • Turcotte-Tremblay Anne-Marie, Gali Gali Idriss Ali et Ridde Valéry (2021) « The unintended consequences of COVID-19 mitigation measures matter: practical guidance for investigating them », BMC Medical Research Methodology, 21 (1) (décembre), p. 28. DOI : 10.1186/s12874-020-01200-x.
    Résumé : Background COVID-19 has led to the adoption of unprecedented mitigation measures which could trigger many unintended consequences. These unintended consequences can be far-reaching and just as important as the intended ones. The World Health Organization identified the assessment of unintended consequences of COVID-19 mitigation measures as a top priority. Thus far, however, their systematic assessment has been neglected due to the inattention of researchers as well as the lack of training and practical tools. Main text Over six years our team has gained extensive experience conducting research on the unintended consequences of complex health interventions. Through a reflexive process, we developed insights that can be useful for researchers in this area. Our analysis is based on key literature and lessons learned reflexively in conducting multi-site and multi-method studies on unintended consequences. Here we present practical guidance for researchers wishing to assess the unintended consequences of COVID-19 mitigation measures. To ensure resource allocation, protocols should include research questions regarding unintended consequences at the outset. Social science theories and frameworks are available to help assess unintended consequences. To determine which changes are unintended, researchers must first understand the intervention theory. To facilitate data collection, researchers can begin by forecasting potential unintended consequences through literature reviews and discussions with stakeholders. Including desirable and neutral unintended consequences in the scope of study can help minimize the negative bias reported in the literature. Exploratory methods can be powerful tools to capture data on the unintended consequences that were unforeseen by researchers. We recommend researchers cast a wide net by inquiring about different aspects of the mitigation measures. Some unintended consequences may only be observable in subsequent years, so longitudinal approaches may be useful. An equity lens is necessary to assess how mitigation measures may unintentionally increase disparities. Finally, stakeholders can help validate the classification of consequences as intended or unintended. Conclusion Studying the unintended consequences of COVID-19 mitigation measures is not only possible but also necessary to assess their overall value. The practical guidance presented will help program planners and evaluators gain a more comprehensive understanding of unintended consequences to refine mitigation measures.

  • Udechukwu T, Carnapete L, Matin M, Haider S, Clech L et Ridde V (2021) « The Impact of Health Sector Reforms on Health System in Bangladesh: A Scoping Review », European Journal of Public Health, 31 (Supplement_3) (octobre 20), p. ckab165.218. DOI : 10.1093/eurpub/ckab165.218.
    Résumé : Abstract Background Climate-induced environmental changes, and their potential impact on population health, are among the most pressing challenges affecting health systems. These health impacts put additional strain on health systems, putting their resilience and capacity to deal with increased shocks and stresses to the test. Implementing reforms to address the vulnerabilities in the health system can help build its capacity to cope with these shocks. We conducted a scoping review to explore the literature on health sector reforms in Bangladesh and understand their impact on health systems. Methods A scoping review was conducted by searching through academic (MEDLINE, SCOPUS, Web of Science and Google Scholar) and grey literature published in English and French between 1991 and 2021 that addressed national health sector reforms impacting the health system and access to care. Results Our search yielded 2688 articles for screening and 22 were included in our scoping review. One of the major health sector reforms was the shift from a project-based approach to a sector-wide approach (SWAp) in health. Studies found that implementing initiatives such as community clinics, a voucher scheme for pregnant women, increase in hospital beds at public facilities improved health care access and delivery of care, especially for rural districts. Despite government efforts, the health system continues to be vulnerable to shocks due to a significant shortage of formally qualified health professionals especially nurses and technologists and relatively low public financing. Conclusions Evidence suggests that health sector reforms implemented as part of SWAp have had a limited improvement on the health system. More emphasis should be placed in the future on implementing reforms to address critical issues such as human resources for health and health financing, which may contribute to building their capacity to cope with emerging threats due to climate change and improving access to care. Key messages Building a resilient health system may involve assessing the system's vulnerabilities, strengths and limitations through the perspective of health sector reforms. Current health sector reforms have had limited impact in addressing the vulnerabilities of the health system.

  • Vampo Charlotte (2021) « Des Nana Benz aux cheffes d’entreprise contemporaines à Lomé, au Togo », Revue internationale des etudes du developpement, 245 (1) (avril 1), p. 145-169. DOI : 10/gn2fd2.
    Résumé : Cet article questionne la façon dont des cheffes d’entreprise de l’économie formelle à Lomé se représentent l’entrepreneuriat dit « moderne ». Influencées par la circulation d’un ethos de la performance et de l’efficacité dominant dans l’idéologie néolibérale du développement, elles cherchent à se distinguer de la figure mythique de l’entrepreneuriat au Togo qu’est la « Nana Benz » pour affirmer leur caractère « moderne ». L’article mobilise une enquête ethnologique reposant sur des entretiens, des échanges informels et des observations participantes menées auprès de trente-cinq entrepreneures. Il contribue à analyser l’appropriation locale du modèle de la business woman en vogue dans le développement et nuance l’idée d’une transformation radicale des pratiques entre les générations de femmes.

  • Velasco-Pufleau Luis et Atlani-Duault Laëtitia (2021) Lieux de mémoire sonore: des sons pour survivre, des sons pour tuer, Paris : Éditions de la Maison des sciences de l'homme. (Le (bien) commun). ISBN : 978-2-7351-2704-7.

