Publications des membres du Ceped

2022



  • Chaudat Philippe (2022) « Cachez ce buveur que je ne saurais voir ! : Entre visibilité et invisibilité, la spatialisation du monde des bars à Meknès (Maroc) », Revue des mondes musulmans et de la Méditerranée, 151 (septembre 12), p. 199-216. DOI : 10.4000/remmm.18048. http://journals.openedition.org/remmm/18048.
    Résumé : Au Maroc, l’alcool est interdit aux musulmans, et pourtant les bars et certains restaurants proposent cette marchandise à des consommateurs qui sont des musulmans. Pour pouvoir vendre de l’alcool, ces commerces organisent, selon des modalités qui leur sont propres, leur espace et leurs pratiques pour les rendre invisibles, tandis que les clients, de leur côté, masquent leurs usages de cette marchandise. L’espace des bars et des restaurants servant de l’alcool se distingue alors des autres espaces commerciaux tout en étant comparable aux espaces d’habitation. Il ne relève ni du privé, ni du public, mais constitue une des multiples sphères d’échanges présentes autour de l’alcool, qui réunies forment alors un « monde » à part, coexistant avec d’autres mondes. Mots-clés : Alcool, espace, Maroc, espace privé, espace public, intime, sphères d’échanges, mondes Keywords: Alcohol, spatialization, Morocco, private space, public space, intimate, spheres of exchange, worlds

  • Chaudat Philippe (2022) « Alcohol and Religious Practices in Meknes (Morocco): Between Rejection and Compromise », in Alcohol in the Maghreb and the Middle East since the Nineteenth Century Disputes, Policies and Practices, Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN : 978-3-030-84000-6.


  • Chaudat Philippe et Leservoisier Olivier (2022) « De l’apprentissage du terrain au terrain comme apprentissage. L’expérience d’une pédagogie inversée », Emulations - Revue de sciences sociales, 39-40 (avril 1), p. 31-50. DOI : 10.14428/emulations.039-40.02. https://ojs.uclouvain.be/index.php/emulations/article/view/chaudat.
    Résumé : Partant d’une expérience de plusieurs années d’encadrement de stages de terrain en ethnologie, cet article propose une réflexion sur les enjeux et les modalités de l’apprentissage de l’enquête ethnographique, tant du point de vue des enseignants que de celui des étudiants. Il s’interroge à la fois sur les recompositions que cet apprentissage a pu connaître au fil des ans et sur les transformations que celui-ci engendre dans les pratiques pédagogiques. L’examen des conditions d’enseignement de l’enquête de terrain conduit ainsi à analyser les effets d’une pédagogie inversée, tout en rendant compte de la portée heuristique du dialogue entre des dispositifs pédagogiques (enseignement et stage) complémentaires et essentiels dans la formation à la recherche par la recherche.


  • Chavez Henry, Albornoz María Belén et Martín Fernando (2022) « ‘Big data’ Research: A Bibliometric Analysis of the Scopus Database, 2009–2019 », Journal of Scientometric Research, 11 (1), p. 64-78. DOI : 10.5530/jscires.11.1.7. https://www.jscires.org/article/485.
    Résumé : Scopus-database publications containing the keyword ‘big data’ have skyrocketed from 30 (2009) to almost 16,000 (2019). This trend reveals this field’s importance across disciplines and contexts. Previous works have analysed the emergence and characteristics of scientific research on ‘big data’ but need updating. We undertook a bibliometric analysis of over 73,000 such 2009–2019 publications. This data helped to identify the primary trends, subjects, networks and institutions publishing on big data worldwide and explain the relations and differences between scientific communities working on this subject in central and peripheral countries. Furthermore, this research highlights Chinese researchers’ and institutions’ prominence in this field alongside the influence of American contributions, which are most frequently cited. The emergence of dynamic poles of scientific production in middle-income countries in Asia, Africa and South America are also studied. Despite the dynamism of the field, about 2% of the articles account for 40% of the field’s citations, while 42% have no citations. Originating in computer science and engineering, big data research is increasingly becoming interdisciplinary. Keyword trends over time also show a shift from technical and prospective concerns towards (1) methodological and practical issues and (2) the development of AI and machine learning techniques. These indicators present differences between countries with varying geo-economic conditions. Collaboration networks have rapidly grown with the US and China as the main nodes and European countries as intermediaries in the circulation of this topic. Although still rare, there are some signs of South-South collaboration between Latin America, Africa and Asia.
    Mots-clés : Bibliometrics, Big data, Global South, Knowledge Circulation, Scientific networks.


  • Cicchelli Vincenzo et Octobre Sylvie (2022) « Republican Universalism at the Test of French Multicultural Society: Cultural Diversity and Social Cohesion According to Young People », Populism (septembre 6), p. 1-25. DOI : 10.1163/25888072-bja10039. https://brill.com/view/journals/popu/aop/article-10.1163-25888072-bja10039/article-10.1163-25888072-bja10039.xml.
    Résumé : While the trial of modernity and its legacies, the rise of anti-universalistic discourses, and the temptations of identitarian closures are common Western trends, this paper will specifically focus on the French case, as its republican assimilationist model has been very much infused with universalism and endures many tensions facing multicultural society. By focusing on the arguments mobilized by young French adults to solve the tensions between republican universalism and national particularism, as well as envisioning social cohesion, we analyze their narratives and shed light on four “spirits”: Homo Nationalis, embodying a nationalistic passion for the homeland; Homo Civicus, expressing deep commitment to the res publica and the common good; Homo Culturalis, demanding recognition of minority cultures; and Homo Pontifex (the “bridge builder”), encouraging cosmopolitanism and a love of humanity.

  • Cicchelli Vincenzo et Octobre Sylvie (2022) K-pop, soft power et culture globale, Paris cedex 14 : Presses universitaires de France. (Hors collection). ISBN : 978-2-13-083050-4.
    Résumé : De la musique de BTS à la série Squid Game, une vague de produits culturels sud-coréens déferlent sur le monde et surprend par l'engouement qu'elle suscite. K-pop, K-drama, K-films, mais aussi bandes dessinées (manwhas), c'est ce que l'on désigne comme la Hallyu (mot chinois passé dans la langue courante pour indiquer la vague sud-coréenne de produits culturels). Cet ouvrage expose à quel point cette nouvelle vague culturelle est le fruit d'un écosystème politique et économique spécifique. Faisant suite à la domination anglo-saxonne et japonaise dans la pop culture des générations précédentes, elle constitue une forme de globalisation alternative.   Se penchant sur le cas de la réception française (particulièrement intéressant à analyser car il ne peut être imputé à des proximités culturelles préexistantes, la diaspora sud-coréenne étant quasi inexistante en France et les liens historiques entre les deux pays ténus), l'ouvrage met en évidence une caractéristique des jeunes générations : une ouverture à l'altérité culturelle, où l'esthétique règne en maître, et dont les effets façonnent l'image de ce qu'est une modernité positive, une société désirable, une identité valorisée


  • Cicchelli Vincenzo, Octobre Sylvie, Katz‐Gerro Tally, Yodovich Neta, Handy Femida et Ruiz Stefanie (2022) « “Because we all love K‐Pop”: How young adults reshape symbolic boundaries in Paris, Manchester, and Philadelphia », The British Journal of Sociology (novembre 9), p. 1468-4446.12983. DOI : 10.1111/1468-4446.12983. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1468-4446.12983.