  • Xie [aut Yihui, cre, Sarma Abhraneel, Vogt Adam, Andrew Alastair, Zvoleff Alex, Andre Simon (the CSS files under inst/themes/ were derived from the Highlight package, Atkins Aron, Wolen Aaron, Manton Ashley, Yasumoto Atsushi, Baumer Ben, Diggs Brian, Zhang Brian, Yapparov Bulat, Pereira Cassio, Dervieux Christophe, Hall David, Hugh-Jones David, Robinson David, Hemken Doug, Murdoch Duncan, Campitelli Elio, Hughes Ellis, Riederer Emily, Hirschmann Fabian, Simeon Fitch, Fang Forest, inst/misc/Sweavel.sty) Frank E. Harrell Jr (the Sweavel package at, Aden-Buie Garrick, Detrez Gregoire, Wickham Hadley, Zhu Hao, Jeon Heewon, Bengtsson Henrik, Yutani Hiroaki, Lyttle Ian, Daniel Hodges, Burkhead Jake, Manton James, Lander Jared, Punyon Jason, Luraschi Javier, Arnold Jeff, Bryan Jenny, inst/misc/docco-classic.css) Jeremy Ashkenas (the CSS file at, Stephens Jeremy, Hester Jim, Cheng Joe, Ranke Johannes, Honaker John, Muschelli John, Keane Jonathan, Allaire J. J., Toloe Johan, Sidi Jonathan, Larmarange Joseph, Barnier Julien, Zhong Kaiyin, Slowikowski Kamil, Forner Karl, Smith Kevin K., Mueller Kirill, Takahashi Kohske, Walthert Lorenz, Gallindo Lucas, Hofert Marius, Modrák Martin, Chirico Michael, Friendly Michael, Bojanowski Michal, Kuhlmann Michel, Patrick Miller, Caballero Nacho, Salkowski Nick, Hansen Niels Richard, Ross Noam, Mahdi Obada, Krivitsky Pavel N., Li Qiang, Vaidyanathan Ramnath, Cotton Richard, Krzyzanowski Robert, Francois Romain, Williamson Ruaridh, Kostyshak Scott, Meyer Sebastian, Brouwer Sietse, Bernard Simon de, Rousseau Sylvain, Wei Taiyun, Assus Thibaut, Lamadon Thibaut, Leeper Thomas, Mastny Tim, Torsney-Weir Tom, Davis Trevor, Veitas Viktoras, Zhu Weicheng, Wu Wush et Foster Zachary (2021) Knitr: A General-Purpose Package for Dynamic Report Generation in R, version 1.37.
    Résumé : Provides a general-purpose tool for dynamic report generation in R using Literate Programming techniques.
    Mots-clés : ReproducibleResearch.

  • Yahiaoui Amira et Manac'h Léopoldine (2021) « L’enfermement des étrangers en France : une clinique du non-lieu ? », Recherches en psychanalyse, 31 (1) (septembre 28), p. 24-43. DOI : 10.3917/rep2.031.0024.
    Résumé : Cet article propose de penser l’enfermement des personnes étrangères en territoire français à partir de l’analyse de dispositifs dédiés à cet effet. Dans une perspective interdisciplinaire, aux frontières de la psychanalyse et de l’anthropologie, nous souhaitons penser les retentissements de ces confinements sur le psychisme et sur le corps des personnes exilées concernées par ces mesures. À partir d’une approche ethnographique, nous nous concentrerons sur l’analyse de deux dispositifs : les centres de rétention administrative (CRA) et les plateformes d’accueil et d’hébergement des demandeurs d’asile (Prahda). Nous partons du constat qu’un des effets de la globalisation réside dans la nécessité pour les États-Nations de venir re-délimiter leurs territoires respectifs. Ainsi, nous faisons l’hypothèse que la création de centres de rétention administrative et de Prahda, institutions contemporaines récentes, serait un des symptômes du contemporain en proie à une crise de ses limites.
  • Yahyaoui Myriam et Becquet Valentine (2021) « Les comportements reproductifs en fonction du sexe des enfants déjà nés : Est-ce qu'il existe une préférence pour les garçons en Afrique Subsaharienne ? », présenté à XXIXe Congrès international de la population de l'UIESP 2021 (IPC 2021), Conférence virtuelle, Poster.
  • Zeba Salifou, Pourette Dolorès, Duchesne Véronique, Mensah Keitly, DeBeaudrap Pierre, Dumont Alexandre et Poveda Juan-Diego (2021) « Analyse anthropologique d’une intervention de dépistage du cancer du col de l’utérus à Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). Expériences contrastées des professionnels de santé et des femmes », présenté à Congrès international "Les cancers dans les pays du Sud", 8èmes rencontres des sciences sociales et santé de Fès, Fès, Maroc.

  • Zehnati Ahcène, Bousmah Marwân-al-Qays et Abu-Zaineh Mohammad (2021) « Public-private differentials in health care delivery: the case of cesarean deliveries in Algeria », International Journal of Health Economics and Management (mars 30). DOI : 10.1007/s10754-021-09300-x.
    Résumé : Akin to other developing countries, Algeria has witnessed an increasing role of the private health sector in the past two decades. Our study sheds light on the public-private overlap and the phenomenon of physician dual practice in the provision of health care services using the particular case of cesarean deliveries in Algeria. Existing studies have reported that, compared to the public sector, delivering in a private health facility increases the risk of enduring a cesarean section. While confirming this result for the case of Algeria, our study also reveals the existence of public-private differentials in the effect of medical variables on the probability of cesarean delivery. After controlling for selection in both sectors, we show that cesarean deliveries in the private sector tend to be less medically justified compared with those taking place in the public sector, thus, potentially leading to maternal and neonatal health problems. As elsewhere, the contribution of the private health sector to the unmet need for health care in Algeria hinges on an appropriate legal framework that better coordinates the activities of the two sectors and reinforces their complementarity.
    Mots-clés : Algeria, Cesarean delivery, Physician dual practice, Public–private differentials.

  • Zemirli Zohra Aziadé (2021) « Algérie », Redesm.
    Résumé : Un point d’histoire Le territoire algérien étant un carrefour méditerranéen, de nombreuses populations s’y sont succédé, certaines s’y sont installées pendant des siècles et se sont mêlées aux populations autochtones ... L'article propose des développements sur le lien entre religion et Etat en Algérie.

  • Zitti Tony, Fillol Amandine, Lohmann Julia, Coulibaly Abdourahmane et Ridde Valéry (2021) « Does the gap between health workers’ expectations and the realities of implementing a performance-based financing project in Mali create frustration? », Global Health Research and Policy, 6 (1) (février 2), p. 5. DOI : 10.1186/s41256-021-00189-0.
    Résumé : Background Performance-Based Financing (PBF), an innovative health financing initiative, was recently implemented in Mali. PBF aims to improve quality of care by motivating health workers. The purpose of this research was to identify and understand how health workers’ expectations related to their experiences of the first cycle of payment of PBF subsidies, and how this experience affected their motivation and sentiments towards the intervention. We pose the research question, “how does the process of PBF subsidies impact the motivation of health workers in Mali?” Methods We adopted a qualitative approach using multiple case studies. We chose three district hospitals (DH 1, 2 and 3) in three health districts (district 1, 2 and 3) among the ten in the Koulikoro region. Our cases correspond to the three DHs. We followed the principle of data source triangulation; we used 53 semi-directive interviews conducted with health workers (to follow the principle of saturuation), field notes, and documents relating to the distribution grids of subsidies for each DH. We analyzed data in a mixed deductive and inductive manner. Results The results show that the PBF subsidies led to health workers feeling more motivated to perform their tasks overall. Beyond financial motivation, this was primarily due to PBF allowing them to work more efficiently. However, respondents perceived a discrepancy between the efforts made and the subsidies received. The fact that their expectations were not met led to a sense of frustration and disappointment. Similarly, the way in which the subsidies were distributed and the lack of transparency in the distribution process led to feelings of unfairness among the vast majority of respondents. The results show that frustrations can build up in the early days of the intervention. Conclusion The PBF implementation in Mali left health workers frustrated. The short overall implementation period did not allow actors to adjust their initial expectations and motivational responses, neither positive nor negative. This underlines how short-term interventions might not just lack impact, but instil negative sentiments likely to carry on into the future.

  • Zombré David, De Allegri Manuela, Ridde Valéry et Zinszer Kate (2021) « User fees removal and community-based management of undernutrition in Burkina Faso: what effects on children’s nutritional status? », Public Health Nutrition (février 17), p. 1-26. DOI : 10.1017/S1368980021000732.
    Résumé : Objective: To examine the effect of an intervention combining user fees removal with community-based management of undernutrition on the nutrition status in children under-five in Burkina Faso. Design: The study was a non-equivalent control group post-test-only design based on household survey data collected four years after the intervention onset in the intervention and comparison districts. Additionally, we used propensity score weighting to achieve balance on covariates between the two districts, followed by logistic multilevel modeling. Setting: Two health districts in the Sahel region. Participants: 1,116 children under five residing in 41 intervention communities and 1,305 from 51 control communities. Results: When comparing children living in the intervention district to children living in a non-intervention district, we determined no differences in terms of stunting [OR=1.13; 95% CI 0.83 −1.54] and wasting [OR=1.21; 95% CI 0.90 − 1.64], nor in severely wasted [OR=1.27; 95% CI 0.79 − 2.04] and severely stunted [OR=0.99; 95% CI 0.76 −1.26]. However, we determined that 3% of the variance of wasting [95% CI 1.25 − 10.42] and 9.4% of the variance of stunting [95% CI 6.45 − 13.38] were due to systematic differences between communities of residence. The presence of the intervention in the communities explained 2% of the community-level variance of stunting and 3% of the community-level variance of wasting. Conclusions: With the scaling-up of the national free health policy in Africa, we stress the need for rigorous evaluations and the means to measure expected changes in order to better inform health interventions.


  • Abo Yao, Altman Mathias, Bekelynck Anne, Dahourou Désiré, Simo Fotso Arlette, Godin Zélie, Kadio Kadidiatou, Larmarange Joseph, Sondo Apoline et Valentin Louis (2020) Connaissances, attitudes et pratiques liées à la pandémie COVID-19 des médecins au Burkina Faso, Policy brief (1), Ouagadougou : Aphro-Cov, 6 p.
    Résumé : CAP-CoV-BF : une enquête nationale réalisées auprès des médecins au Burkina Faso Le personnel de santé se trouve au cœur du dispositif élaboré dans le cadre de la réponse à l’épidémie de COVID-19, à la fois en tant qu’acteur essentiel du dispositif de réponse à l’épidémie, et en tant que premières personnes exposées et victimes. Il est ainsi essentiel de s’assurer de la compréhension de cette maladie (symptômes, modes de transmission, mesures de prévention, etc.) et de l’acceptabilité et de l’adaptation des médecins du Burkina Faso face aux mesures de santé publique préconisées. Cela permettra d’identifier les difficultés et les barrières qu’ils rencontrent afin d’adopter les mesures de protection adéquates, proposer des interventions adaptées pour les surmonter et prioriser les messages qui leur sont destinés. L’objectif principal de cette étude est de fournir aux acteurs nationaux impliqués dans la gestion de la crise des données probantes régulières et représentatives à l’échelle nationale sur les connaissances, attitudes et pratiques des médecins au Burkina Faso. Une enquête quantitative transversale par téléphone a été mise en place, menée auprès d’un échantillon représentatif de 166 médecins sur l’ensemble du territoire. Elle sera répétée trois fois à intervalles réguliers. Ce document “Policy Brief” (téléchargeable au lien ci-dessous) présente de façon synthétique les résultats de l’analyse de la 1ère vague d’appels réalisée en Septembre 2020.