  • Cicchelli Vincenzo et Octobre Sylvie (2022) Youth on edge: facing global crises in multicultural french society, trad. par, Sarah-Louise Raillard, S.l. : Palgrave Macmillan, 263 p. (Studies in chlidhood and youth). ISBN : 978-3-031-11824-1.
    Résumé : This book explores disrupted youth cohesion in France within the context of multiple ongoing global economic, migratory, social, political, and security-related crises. While these trends can be observed in numerous Western societies, France provides a unique case study of various anti-cosmopolitan and anti-Enlightenment movements shaping youth conditions and reconfiguring relationships between the individual, the group, and society. The authors undertook in-depth interviews with French young people between the ages of 18 to 30 years old to inquire into how they experience "vivre ensemble" (living together) in a time of rising economic inequalities and multicultural tensions. Through these findings, they invite decision-makers, politicians, educators, and parents to propose a renewed narrative of social cohesion for youth who are not disillusioned, but deeply on edge. Mots clés : youth in society; French youth; French politics; Multiculturalism; Global crises; Globalization; youth experience


  • Clech Lucie, Meister Sofia, Belloiseau Maeva, Benmarhnia Tarik, Bonnet Emmanuel, Casseus Alain, Cloos Patrick, Dagenais Christian, De Allegri Manuela, du Loû Annabel Desgrées, Franceschin Lucas, Goudet Jean-Marc, Henrys Daniel, Mathon Dominique, Matin Mowtushi, Queuille Ludovic, Sarker Malabika, Turenne Charlotte Paillard et Ridde Valéry (2022) « Healthcare system resilience in Bangladesh and Haiti in times of global changes (climate-related events, migration and Covid-19): an interdisciplinary mixed method research protocol », BMC Health Services Research, 22 (1) (décembre), p. 340. DOI : 10.1186/s12913-021-07294-3. https://bmchealthservres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12913-021-07294-3.
    Résumé : Abstract Background Since climate change, pandemics and population mobility are challenging healthcare systems, an empirical and integrative research to studying and help improving the health systems resilience is needed. We present an interdisciplinary and mixed-methods research protocol, ClimHB, focusing on vulnerable localities in Bangladesh and Haiti, two countries highly sensitive to global changes. We develop a protocol studying the resilience of the healthcare system at multiple levels in the context of climate change and variability, population mobility and the Covid-19 pandemic, both from an institutional and community perspective. Methods The conceptual framework designed is based on a combination of Levesque’s Health Access Framework and the Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office’s Resilience Framework to address both outputs and the processes of resilience of healthcare systems. It uses a mixed-method sequential exploratory research design combining multi-sites and longitudinal approaches. Forty clusters spread over four sites will be studied to understand the importance of context, involving more than 40 healthcare service providers and 2000 households to be surveyed. We will collect primary data through questionnaires, in-depth and semi-structured interviews, focus groups and participatory filming. We will also use secondary data on environmental events sensitive to climate change and potential health risks, healthcare providers’ functioning and organisation. Statistical analyses will include event-history analyses, development of composite indices, multilevel modelling and spatial analyses. Discussion This research will generate inter-disciplinary evidence and thus, through knowledge transfer activities, contribute to research on low and middle-income countries (LMIC) health systems and global changes and will better inform decision-makers and populations.

  • Coste Marion et Bousmah Marwân-al-Qays (2022) Validation d'un score d'obstacles perçus à l'accès aux soins en zone rurale au Sénégal pour prédire l'utilisation des services de santé (2), Paris, France : Ceped. (Document de travail Unissahel). https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6997903.
    Résumé : Contexte : L’accès aux services de santé est un élément clé pour atteindre l'Objectif de Développement Durable n° 3, qui consiste à promouvoir une vie en bonne santé pour tous à tout âge grâce à une couverture maladie universelle (CMU). Cependant, dans le contexte des pays à revenu faible ou intermédiaire, la plupart des études se concentrent sur la protection financière mesurée par les dépenses de santé catastrophiques, ou sur l'utilisation des services de santé parmi des populations spécifiques présentant des besoins de santé (comme une grossesse récente ou une maladie). Méthodes : Cette étude vise à construire un score individuel d’obstacles perçus à l’accès aux soins (OPAS) afin de prédire l'utilisation des services de santé. Nous estimons le score sur six éléments : (1) savoir où aller, (2) obtenir la permission, (3) avoir de l'argent, (4) la distance jusqu’à la structure, (5) trouver un moyen de transport, et (6) ne pas vouloir y aller seul.e, en utilisant des données individuelles sur 1 787 participants adultes vivant en milieu rural au Sénégal. Nous construisons le score via une analyse factorielle explicative descendante et vérifions sa cohérence interne. Enfin, nous évaluons la validité prédictive du score factoriel en testant son association (régressions univariées) avec un large éventail de variables sur les déterminants du recours aux soins et de l'utilisation des services de santé. Résultats : L'analyse factorielle aboutit à la construction d’un score unidimensionnel combinant les éléments (3) à (6), avec un coefficient alpha de Cronbach de 0,7 indiquant une bonne cohérence interne. Le score est fortement associé aux déterminants du recours aux soins (notamment sexe, éducation, statut marital, mesures de pauvreté et distance jusqu’à la structure de santé la plus proche). En outre, le score permet de prédire l’utilisation des services de santé au niveau du ménage, l'utilisation des services de santé suite à un problème de santé, et l'utilisation des services de santé pendant la grossesse et l'accouchement. Ces résultats sont confirmés à partir d’une base de données différente (validité externe). Conclusions : Le score OPAS est un indicateur valide et précis de l'accès aux services de santé au niveau individuel. Il peut compléter les mesures de couverture des services de santé au niveau régional ou national pour mesurer l’accès et prédire l’utilisation des services de santé. Le score OPAS peut également être combiné à des mesures conventionnelles de protection financière, telles que les dépenses de santé catastrophiques, afin de documenter de manière multidimensionnelle les besoins et les progrès en matière de CMU au niveau individuel ou au niveau ménage.