  • Adra, Najwa, Al-Ali, Nadje, Farhat, Sana, Joly, Danièle, Larzillière, Pénélope et Pratt, Nicola (2020) Women, violence and exiting from violence with a gendered approach: MENA region and diaspora, Working Paper Series (143), Paris : Fondation Maison des Sciences de l'Homme, 37 p. (FMSH-WP).
    Résumé : This report presents a gendered approach to understanding violence and ways of exiting violence. It emphasises the importance of studying violence in the private and public spheres, as well as gender-based violence wherever it may occur. These different types of violence are linked by the thread of gender and can be analysed under the concept of the 'continuum of violence'. A gendered approach also emphasises the need to address social injustice and structural inequalities all round: ending gender-based violence, guaranteeing women's equal access to resources and addressing all forms of inequalities, oppressions and exploitation. This report highlights examples where women have been active in contributing to ending violence and injustice, as social actors in their own right, in the region, locally, nationally and internationally.
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  • Al Dahdah Marine et Quet Mathieu (2020) « Between Tech and Trade, the Digital Turn in Development Policies », Development, 63 (2-4) (décembre), p. 219-225. DOI : 10.1057/s41301-020-00272-y.

  • Albornoz María Belén et Chavez Henry (2020) « De la gestión algorítmica del trabajo a la huelga 4.0 », Mundos Plurales - Revista Latinoamericana de Políticas y Acción Pública, 7 (2) (novembre 13), p. 43-54. DOI : 10/gnc7hj.
    Résumé : Resumen Las tecnologías digitales están creando importantes retos para los agentes económicos y los decisores. En este contexto, las plataformas digitales se han convertido en nuevas oportunidades de trabajo y están reestructurando los mercados financieros y laborales. De la mano de esta ventana de oportunidad vienen también condiciones de precariedad e indefensión para los trabajadores, quienes deben enfrentar condiciones de trabajo volátiles, ausencia de beneficios sociales y condiciones de explotación. Este artículo da cuenta de los cambios unilaterales en los términos y condiciones de trabajo en las plataformas digitales y las formas de resistencia y organización con la que responden los trabajadores para reclamar el derecho a un trabajo justo. Esta investigación es parte del proyecto Fairwork y utiliza una aproximación etnográfica que incluye diez entrevistas en profundidad y cuarenta y seis entrevistas semiestructuradas a trabajadores y administradores de plataformas digitales.
    Mots-clés : algoritmos, Ciencias Sociales, economía digital, huelgas, Journal, plataformas, Políticas y Asuntos Públicos latinoamericanos, Revista Académica, trabajo justo.

  • Althabe Fernando, Therrien Michelle N.S., Pingray Veronica, Hermida Jorge, Gülmezoglu Ahmet M., Armbruster Deborah, Singh Neelima, Guha Moytrayee, Garg Lorraine F., Souza Joao P., Smith Jeffrey M., Winikoff Beverly, Thapa Kusum, Hébert Emmanuelle, Liljestrand Jerker, Downe Soo, Garcia Elorrio Ezequiel, Arulkumaran Sabaratnam, Byaruhanga Emmanuel K., Lissauer David M., Oguttu Monica, Dumont Alexandre, Escobar Maria F., Fuchtner Carlos, Lumbiganon Pisake, Burke Thomas F. et Miller Suellen (2020) « Postpartum hemorrhage care bundles to improve adherence to guidelines: A WHO technical consultation », International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics, 148 (3) (mars), p. 290-299. DOI : 10.1002/ijgo.13028.
    Résumé : Objective: To systematically develop evidence-based bundles for care of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). Methods: An international technical consultation was conducted in 2017 to develop draft bundles of clinical interventions for PPH taken from the WHO's 2012 and 2017 PPH recommendations and based on the validated “GRADE Evidence-to-Decision” framework. Twenty-three global maternal-health experts participated in the develop- ment process, which was informed by a systematic literature search on bundle defi- nitions, designs, and implementation experiences. Over a 6-month period, the expert panel met online and via teleconferences, culminating in a 2-day in-person meeting. Results: The consultation led to the definition of two care bundles for facility imple- mentation. The “first response to PPH bundle” comprises uterotonics, isotonic crystal- loids, tranexamic acid, and uterine massage. The “response to refractory PPH bundle” comprises compressive measures (aortic or bimanual uterine compression), the non- pneumatic antishock garment, and intrauterine balloon tamponade (IBT). Advocacy, training, teamwork, communication, and use of best clinical practices were defined as PPH bundle supporting elements. Conclusion: For the first response bundle, further research should assess its feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness; and identify optimal implementation strategies. For the response to refractory bundle, further research should address pending controversies, including the operational definition of refractory PPH and effectiveness of IBT devices. KEYWORDS Aortic compression; Bimanual compression; Intrauterine balloon tamponade; Non-pneumatic antishock garment; Obstetric hemorrhage; Patient care bundles; Postpartum hemorrhage; Tranexamic acid; Uterotonics
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  • Ante-Testard Pearl Anne, Benmarhnia Tarik, Bekelynck Anne, Baggaley Rachel, Ouattara Eric, Temime Laura et Jean Kévin (2020) « Temporal trends in socioeconomic inequalities in HIV testing: an analysis of cross-sectional surveys from 16 sub-Saharan African countries », The Lancet Global Health, 8 (6) (juin), p. e808-e818. DOI : 10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30108-X.
    Résumé : Overall increases in the uptake of HIV testing in the past two decades might hide discrepancies across socioeconomic groups. We used data from population-based surveys done in sub-Saharan Africa to quantify socioeconomic inequalities in uptake of HIV testing, and to establish trends in testing uptake in the past two decades. Methods We analysed data from 16 countries in sub-Saharan Africa where at least one Demographic and Health Survey was done before and after 2008. We assessed the country-specific and sex-specific proportions of participants who had undergone HIV testing in the previous 12 months across wealth and education groups, and quantified socioeconomic inequalities with both the relative and slope indices of inequalities. We assessed time trends in inequalities, and calculated mean results across countries with random-effects meta-analyses. Findings We analysed data for 537 784 participants aged 15-59 years (most aged 15-49 years) from 32 surveys done between 2003 and 2016 (16 before 2008, and 16 after 2008) in Cameroon, Cote d'Ivoire, DR Congo, Ethiopia, Guinea, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Niger, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. A higher proportion of female participants than male participants reported uptake of HIV testing in the previous 12 months in five of 16 countries in the pre-2008 surveys, and in 14 of 16 countries in the post-2008 surveys. After 2008, in the overall sample, the wealthiest female participants were 2.77 (95% CI 1.42-5.40) times more likely to report HIV testing in the previous 12 months than were the poorest female participants, whereas the richest male participants were 3.55 (1.85-6.81) times more likely to report HIV testing than in the poorest male participants. The mean absolute difference in uptake of HIV testing between the richest and poorest participants was 11.1 (95% CI 4.6-17.5) percentage points in female participants and 15.1 (9.6-20.6) in male participants. Over time (ie, when pre-2008 and post-2008 data were compared), socioeconomic inequalities in the uptake of HIV testing in the previous 12 months decreased in male and female participants, whereas absolute inequalities remained similar in female participants and increased in male participants. Interpretation Although relative socioeconomic inequalities in uptake of HIV testing in sub-Saharan Africa has decreased, absolute inequalities have persisted or increased. Greater priority should be given to socioeconomic equity in assessments of HIV-testing programmes. Copyright (C) 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • Arvanitis Rigas (2020) « Préface », in Entrepreunariat et développement: réalités et perspectives, par Sonia Ben Slimane et Hatem M'Henni, ISTE, Londres, p. 1-7. (Série Smart innovation). ISBN : 978-1-78405-688-9.