  • Coulibaly Abdourahmane, Touré Laurence, Chabrol Fanny, Dramé Boubacar, Zinszer Kate et Ridde Valéry (2022) L’accès aux soins au Mali dans un centre hospitalier universitaire en contexte COVID-19 : entre continuité et discontinuité (5), Paris, France : Ceped. (Document de travail Unissahel). https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7125289.
    Résumé : Contexte : Au Mali, les pénuries fréquentes de ressources matérielles et humaines rendent difficile l’accès aux soins. Cette situation s’est aggravée avec l’épidémie de COVID-19 qui a engendré une augmentation croissante des besoins. L’objectif de cette étude est de décrire la façon dont un hôpital universitaire de la capitale, Bamako, a maintenu l’accès aux soins des patients lors des deux premières vagues de l’épidémie de COVID-19 entre avril 2020 et janvier 2021. Méthodes : Notre recherche qualitative a été réalisée avec des entretiens semi-directifs (n = 28) et des observations (n=229). Les personnes rencontrées travaillaient dans les différents services de l’hôpital et dans le site de prise en charge des patients infectés par le Sars-Cov2. Les données ont été analysées à travers une approche déductive en suivant le cadre conceptuel de Levesque et al. (Int J Equity Health. 2013 Mar 11 ; 12 :18) sur l’accès aux soins. Résultats : L’accessibilité des services a été affectée par les nombreuses restrictions du personnel pour se protéger des risques de contamination. L’acceptabilité des soins a été caractérisée par la mise en place de mesures tenant compte des préférences dans le domaine alimentaire (acceptation des repas apportés par la famille) ou de l’état sanitaire dans l’attribution des chambres d’hospitalisation. La disponibilité des services a été soutenue dans les services COVID-19 au détriment des services non COVID-19. Le coût abordable lié à la gratuité des soins liés au COVID-19 cache de nombreuses dépenses parallèles effectuées par les familles. Les soignants ont constamment adapté leurs approches thérapeutiques pour assurer la pertinence des soins. Conclusions : Cette recherche a démontré l’importance d’analyser l’accès aux soins en s’intéressant aussi bien aux patients des services COVID-19 que non COVID-19. Le rôle du contexte est capital pour comprendre la capacité à faire face à la pandémie.


  • Coulibaly Abdourahmane, Touré Laurence, Zinszer Kate et Ridde Valéry (2022) « La résilience de l’hôpital du Mali face à la Covid-19 dans un contexte de pénuries », Santé Publique, Prépublication, p. 935-945. DOI : 10.3917/spub.pr1.0935. https://www.cairn.info/revue-sante-publique-2022-0-page-935.htm.
    Résumé : Objectif : L’objectif de cette recherche était de rendre compte des stratégies de résilience mobilisées par l’Hôpital du Mali face à la maladie à coronavirus (COVID-19).Méthode : Les données collectées ont concerné une période correspondant aux premiers mois de gestion de la pandémie à l’hôpital (avril - juillet 2020). Au total, 32 entretiens semi-directifs et 53 séances d’observation ont été réalisés. Les analyses se sont appuyées sur un cadre conceptuel et ont été menées selon l’approche déductive.Résultats : Les résultats montrent que, face aux multiples effets de la COVID-19 tels que l’aggravation de la pénurie du personnel et de la charge de travail, le besoin de créer des infrastructures dédiées, la baisse drastique des recettes liée à la baisse de fréquentation de l’hôpital, le personnel a mis en place de multiples stratégies (ex. réduction ou report de certaines dépenses, réquisition de bâtiment, recrutements de contractuels et le redéploiement du personnel fonctionnaire). La mise en place de ces stratégies a globalement permis de maintenir l’accès aux soins des patients, même si les restrictions ont été nombreuses pour les patients non COVID-19. L’hôpital a été en mesure de s’inscrire dans une résilience absorptive.Conclusion : Cette recherche qualitative a permis une meilleure compréhension des faits liés à la gestion de la COVID-19 en milieu hospitalier, et notamment de sa résilience. Les leçons tirées de la recherche devraient permettre de concevoir, à l’avenir, des réponses plus adaptées et plus efficaces pour faire face aux pandémies.


  • Coulibaly Abdourahmane, Touré Laurence, Zinszer Kate et Ridde Valéry (2022) « La résilience de l’hôpital du Mali face à la COVID-19 dans un contexte de pénuries: », Santé Publique, Vol. 33 (6) (mars 11), p. 935-945. DOI : 10.3917/spub.216.0935. https://www.cairn.info/revue-sante-publique-2021-6-page-935.htm?ref=doi.
    Résumé : Objectif : L’objectif de cette recherche était de rendre compte des stratégies de résilience mobilisées par l’Hôpital du Mali face à la maladie à coronavirus (COVID-19). Méthode : Les données collectées ont concerné une période correspondant aux premiers mois de gestion de la pandémie à l’hôpital (avril - juillet 2020). Au total, 32 entretiens semi-directifs et 53 séances d’observation ont été réalisés. Les analyses se sont appuyées sur un cadre conceptuel et ont été menées selon l’approche déductive. Résultats : Les résultats montrent que, face aux multiples effets de la COVID-19 tels que l’aggravation de la pénurie du personnel et de la charge de travail, le besoin de créer des infrastructures dédiées, la baisse drastique des recettes liée à la baisse de fréquentation de l’hôpital, le personnel a mis en place de multiples stratégies (ex. réduction ou report de certaines dépenses, réquisition de bâtiment, recrutements de contractuels et le redéploiement du personnel fonctionnaire). La mise en place de ces stratégies a globalement permis de maintenir l’accès aux soins des patients, même si les restrictions ont été nombreuses pour les patients non COVID-19. L’hôpital a été en mesure de s’inscrire dans une résilience absorptive. Conclusion : Cette recherche qualitative a permis une meilleure compréhension des faits liés à la gestion de la COVID-19 en milieu hospitalier, et notamment de sa résilience. Les leçons tirées de la recherche devraient permettre de concevoir, à l’avenir, des réponses plus adaptées et plus efficaces pour faire face aux pandémies.
  • Coulibaly Karna (2022) « « HIV Prevention in France: Are Sub-Saharan African Immigrants Being Left Behind when it comes to Biomedical tools? » » présenté à Transnational HIV Prevention Research Symposium, avril, CUNY School of Medicine, New York, USA.


  • Coulibaly Karna, Gosselin Anne, Carillon Séverine, Ravalihasy Andrainolo, Melchior Maria, Ridde Valéry, Desgrées du Loû Annabel et On Behalf of the MAKASI Study Group (2022) « Is empowerment in sexual health measurable? A scoping review of definitions and measurement indicators », Health Promotion International, 37 (5) (octobre 1), p. daac139. DOI : 10.1093/heapro/daac139. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/daac139.
    Résumé : The concept of empowerment in sexual health is widely used in health promotion. This scoping review aims to identify how it is defined and measured. PubMed, Sage Journals, PsycInfo and the Web of Science are data sources. The inclusion criteria for studies were as follows: (1) an analysis of empowerment in sexual health, (2) quantitative evaluation and (3) publication in a peer-reviewed journal in French or English since January 1996. Data were extracted using a summary table of the definitions and indicators of empowerment in sexual health. Of the 2181 articles found, 29 met the inclusion criteria. Only 4 studies on 29 clearly defined empowerment in sexual health. Five dimensions emerged from the indicators used in the 29 studies in relation to sexual empowerment (social participation, participation in decision making, power to act, sexual health knowledge and gender norms), with two types of indicators: indicators unspecific to sexual health, which can be viewed as empowerment basic skills, and indicators specific to sexual health. Most studies concerned women and focused on individual empowerment, with a lack of measure of collective and structural levels of empowerment. Despite great heterogeneity in the definitions and indicators used, a set of core indicators emerged: participation in decision making, sexual negotiation power and sexual communication skills, knowledge and use of contraceptive methods, and HIV and sexually transmitted infections risk perception. This set could be systematically used in each study based on sexual empowerment concept, completed by supplementary indicators considering the specific context.Empowerment is at the heart of health promotion. The concept of empowerment in sexual health has been increasingly used in the field of health promotion, but there is a lack of a consensual definition and great heterogeneity in the indicators used to assess that concept and measure it, according to targeted populations and cultural contexts. In this scoping review on how empowerment in sexual health is defined and measured, five dimensions emerged: social participation, participation in decision making, power to act, sexual health knowledge and gender norms. Through these dimensions, two types of indicators were collected: indicators unspecific to sexual health, which can be viewed as empowerment basic skills, and indicators specific to sexual health. Despite great heterogeneity in the definitions and indicators used, a set of core indicators emerged: participation in decision making, sexual negotiation power and sexual communication skills, knowledge and use of contraceptive methods, and HIV and sexually transmitted infections risk perception. For future research, this set could be systematically used in each study based on sexual empowerment concept, and should be completed by supplementary indicators considering the specific context.
  • Coulibaly Karna, Gosselin Anne, Carillon Severine, Taéron Corinne, Mbiribindi Romain, Desgrées du Loû Annabel et Equipe Makasi (2022) « « Les traitements antirétroviraux pour la prévention du VIH : des outils de prévention faiblement connus par les immigrés africains en situation de précarité vivant en Île-de-France ». » (Communication orale #CO16.5), présenté à AFRAVIH, Marseille.
  • Coulibaly Karna, Gosselin Anne, Ravalihasy Andrainolo, Carillon Severine, Melchior Maria, Ridde Valery et Desgrées du Loû Annabel (2022) « « Définition et mesure des concepts en promotion de la santé : enseignements des études sur l’empowerment en santé sexuelle ». » (Communication orale #May17_1030), présenté à Conférence mondiale de Promotion de la Santé, Montréal.


  • De Araujo Oliveira Sydia Rosana, Soares Sampaio Aletheia, Vasconcelos Ana Lucia, Cazarin Gisele, Zacarias Amanda, Furtado Betise, Andrade Andréa Carla, Paz de Sousa Karla Myrelle et Ridde Valéry (2022) « Mise en œuvre de la capacité de réponse à la Covid-19 dans un hôpital au Brésil: », Santé Publique, Prépublication (mars 23), p. 1h-8. DOI : 10.3917/spub.pr1.0008. https://www.cairn.info/revue-sante-publique-2022-0-page-1h.htm?ref=doi.


  • De Araujo Oliveira Sydia Rosana, Soares Sampaio Aletheia, Vasconcelos Ana Lucia, Cazarin Gisele, Zacarias Amanda, Furtado Betise, Andrade Andréa Carla, Paz de Sousa Karla Myrelle et Ridde Valéry (2022) « Mise en œuvre de la capacité de réponse à la COVID-19 dans un hôpital au Brésil: », Santé Publique, Vol. 33 (6) (mars 11), p. 971-978. DOI : 10.3917/spub.216.0971. https://www.cairn.info/revue-sante-publique-2021-6-page-971.htm?ref=doi.


  • De Beaudrap Pierre, Mouté Charles, Pasquier Estelle, Tchoumkeu Alice, Temgoua Carole Dongmo, Zerbo Aida, Mac-Seing Muriel et Beninguisse Gervais (2022) « Burden of and risk factors for sexual violence among women with and without disabilities in two sub-Saharan African countries », Global Health Action, 15 (1) (décembre 31), p. 2077904. DOI : 10.1080/16549716.2022.2077904. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/16549716.2022.2077904.
    Résumé : BACKGROUND Available data suggest that women with disabilities have an increased risk of sexual violence, but little is known about the situation of those women living in resource-limited settings. OBJECTIVES To assess the burden and examine the drivers of sexual violence among women with disabilities. METHODS This is a pooled analysis of two population-based surveys conducted in Cameroon and Burundi. Adults with and without disabilities were randomly recruited from the general population. Structured interviews were conducted at both sites to collect data on participants’ functional limitations, life-course history of sexual violence, education, employment, and resources. Only women with disabilities whose impairments started before the age of 10 years (n = 359) and women without disabilities (n = 720) are included in this analysis. The age-adjusted prevalence of violence was computed, and risk factors were assessed using a discrete survival regression and mediation analysis. RESULTS At both sites, the participants with disabilities had a lower education level and had an increased risk of food insecurity. The pooled age-adjusted prevalence of lifetime sexual violence was 19.8% (95%CI:15.3–24.3) among women with disabilities and 11.7% (95%CI:9.3–14.1) among those without disabilities (ORap: 2.0, 95%CI:1.4–2.8). Women with cognitive limitations and those with visual impairments had the highest risk of sexual violence (ORap: 3.5 (95%CI:2.0–6.3) and 2.7 (95%CI:1.4–5.0), respectively). Over the life course, the risk of sexual violence was especially high among women with disabilities who had lived with an intimate partner before the age of 25 years (p < 0.001). Education level mediated approximately one-third of the total association between disability and sexual violence (p = 0.001). There was no evidence of an indirect effect through food insecurity. CONCLUSION This study provides evidence of the high burden of sexual violence among women with disabilities who live in urban African contexts. The social environment and access to education may be key contributors to this vulnerability.
  • Debeaudrap P., Kabore F., Setha L., Tegbe J., Doukoure B., Segeral O., Jaquet A., Petignat P., Clifford G. et Horo A. (2022) « Evaluation of screening algorithms based on HPV testing with partial genotyping for the prevention of cervical cancer among HIV-infected women in resource-limited countries: results of the ANRS 12375 study », présenté à AIDS 2022, Montreal, Canada.
  • Debeaudrap Pierre, Kaboré F., Setha L., Tegbe J., Doukoure B., Segeral O., Jaquet A., Petignat P., Clifford G. et Horo A. (2022) « Évaluation de stratégies de dépistage du cancer du col avec test HPV et triage chez les femmes vivant avec le VIH dans des contextes à ressources limitées : résultats de l’étude ANRS 12375 », présenté à AFRAVIH, Marseille, France.