  • Assoumou Nelly, Bekelynck Anne, Carillon Séverine, Kouadio Alexis, Ouantchi Honoré, Doumbia Mohamed, Larmarange Joseph et Kone Mariatou (2020) « Organisation du financement du dépistage du VIH à base communautaire en Côte d'Ivoire : une recherche d'efficience potentiellement contre-productive ? » (poster), présenté à INTEREST 2020, online.
    Résumé : Contexte: Depuis le début des années 2010, le President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (Pepfar) et le Fonds mondial de lutte contre le VIH/ sida, la tuberculose et le paludisme, ont accentué leurs stratégies d’efficience basées sur la gestion axée sur les résultats (GAR). L’objectif ici est d’analyser les effets de ces stratégies sur la mise en oeuvre locale des activités, à travers l’exemple du dépistage du VIH à base communautaire. Matériels et Méthodes: L’étude a été menée en 2015 et 2016 dans trois districts sanitaires de la Côte d’Ivoire. Une cartographie des acteurs impliqués dans le dépistage à base communautaire et des entretiens semi-directifs ont été réalisés auprès de dix-huit membres des ONG dites «communautaires» : coordonnateurs de projet (8), chargés de suivi et évaluation (5), superviseur des activités (1), conseillers communautaires (4). Résultats: Les deux bailleurs mettent en place des systèmes de financement qui se déclinent sous forme de chaines à plusieurs maillons d’acteurs (bailleurs, organisations intermédiaires, ONG communautaires), de trois niveaux pour le Pepfar à quatre ou cinq pour le Fonds mondial. A chaque niveau, des comptes rendus et validations des données mensuelles, trimestrielles et annuelles sont exigées comme conditions de décaissements des fonds. Leur caractère chronophage, conjugué au manque de ressources humaines et/ou techniques des ONG communautaires génèrent d’importants retards. Au final, sur une année, seuls huit à neuf mois (sur douze) sont généralement consacrés à la mise en oeuvre effective des activités de dépistage ; et chaque mois, seules deux semaines (sur quatre) y sont dédiées. Conclusion: Tandis que les bailleurs de fonds portent une attention croissante à l’obtention de données précises et actualisées dans le but d’améliorer l’efficience de leurs stratégies, celles-ci produisent des effets contre-productifs, qui tendent à nuire à la mise en oeuvre effective des activités. Un juste équilibre entre mise en oeuvre et suivi et évaluation est ainsi à trouver, en fonction des capacités humaines et techniques des acteurs.

  • Atlani-Duault Laëtitia, Chauvin Franck, Yazdanpanah Yazdan, Lina Bruno, Benamouzig Daniel, Bouadma Lila, Druais Pierre Louis, Hoang Aymeril, Grard Marie-Aleth, Malvy Denis et Delfraissy Jean-François (2020) « France's COVID-19 response: balancing conflicting public health traditions », The Lancet, 396 (10246) (juillet 16), p. 219-221. DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31599-3.

  • Atlani-Duault Laetitia, Lina Bruno, Malvy Denis, Yazdanpanah Yazdan, Chauvin Franck et Delfraissy Jean-François (2020) « COVID-19: France grapples with the pragmatics of isolation », The Lancet Public Health (octobre). DOI : 10.1016/s2468-2667(20)30235-8.

  • Atlani-Duault Laetitia et Velasco-Pufleau Luis, ss la dir. de (2020) « Violence: An International Journal (coord par L. Atlani-Duault et L. Velasco-Pufleau) », 1 (2) (octobre).