  • Desclaux Alice et Larmarange Joseph (2022) « Projet ATLAS : Les autotests VIH, un outil pour pallier au manque d'accès au dépistage en Afrique de l'Ouest », The Conversation, juillet 28. http://theconversation.com/projet-atlas-les-autotests-vih-un-outil-pour-pallier-au-manque-dacces-au-depistage-en-afrique-de-louest-186424.
    Résumé : Pour lutter contre l'épidémie de Sida en Afrique de l'Ouest, les tests d'autodépistage s'avèrent être une stratégie efficace. Bien acceptée, elle bénéficie d'une bonne distribution.
  • Diagne Ibrahima, Petit Véronique et Koundoul Adama (2022) « Youth and Mental Health in a Context of Demographic and Health Transition in Senegal: How Youth Mental Health Intersects with Important Development Issues », Austin Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 6 (2) (novembre 4), p. id1027.
    Résumé : Citation: Diagne I, Petit V and Koundoul A. Youth and Mental Health in a Context of Demographic and Health Transition in Senegal: How Youth Mental Health Intersects with Important Development Issues. Austin Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2022; 6(2): 1027. Austin Child Adolesc Psychiatry - Volume 6 Issue 2 - 2022 Submit your Manuscript | www.austinpublishinggroup.com Diagne et al. © All rights are reserved Austin Child & Adolescent Psychiatry Open Access Abstract The mental health of young people is an issue of public health and sustainable development that is still underestimated in the countries of the South, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, even though demographic and health transitions make it a major challenge. The overview of mental health in developing countries highlights the absence of a specific policy, the lack of resources allocated to this health sector, and the scarcity of research, even though mental illnesses have decisive and growing morbid, social, and economic impacts. The insufficient production of data contributes to the invisibilities of this issue. Based on the literature and the experiences of the authors on mental health in Senegal, they illustrate how the psychological health of young people is interwoven into the societal context.
    Mots-clés : ⛔ No DOI found.


  • Diallo Amadou Ibra, Faye Adama, Tine Jean Augustin Diègane, Ba Mouhamadou Faly, Gaye Ibrahima, Bonnet Emmanuel, Traoré Z. et Ridde Valery (2022) « Factors associated with the acceptability of government measures to address COVID-19 in Senegal », Revue d'Épidémiologie et de Santé Publique (mars), p. S0398762022002930. DOI : 10.1016/j.respe.2022.03.123. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0398762022002930.
    Résumé : Introduction : Three months after the first appearance of the new coronavirus (COVID 19), Senegal recorded its first case on March 2, 2020. Faced with this pandemic, the State reacted quickly with public measures : instituting a curfew, placing a ban on travel between regions, and closing shops and places of worship. This research aims to study the acceptability of these non-pharmaceutical measures by the Senegalese population. Method : This study was a cross-sectional and analytical survey conducted in June and July 2020 among Senegalese over 18 years old. Sampling by the representative quota method was distributed proportionally to age, gender and region. We constructed the questionnaire using the theoretical framework of acceptability of health interventions. Through a telephone call center synchronised to an internet server, we collected data on personal characteristics, knowledge of the disease, trust in information sources, trust in government, concern about the pandemic, and the seven dimensions of acceptability. We performed descriptive analysis and structural equation with R software version 4.0.2. Results : This study included a total of 813 individuals. The average age was 34.7 years ( ± 14.2 years). They were predominantly male (54.6 %), with no education (42.6 %). The increased level of knowledge of the disease was associated with confidence in national media information sources provided by the administrative and health authorities (β=0.11**). The increase in the level of trust in the government in response to COVID-19 was positively related to the acceptability of curfew (β=0.16***), travel ban between regions (β=0.11***), and closure of places of worship (β=0.1**) and markets (β=0.09**). Conclusion : In Senegal, the acceptability of the measures depended on knowledge of the disease, perception of the risk of the disease, and trust in the government. There is a need to strengthen awareness and risk communication of COVID-19. Keywords Social acceptabilityGovernment measuresCOVID-19Senegal


  • Drabo Seydou, Ouattara Fatoumata, Baxerres Carine et Guillaume Agnès (2022) « Reproductive Health Governance: Availability and Professional Use of Misoprostol in Benin and Burkina Faso », Nordic Journal of African Studies, 31 (3), p. 224-244. DOI : 10.53228/njas.v31i3.926. https://www.njas.fi/njas/article/view/926/593.
    Résumé : Misoprostol is effective not only for gastroenterology indications but also for reproductive health-related conditions and for the reduction of maternal mortality. The use of misoprostol is well documented in Latin America, where it is widely used for abortions. However, scant knowledge exists regarding its use in African contexts. In this study, we describe and analyse the conditions of the professional use of misoprostol in Benin and Burkina Faso. We ask the following questions: How accepted is misoprostol in Benin and Burkina Faso? What was the process leading to the official recognition of misoprostol in both countries? Which actors were involved in this process? How do health care workers perceive and use misoprostol in the context of care? Theoretically, we use the concepts ‘social life of medicine’ and ‘reproductive governance’ to analyse the position of misoprostol within the broader system of health policy, as well as its professional usage within the health care system. The fieldwork conducted in Benin and Burkina Faso highlights the conditions of the institutional acceptability of the drug and the logics underlying the use and non-use of misoprostol by health workers in both countries. The article highlights the social life of misoprostol by showing how the governance surrounding its use contributes to the development and cultivation of suspicions towards the drug among health care providers and institutional actors – suspicions that consequently restrict the availability of misoprostol as a medical therapeutic option.
    Mots-clés : ⚠️ Invalid DOI.


  • Eïd Julia et Desgrées du Loû Annabel (2022) « Empowerment-based support program for vulnerable populations living with diabetes, obesity or high blood pressure: a scoping review », BMC Public Health, 22 (1) (novembre 9), p. 2051. DOI : 10.1186/s12889-022-14480-3. https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-022-14480-3.
    Résumé : Abstract Background The management of chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity and high blood pressure is a major global health challenge, particularly among the most disadvantaged populations. Beyond the biomedical management of these diseases, comprehensive support that takes into account the peoples’ economic and social situation is fundamental. The objective of this scoping review is to create an inventory and an analysis of the different types of support for these chronic diseases among disadvantaged, immigrant or minority populations to contribute to a better definition and characterization of what should be global support for these vulnerable populations suffering from these diseases. Methods A search of PubMed, PsycINFO, Sages Journals and Web of Science was conducted (between March and May 2021) for articles published between January 2000 and May 2021. Articles were selected after screening titles, abstracts and full texts according to our 5 inclusion criteria. Results We included 16 articles. The diabetes, obesity and high blood pressure support programs described in these articles operate to improve physical and mental health and access to care. The approaches of these interventions are focused on the training and participation of people and the implementation of support actions adapted to the person. The majority of these interventions have a real attachment to the community. Conclusions This review of the literature shows that support for people with chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity or high blood pressure is based on three pillars: empowerment, peer mediation and holistic and tailor-made support for the individual. The empowerment approach, which considers the capacities and resources of individuals and whose goal is to strengthen their ability to act on their health, appears to be entirely suited to the support of these chronic diseases. This review underlines the importance of moving away from a biomedical approach to a holistic approach truly focused on the person, their capacities and their needs.


  • Émilie Pigeon-Gagné, Vigu Teodora, Kadio Kadidiatou, Bonnet Emmanuel et Ridde Valéry (2022) « Explanatory models of psychotic-like experiences in rural Burkina Faso: A qualitative study among indigents and their community », SSM - Mental Health (octobre), p. 100166. DOI : 10.1016/j.ssmmh.2022.100166. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2666560322001062.
    Résumé : Background In Sub-Saharan Africa, psychiatric care for severe mental disorders is scarce. This is especially true for people living in chronic poverty in rural areas. The way in which people with psychotic manifestations are socially perceived and treated remains under-researched, limiting the possibility of adapting services to their needs. Methods In May 2017, 29 semi-structured individual interviews with indigent people reporting psychotic-like experiences and 8 focus groups with members of their community were conducted in the rural region of Diébougou (Burkina Faso). Indigents were questioned on their subjective interpretation regarding these experiences. Community members were asked about their perceptions of people manifesting psychotic-like experiences. A thematic analysis was carried out. Results Three distinct conceptions of psychotic-like experiences were identified. First, these experiences were often understood as a reflection of a mental disorder involving evil supernatural entities. Second, some people were considered as possessing a faculty that conferred supernatural powers that could be used for healing purposes. Finally, psychotic-like experiences might also reflect a temporary disturbance for which no significant repercussions were raised. Conclusions This study suggests that certain manifestations qualified as psychotic according to the biomedical nosology seem to be considered differently from communities' perspectives. These experiences were frequently interpreted as being personal and not requiring medical attention or even as socially valuable faculties. Although psychotic-like experiences were not always perceived negatively, people who experienced them were reluctant to talk about them. This suggests that a form of stigmatization is associated with psychotic-like experiences. Keywords Psychotic-like experiencesIndigentsBurkina FasoExplanatory models of illnessUniversal health coverage
  • Etoundi N., Assoumou N., Tegbe J., Abouo F., Diallo Z., Tanon A., Coffie P. et Debeaudrap Pierre (2022) « Comorbidités, fonctionnement physique et social et activité physique chez des adultes de plus de 40 ans avec et sans infection par le VIH en Côte d’Ivoire : une étude comparative (VIRAGE) », présenté à AFRAVIH, Marseille, France.


  • Faccin Mauro, Gargiulo Floriana, Atlani-Duault Laëtitia et Ward Jeremy K. (2022) « Assessing the influence of French vaccine critics during the two first years of the COVID-19 pandemic », éd. par Constantine Dovrolis, PLOS ONE, 17 (8) (août 4), p. e0271157. DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0271157. https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0271157.
    Résumé : When the threat of COVID-19 became widely acknowledged, many hoped that this pandemic would squash “the anti-vaccine movement”. However, when vaccines started arriving in rich countries at the end of 2020, it appeared that vaccine hesitancy might be an issue even in the context of this major pandemic. Does it mean that the mobilization of vaccine-critical activists on social media is one of the main causes of this reticence to vaccinate against COVID-19? In this paper, we wish to contribute to current work on vaccine hesitancy during the COVID-19 pandemic by looking at one of the many mechanisms which can cause reticence towards vaccines: the capacity of vaccine-critical activists to influence a wider public on social media. We analyze the evolution of debates over the COVID-19 vaccine on the French Twittosphere, during two first years of the pandemic, with a particular attention to the spreading capacity of vaccine-critical websites. We address two main questions: 1) Did vaccine-critical contents gain ground during this period? 2) Who were the main actors in the diffusion of these contents? While debates over vaccines experienced a tremendous surge during this period, the share of vaccine-critical contents in these debates remains stable except for a limited number of short periods associated with specific events. Secondly, analyzing the community structure of the re-tweets hyper-graph, we reconstruct the mesoscale structure of the information flows, identifying and characterizing the major communities of users. We analyze their role in the information ecosystem: the largest right-wing community has a typical echo-chamber behavior collecting all the vaccine-critical tweets from outside and recirculating it inside the community. The smaller left-wing community is less permeable to vaccine-critical contents but, has a large capacity to spread it once adopted.

  • Fillol Amandine, Kadio Kadidiatou et Ridde Valéry (2022) Effets du néolibéralisme dans la réflexion politique et scientifique autour de la CSU (4), Paris, France : Ceped. (Document de travail Unissahel). https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7041072.
    Résumé : Contexte : De plus en plus d’études montrent les liens entre les politiques ancrées dans une idéologie néolibérale et les effets sur la santé des populations. Alors que ces liens sont largement traités dans la littérature, notre article vise à comprendre comment la couverture universelle en santé (CSU), abordé ici comme un objet de la gouvernance globale en santé, naît, se définit et existe à travers le « noyau dur » du néolibéralisme, orientant ainsi l’ensemble des politiques publiques nationales et internationales. Méthodes : Il s’agit d’une analyse réflexive issue d’une revue de littérature réalisée dans le cadre d’une thèse de doctorat en santé mondiale. Cette analyse s’appuie sur le concept de noyau dur du néolibéralisme qui est un ensemble de croyances ontologiques et normatives, profondément ancrées, qui sous-tendent les représentations et les logiques des politiques et des interventions dans la gouvernance globale en santé. Résultats : Le noyau dur du néolibéralisme a pour effet, de façon implicite, de donner une définition restreinte à la santé à travers l’objet de la couverture sanitaire universelle, tout en promouvant une image positive et en limitant les possibilités de dissidence grâce à un cadrage discursif orienté (framing). Ce cadrage exclue les questions relatives aux déterminants structuraux de la santé tels que les financements publics dans la santé. Conclusions : À Travers le cadrage effectué sur les objets de la gouvernance globale tel que la couverture sanitaire universelle, il existe une restriction dans la façon de penser et de définir la santé.