  • Atlani-Duault Laëtitia, Ward Jeremy K, Roy Melissa, Morin Céline et Wilson Andrew (2020) « Tracking online heroisation and blame in epidemics », The Lancet Public Health, 5 (3) (mars), p. e137-e138. DOI : 10.1016/S2468-2667(20)30033-5.
    Résumé : The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak is giving rise to worldwide anxieties, rumours, and online misinformation. But it offers an opportunity to put into practice some lessons learned in studies of social media during epidemics, particularly with respect to the dynamics of online heroisation and blame. Epidemics such as the H1N1 influenza pandemic, severe acute respiratory syndrome, and Ebola take place in a complex world, with many disasters (human-caused and natural) and a host of social, cultural, economic, political, and religious concerns. Responding to such concerns is not usually part of public health approaches to epidemic communications, which emphasise biomedical and epidemiological information.

  • Audibert Martine, N’Landu Anaïs, Ravit Marion, Raffalli Bertille, Ravalihasy Andrainolo, Ridde Valéry et Dumont Alexandre (2020) « Forfait obstétrical et inégalités dans l’accès aux soins maternels en Mauritanie », Revue économique, 71 (6), p. 1045. DOI : 10.3917/reco.716.1045.
    Résumé : La Mauritanie a introduit en 2002 un système de prépaiement des soins de santé maternelle, le forfait obstétrical. L’objectif de cette étude est de savoir si le forfait améliore la qualité de l’accès et réduit les inégalités dans le recours aux soins obstétricaux. Les données sont celles de l’enquête ménages MICS-Mauritanie de 2015. Deux méthodes ont été utilisées. La première est la méthode des indices de concentration. La seconde est la méthode de décomposition des inégalités par fonction d’influence recentrée qui estime des effets marginaux en tenant compte des caractéristiques des individus. Le forfait obstétrical permet aux femmes enceintes d’accéder à des soins de meilleure qualité et contribue à la réduction des inégalités d’accès.
  • Aumond Florian (2020) « Aux confins du territoire de la République, aux frontières de la catégorisation juridique. La condition juridique de l’étranger dans les Terres australes et antarctiques françaises », in Droit, protection, proximité. Mélanges en l'honneur du Professeur Hervé Rihal, Collection de la Faculté de Droit et des Sciences sociales de Poitiers, Poitiers, p. 35-51.
  • Aumond Florian (2020) « Les personnes en situation de handicap dans le contexte de l’asile », in Regards croisés sur le handicap dans le contexte de la francophonie, UCA - Handicap et citoyenneté, Clermont-Ferrand, p. 475-493.
  • Aumond Florian (2020) « La protection internationale des mineurs non accompagnés ou séparés en situation d’afflux massif de personnes », in Le droit d’asile en situation d’afflux massif, Pedone, Paris.

  • Auzanneau Michelle (2020) « Apprendre le français quand on brûle les frontières: Questions et approche d’une recherche collaborative à la Protection judiciaire de la jeunesse », Migrations Société, 181 (3), p. 103. DOI : 10.3917/migra.181.0103.
    Résumé : Parmi les mineurs migrants parvenus illégalement en France certains ont commis un ou des délits sur le sol français. Le juge pour enfant a pu alors décider pour eux d’une mesure éducative ou probatoire confiée à la Protection judiciaire de la jeunesse (pjj), et parfois, parallèlement, à l’Aide sociale à l’enfance (ase). Ces mineurs non accompagnés (mna) ont alors droit à une formation en français langue étrangère. Mais que signifie apprendre le français pour ces jeunes compte tenu de leur itinérance, de l’incertitude de leur avenir sur le sol français à leur majorité et du décalage entre temps pédagogique et temps juridique ? Quelles sont les particularités du contexte d’enseignement-apprentissage et comment accompagner au mieux ces jeunes migrants ? Cet article traite de la façon dont ces questions ont été posées au cours d’une recherche collaborative menée au sein d’un service d’insertion de la Protection judiciaire de la jeunesse. Il rend compte de l’approche développée en tentant de comprendre le contexte politique, institutionnel, éducatif et pédagogique de cet accompagnement des jeunes migrants tout en cernant leur espace vécu, passé et présent des jeunes migrants.
  • Auzanneau Michelle et Deprez Christine (2020) « Identité narrative dans les récits de migration : exemples africains, C.A. Soumoune Diop (coord.) », Les Cahiers du Creilac, 2 (numéro spécial), p. 159-178.

  • Beaugé Yvonne, De Allegri Manuela, Ouédraogo Samiratou, Bonnet Emmanuel, Kuunibe Naasegnibe et Ridde Valéry (2020) « Do Targeted User Fee Exemptions Reach the Ultra-Poor and Increase their Healthcare Utilisation? A Panel Study from Burkina Faso », International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17 (18) (septembre 8), p. 6543. DOI : 10.3390/ijerph17186543.
    Résumé : Background: A component of the performance-based financing intervention implemented in Burkina Faso was to provide free access to healthcare via the distribution of user fee exemption cards to previously identified ultra-poor. This study examines the factors that led to the receipt of user fee exemption cards, and the effect of card possession on the utilisation of healthcare services. Methods: A panel data set of 1652 randomly selected ultra-poor individuals was used. Logistic regression was applied on the end line data to identify factors associated with the receipt of user fee exemption cards. Random-effects modelling was applied to the panel data to determine the effect of the card possession on healthcare service utilisation among those who reported an illness six months before the surveys. Results: Out of the ultra-poor surveyed in 2017, 75.51% received exemption cards. Basic literacy (p = 0.03), living within 5 km from a healthcare centre (p = 0.02) and being resident in Diébougou or Gourcy (p = 0.00) were positively associated with card possession. Card possession did not increase health service utilisation (β = −0.07; 95% CI = −0.45; 0.32; p = 0.73). Conclusion: A better intervention design and implementation is required. Complementing demand-side strategies could guide the ultra-poor in overcoming all barriers to healthcare access.