  • Fillol Amandine, McSween-Cadieux Esther, Ventelou Bruno, Larose Marie-Pier, Kanguem Ulrich Boris Nguemdjo, Kadio Kadidiatou, Dagenais Christian et Ridde Valéry (2022) « When the messenger is more important than the message: an experimental study of evidence use in francophone Africa », Health Research Policy and Systems, 20 (1) (mai 26), p. 57. DOI : 10.1186/s12961-022-00854-x. https://health-policy-systems.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12961-022-00854-x.
    Résumé : Abstract Background Epistemic injustices are increasingly decried in global health. This study aims to investigate whether the source of knowledge influences the perception of that knowledge and the willingness to use it in francophone African health policy-making context. Methods The study followed a randomized experimental design in which participants were randomly assigned to one of seven policy briefs that were designed with the same scientific content but with different organizations presented as authors. Each organization was representative of financial, scientific or moral authority. For each type of authority, two organizations were proposed: one North American or European, and the other African. Results The initial models showed that there was no significant association between the type of authority or the location of the authoring organization and the two outcomes (perceived quality and reported instrumental use). Stratified analyses highlighted that policy briefs signed by the African donor organization (financial authority) were perceived to be of higher quality than policy briefs signed by the North American/European donor organization. For both perceived quality and reported instrumental use, these analyses found that policy briefs signed by the African university (scientific authority) were associated with lower scores than policy briefs signed by the North American/European university. Conclusions The results confirm the significant influence of sources on perceived global health knowledge and the intersectionality of sources of influence. This analysis allows us to learn more about organizations in global health leadership, and to reflect on the implications for knowledge translation practices. , Résumé Contexte Les injustices épistémiques sont de plus en plus décriées dans le domaine de la santé mondiale. Cette étude vise à déterminer si la source des connaissances influence la perception de ces connaissances et la volonté de les utiliser. Méthodes L’étude suit un devis expérimental randomisé dans lequel les participant·es ont été assigné·es au hasard à l'une des sept notes politiques conçues avec le même contenu scientifique, mais avec différentes organisations présentées comme autrices. Chaque organisation était représentative d'une autorité financière, scientifique ou morale. Pour chaque type d'autorité, deux organisations étaient proposées : l'une nord-américaine ou européenne, l'autre africaine. Résultats Les résultats montrent que le type d’autorité et la localisation des organisations autrices ne sont pas significativement associés à la qualité perçue et à l’utilisation instrumentale déclarée. Toutefois, des interactions entre le type d’autorité et la localisation étaient significatives. Ainsi, les analyses stratifiées ont mis en évidence que pour la qualité perçue, les notes de politique signées par l'organisme bailleur (autorité financière) africain obtenaient de meilleurs scores que les notes de politique signées par l’organisme bailleur nord-américain / européen. Tant pour la qualité perçue que pour l'utilisation instrumentale déclarée, ces analyses stratifiées ont révélé que les notes de politique signées par l'université africaine (autorité scientifique) étaient associées à des scores plus faibles que les notes de politique signées par l'université nord-américaine/européenne. Interprétation Les résultats confirment l'influence significative des sources sur la perception des connaissances en santé mondiale et rappellent l’intersectionnalité de l’influence des sources d’autorité. Cette analyse nous permet à la fois d'en apprendre davantage sur les organisations qui dominent la scène de la gouvernance mondiale en santé et de réfléchir aux implications pour les pratiques d'application des connaissances.


  • Floersheim Charlotte (2022) « Quand la relation donne une direction », Anthropologie & Santé. Revue internationale francophone d'anthropologie de la santé, 24 bis (hors-série) (mai 15). DOI : 10.4000/anthropologiesante.11029. https://journals.openedition.org/anthropologiesante/11029.
    Résumé : Rencontre Femmes Plus, planning familial, Marseille Milieu des années 2010, un printemps ou un automne, je ne sais plus, je participe à l’organisation d’une des journées du collectif inter-associatif marseillais, Femmes Plus. Le temps d’un samedi, sans enfant, environ quatre fois par an, ce collectif réunit des femmes séropositives de la région. Ces journées mélangent temps de réflexion, ateliers autour de la maladie, du bien-être, de la vie avec le VIH. Elles se déroulent à Marseille dans le...


  • Floersheim Charlotte, Musso Sandrine, Eubanks August, Douine Maylis, Spire Bruno, Sagaon-Teyssier Luis, Parriault Marie Claire, Girard Gabriel et Mosnier Emilie (2022) « What can lead to late diagnosis of HIV in an illegal gold mining environment? A qualitative study at the French Guiana’s border with Brazil », BMJ Open, 12 (9) (septembre 1), p. e061237. DOI : 10.1136/bmjopen-2022-061237. https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/12/9/e061237.
    Résumé : Objective The present study aimed to understand what factors can lead to late HIV diagnosis of illegal gold miners at French Guiana’s border with Brazil. Design An exploratory qualitative study with in-depth interviews and observations was conducted between November 2019 and February 2020. Setting The study was conducted in the main medical healthcare service and two non-governmental organisation premises in the Oyapock border region, which is a supply area for illegal gold mining sites. Participants Fifteen people living with HIV diagnosed with CD4 count <350 cells 106/L were interviewed. Seven women and eight men participated; they were between 31 and 79 years old, and the median time since HIV diagnosis was 6 years. Eight had links to illegal gold mining. Findings Three key themes for late HIV diagnosis emerged: (1) the presence of economic and political structural factors which constitute risks for this illegal activity, specifically the repression of gold mining sites by French Armed Forces and the distance from healthcare facilities; (2) representations of the body and health, related to the living conditions of this population; prioritisation of health emergencies and long-term self-medication; and (3) gender roles shaping masculinity and heterosexuality contributing to a perception of not being at risk of HIV and delaying testing. Conclusion This study highlights structural, group-based and individual factors that reduce access to HIV testing and healthcare in general for a population of migrant workers in an illegal gold mining area. Faced with harsh living conditions and state repression, these workers develop a vision of health which prioritises the functionality of the body. Associated with gender roles which are partly shaped both by the mining activity and its geographical location, this vision can lead to late HIV diagnosis.
    Mots-clés : Epidemiology, HIV & AIDS, Public health.


  • Floersheim Charlotte, Musso Sandrine, Eubanks August, Douine Maylis, Spire Bruno, Sagaon-Teyssier Luis, Parriault Marie Claire, Girard Gabriel et Mosnier Emilie (2022) « What can lead to late diagnosis of HIV in an illegal gold mining environment? A qualitative study at the French Guiana’s border with Brazil », BMJ Open, 12 (9) (septembre 1), p. e061237. DOI : 10.1136/bmjopen-2022-061237. http://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/12/9/e061237.abstract.
    Résumé : Objective The present study aimed to understand what factors can lead to late HIV diagnosis of illegal gold miners at French Guiana’s border with Brazil.Design An exploratory qualitative study with in-depth interviews and observations was conducted between November 2019 and February 2020.Setting The study was conducted in the main medical healthcare service and two non-governmental organisation premises in the Oyapock border region, which is a supply area for illegal gold mining sites.Participants Fifteen people living with HIV diagnosed with CD4 count &lt;350 cells 106/L were interviewed. Seven women and eight men participated; they were between 31 and 79 years old, and the median time since HIV diagnosis was 6 years. Eight had links to illegal gold mining.Findings Three key themes for late HIV diagnosis emerged: (1) the presence of economic and political structural factors which constitute risks for this illegal activity, specifically the repression of gold mining sites by French Armed Forces and the distance from healthcare facilities; (2) representations of the body and health, related to the living conditions of this population; prioritisation of health emergencies and long-term self-medication; and (3) gender roles shaping masculinity and heterosexuality contributing to a perception of not being at risk of HIV and delaying testing.Conclusion This study highlights structural, group-based and individual factors that reduce access to HIV testing and healthcare in general for a population of migrant workers in an illegal gold mining area. Faced with harsh living conditions and state repression, these workers develop a vision of health which prioritises the functionality of the body. Associated with gender roles which are partly shaped both by the mining activity and its geographical location, this vision can lead to late HIV diagnosis.Data available on request due to privacy/ethical restrictions. The data that support the findings of this study are available on request from the corresponding author, [CF]. The data are not publicly available due to CNIL restrictions because they contain information that could compromise the privacy of research participants.