  • Beaugé Yvonne, Ridde Valery, Bonnet Emmanuel, Souleymane Sidibé, Kuunibe Naasegnibe et De Allegri Manuela (2020) « Factors related to excessive out-of-pocket expenditures among the ultra-poor after discontinuity of PBF: a cross-sectional study in Burkina Faso », Health Economics Review, 10 (1) (novembre 14), p. 36. DOI : 10.1186/s13561-020-00293-w.
    Résumé : Measuring progress towards financial risk protection for the poorest is essential within the framework of Universal Health Coverage. The study assessed the level of out-of-pocket expenditure and factors associated with excessive out-of-pocket expenditure among the ultra-poor who had been targeted and exempted within the context of the performance-based financing intervention in Burkina Faso. Ultra-poor were selected based on a community-based approach and provided with an exemption card allowing them to access healthcare services free of charge. Methods We performed a descriptive analysis of the level of out-of-pocket expenditure on formal healthcare services using data from a cross-sectional study conducted in Diébougou district. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to investigate the factors related to excessive out-of-pocket expenditure among the ultra-poor. The analysis was restricted to individuals who reported formal health service utilisation for an illness-episode within the last six months. Excessive spending was defined as having expenditure greater than or equal to two times the median out-of-pocket expenditure. Results Exemption card ownership was reported by 83.64% of the respondents. With an average of FCFA 23051.62 (USD 39.18), the ultra-poor had to supplement a significant amount of out-of-pocket expenditure to receive formal healthcare services at public health facilities which were supposed to be free. The probability of incurring excessive out-of-pocket expenditure was negatively associated with being female (β = − 2.072, p  = 0.00, ME = − 0.324; p  = 0.000) and having an exemption card (β = − 1.787, p  = 0.025; ME = − 0.279, p  = 0.014). Conclusions User fee exemptions are associated with reduced out-of-pocket expenditure for the ultra-poor. Our results demonstrate the importance of free care and better implementation of existing exemption policies. The ultra-poor’s elevated risk due to multi-morbidities and severity of illness need to be considered when allocating resources to better address existing inequalities and improve financial risk protection.

  • Becquet Valentine, Nouaman Marcellin, Plazy Mélanie, Masumbuko Jean-Marie, Anoma Camille, Kouame Soh, Danel Christine, Eholie Serge Paul et Larmarange Joseph (2020) « Sexual health needs of female sex workers in Côte d’Ivoire: a mixed-methods study to prepare the future implementation of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention », BMJ Open, 10 (1) (janvier), p. e028508. DOI : 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-028508.
    Résumé : OBJECTIVE: To describe sexual and reproductive health (SRH) needs of female sex workers (FSWs) to inform the future implementation of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention in this population. DESIGN AND SETTING: The ANRS 12361 PrEP-CI cross-sectional and mixed-methods study was designed and implemented with two community-based organisations in Côte d'Ivoire. PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of 1000 FSWs aged ≥18, not known as HIV-positive, completed a standardised questionnaire assessing sociodemographic characteristics, sexual practices, use of community health services and a priori acceptability of PrEP. Twenty-two indepth interviews and eight focus group discussions were also conducted to document FSWs' risky practices and sexual behaviours, experiences with violence and discrimination, attitudes regarding HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and barriers to SRH services. RESULTS: Although 87% described consistent condom use with clients, more than 22% declared accepting condomless sexual intercourse for a large sum of money. Furthermore, condom use with their steady partner and knowledge of their partner's HIV status were low despite their acknowledged concurrent sexual partnerships. While inconsistent condom use exposed FSWs to STIs and undesired pregnancies, the prevalence of contraceptive strategies other than condoms was low (39%) due to fear of contraception causing sterility. FSWs faced obstacles to accessing SRH care and preferred advice from their peers or self-medication. CONCLUSIONS: Despite adoption of preventive behaviour in most cases, FSWs are still highly exposed to HIV. Furthermore, FSWs seem to face several barriers to accessing SRH. Implementing PrEP among FSWs in West Africa, such as in Côte d'Ivoire, constitutes an opportunity to consider the regular follow-up of HIV-negative FSWs. PrEP initiation should not condition access to SRH services; conversely, SRH services could be a way to attract FSWs into HIV prevention. Our results highlight the importance of developing a people-focused approach that integrates all SRH needs when transitioning from PrEP efficacy trials to implementation. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2020. Re-use permitted under CC BY. Published by BMJ.
    Pièce jointe Texte intégral 305.2 ko (source)
  • Becquet Valentine, Sacco Nicolas et Pardo Ignacio (2020) « Disparities in Gender Preference and Fertility: Southeast Asia and South America in a Comparative Perspective » (présenté à ALAP 2020 - IX Congreso de la Asociación Latinoamericana de Poblacion), in Poster, visioconférence (Uruguay).

  • Bekelynck Anne et Larmarange Joseph (2020) « PEPFAR’s 3.0 HIV testing policy in Côte d'Ivoire reveals fragmentation, acceleration and disconnection », Aidspan, 376, avril 1.

  • Bekelynck Anne et Larmarange Joseph (2020) « La politique de dépistage du VIH de Pepfar 3.0 en Côte d'Ivoire (2014 à 2018) : fragmentation, accélération et déconnexion », Aidspan, 96, février 28.

  • Belaid Loubna, Benoit Magalie, Kaur Navdeep, Lili Azari et Ridde Valery (2020) « Population Health Intervention Implementation Among Migrants With Precarious Status in Montreal: Underlying Theory and Key Challenges », SAGE Open, 10 (2) (avril), p. 215824402091795. DOI : 10.1177/2158244020917957.
    Résumé : The purpose of this study is to describe the underlying theory and the challenges involved in implementing an intervention to access health care services for migrants with precarious status (MPS) in Montreal. The description of the underlying theory of the intervention was based on a documentary analysis and a workshop with clinicians (n = 9). The challenges were identified through concept mapping (n = 28) and in-depth interviews (n = 13). The results of the study indicated that the aims of the intervention were to provide access to health care to MPS primarily to avoid any further health status deterioration. The most significant challenges identified were sustainable funding resources and improved access to care and protection for MPS. The interviews indicated that MPS are difficult to reach out; public health care system rules are unclear; resource constraints make it difficult to provide adequate and continuing care; and advocacy activities are difficult to organize.

  • Belaid Loubna et Ridde Valéry (2020) Une cartographie de quelques méthodes de revues systématiques, Working Papers du CEPED (44), Paris : Ceped, 42 p.

  • Bernard-Maugiron Nathalie (2020) « La charia dans le droit contemporain des pays arabes », in Pouvoirs et autorités en Islam, Marseille : Diacritiques Éditions, p. 87-96. (Les conférences de l’IISMM). ISBN : 979-10-97093-14-3 - 9791097093150.

  • Bernard-Maugiron Nathalie (2020) « Les amendements constitutionnels de 2019 en Égypte : vers une consécration de la dérive autoritaire du régime », Revue francaise de droit constitutionnel, N° 121 (1) (février 18), p. 3-19. DOI : 10.3917/rfdc.121.0003.
  • Bernard-Maugiron Nathalie (2020) « Se marier dans les pays arabes aujourd'hui - Évolutions juridiques et » présenté à Arabofolies, octobre 25, Paris, Institut du monde arabe.
  • Bernard-Maugiron Nathalie (2020) « L'égalité hommes/femmes dans les constitutions du monde arabe après 2011 » présenté à Consultation technique sur La performance de la mise en œuvre des lois et des réformes en faveur de l’égalité et l’accès des femmes à la justice: Egypte, Jordanie, Maroc et Tunisie., novembre 26, Paris, OCDE.
  • Bernard-Maugiron Nathalie (2020) « La réception (ou non-réception) des discours islamistes dans les constitutions arabes post 2011 » février 27, Université de Paris.

  • Bernard-Maugiron Nathalie (2020) « Egypte : quelle justice pour quelle transition ? », in Justice et réconciliation dans le Maghreb post-révoltes arabes, par Eric Gobe, IRMC-Karthala. ISBN : 978-2-8111-2695-7.

  • Bernard-Maugiron Nathalie et Omar Menna (2020) « The Long Decline of the Legal Profession in Egypt », in Lawyers in 21st-Century Societies, par Richard L. Abel et al, Bloomsbury Publishing, vol. 1 National Reports: p. 565-580. ISBN : 978-1-5099-1514-9.
    Résumé : The world's legal professions have undergone dramatic changes in the 30 years since publication of the landmark three-volume Lawyers in Society, which launched

  • Besle S et Schultz Emilien (2020) « Using Research to Treat Cancer: Localized Biomedical Innovation », Revue Francaise De Sociologie, 61 (3), p. 405-433. DOI : 10.3917/rfs.613.0405.

  • Bonnet Doris et Delanoë Daniel (2020) « Pourquoi les jeunes d’Afrique subsaharienne partent-ils ? », De Facto, 17 (mars 26).
    Résumé : On constate une augmentation croissante des mineurs non accompagnés arrivés en France. Les raisons de leur migration conjuguent une perte d’affiliation et une stratégie du désespoir.
    Mots-clés : ⛔ No DOI found.

  • Bonnet Emmanuel, Fournet Florence, Benmarhnia Tarik, Ouedraogo Samiratou, Dabiré Roch et Ridde Valéry (2020) « Impact of a community-based intervention on Aedes aegypti and its spatial distribution in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso », Infectious Diseases of Poverty, 9 (1) (décembre), p. 61. DOI : 10.1186/s40249-020-00675-6.
    Résumé : Background Several studies highlighted the impact of community-based interventions whose purpose was to reduce the vectors’ breeding sites. These strategies are particularly interesting in low-and-middle-income countries which may find it difficult to sustainably assume the cost of insecticide-based interventions. In this case study we determine the spatial distribution of a community-based intervention for dengue vector control using different entomological indices. The objective was to evaluate locally where the intervention was most effective, using spatial analysis methods that are too often neglected in impact assessments. Methods Two neighbourhoods, Tampouy and Juvenat in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, were chosen among five after a survey was conducted, as part of an assessment related to the burden of dengue. As part of the community-based intervention conducted in Tampouy between August and early October 2016, an entomological survey was implemented in two phases. The first phase consisted of a baseline entomological characterization of potential breeding sites in the neighbourhood of Tampouy as well as in Juvenat, the control area. This phase was conducted in October 2015 at the end of the rainy season. The mosquito breeding sites were screened in randomly selected houses: 206 in Tampouy and 203 in Juvenat. A second phase took place after the intervention, in October 2016. The mosquito breeding sites were investigated in the same yards as during the baseline phase. We performed several entomological analyses to measure site productivity as well as before and after analysis using multilevel linear regression. We used Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISAs) to analyse spatial concentrations of larvae. Results After the intervention, it is noted that LISAs at Tampouy reveal few aggregates of all types and the suppression of those existing before the intervention. The analysis therefore reveals that the intervention made it possible to reduce the number of concentration areas of high and low values of pupae. Conclusions The contribution of spatial methods for assessing community-based intervention are relevant for monitoring at local levels as a complement to epidemiological analyses conducted within neighbourhoods. They are useful, therefore, not only for assessment but also for establishing interventions. This study shows that spatial analyses also have their place in population health intervention research
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