  • Fotso Arlette Simo, Johnson Cheryl, Vautier Anthony, Kouame Konan Blaise, Diop Papa Moussa, Silhol Romain, Maheu-Giroux Mathieu, Boily Marie-Claude, Rouveau Nicolas, Doumenc-Aidara Clemence, Baggaley Rachel, Ehui Eboi, Larmarange Joseph et Team Atlas (2022) Using routine programmatic data to estimate the population-level impacts of HIV self-testing: The example of the ATLAS program in Cote d'Ivoire, medRxiv, 2022.02.08.22270670 p. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2022.02.08.22270670v1.
    Résumé : Background HIV self-testing (HIVST) is recommended by the World Health Organization as an additional HIV testing approach. Since 2019, it has been implemented in Cote d'Ivoire through the ATLAS project, including primary and secondary distribution channels. While the discreet and flexible nature of HIVST makes it appealing for users, it also makes the monitoring and estimation of the population-level programmatic impact of HIVST programs challenging. We used routinely collected data to estimate the effects of ATLAS HIVST distribution on access to testing, conventional testing (self-testing excluded), diagnoses, and antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiations in Cote d'Ivoire. Methods We used the ATLAS project's programmatic data between the third quarter (Q) of 2019 (Q3 2019) and Q1 2021, in addition to routine HIV testing services program data obtained from the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief dashboard. We performed ecological time series regression using linear mixed models. Findings The results are presented for 1000 HIVST kits distributed through ATLAS. They show a negative but nonsignificant effect of the number of ATLAS HIVST on conventional testing uptake (-190 conventional tests [95% CI: -427 to 37, p=0.10]). We estimated that for 1000 additional HIVST distributed through ATLAS, +590 [95% CI: 357 to 821, p<0.001] additional individuals have accessed HIV testing, assuming an 80% HIVST utilization rate (UR) and +390 [95% CI: 161 to 625, p<0.001] assuming a 60% UR. The statistical relationship between the number of HIVST and HIV diagnoses was significant and positive (+8 diagnosis [95% CI: 0 to 15, p=0.044]). No effect was observed on ART initiation (-2 ART initiations [95% CI: -8 to 5, p=0.66]). Interpretations Social network-based HIVST distribution had a positive impact on access to HIV testing and diagnoses in Cote d'Ivoire. This approach offers a promising way for countries to assess the impact of HIVST programs. Funding Unitaid 2018-23-ATLAS
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  • Fotso Arlette Simo, Johnson Cheryl, Vautier Anthony, Kouamé Konan Blaise, Diop Papa Moussa, Silhol Romain, Maheu-Giroux Mathieu, Boily Marie-Claude, Rouveau Nicolas, Doumenc-Aïdara Clémence, Baggaley Rachel, Ehui Eboi, Larmarange Joseph et Team the ATLAS (2022) « Using routine programmatic data to estimate the population-level impacts of HIV self-testing: The example of the ATLAS program in Cote d’Ivoire », medRxiv. DOI : 10.1101/2022.02.08.22270670. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2022.02.08.22270670v1.
    Résumé : Background HIV self-testing (HIVST) is recommended by the World Health Organization as an additional HIV testing approach. Since 2019, it has been implemented in Côte d’Ivoire through the ATLAS project, including primary and secondary distribution channels. While the discreet and flexible nature of HIVST makes it appealing for users, it also makes the monitoring and estimation of the population-level programmatic impact of HIVST programs challenging. We used routinely collected data to estimate the effects of ATLAS’ HIVST distribution on access to testing, conventional testing (self-testing excluded), diagnoses, and antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiations in Côte d’Ivoire. Methods We used the ATLAS project’s programmatic data between the third quarter (Q) of 2019 (Q3 2019) and Q1 2021, in addition to routine HIV testing services program data obtained from the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief dashboard. We performed ecological time series regression using linear mixed models. Findings The results are presented for 1000 HIVST kits distributed through ATLAS. They show a negative but nonsignificant effect of the number of ATLAS HIVST on conventional testing uptake (−190 conventional tests [95% CI: −427 to 37, p=0·10]). We estimated that for 1000 additional HIVST distributed through ATLAS, +590 [95% CI: 357 to 821, p<0·001] additional individuals have accessed HIV testing, assuming an 80% HIVST utilization rate (UR) and +390 [95% CI: 161 to 625, p<0·001] assuming a 60% UR. The statistical relationship between the number of HIVST and HIV diagnoses was significant and positive (+8 diagnosis [95% CI: 0 to 15, p=0·044]). No effect was observed on ART initiation (−2 ART initiations [95% CI: −8 to 5, p=0·66]). Interpretations Social network-based HIVST distribution had a positive impact on access to HIV testing and diagnoses in Cote d’Ivoire. This approach offers a promising way for countries to assess the impact of HIVST programs. Funding Unitaid 2018-23-ATLAS Evidence before this study We searched PubMed between November 9 and 12, 2021, for studies assessing the impact of HIVST on HIV testing, ‘conventional’ testing, HIV diagnoses and ART initiation. We searched published data using the terms “HIV self-testing” and “HIV testing”; “HIV self-testing” and “traditional HIV testing” or “conventional testing”; “HIV self-testing” and “diagnosis” or “positive results”; and “HIV self-testing” and “ART initiation” or “Antiretroviral treatment”. Articles with abstracts were reviewed. No time or language restriction was applied. Most studies were individual-based randomized controlled trials involving data collection and some form of HIVST tracking; no studies were conducted at the population level, none were conducted in western Africa and most focused on subgroups of the population or key populations. While most studies found a positive effect of HIVST on HIV testing, evidence was mixed regarding the effect on conventional testing, diagnoses, and ART initiation.Added value of this study HIVST can empower individuals by allowing them to choose when, where and whether to test and with whom to share their results and can reach hidden populations who are not accessing existing services. Inherent to HIVST is that there is no automatic tracking of test results and linkages at the individual level. Without systematic and direct feedback to program implementers regarding the use and results of HIVST, it is difficult to estimate the impact of HIVST distribution at the population level. Such estimates are crucial for national AIDS programs. This paper proposed a way to overcome this challenge and used routinely collected programmatic data to indirectly estimate and assess the impacts of HIVST distribution in Côte d’Ivoire.Implications of all the available evidence Our results showed that HIVST increased the overall HIV testing uptake and diagnoses in Côte d’Ivoire without significantly reducing conventional HIV testing uptake. We demonstrated that routinely collected programmatic data could be used to estimate the effects of HIVST kit distribution outside a trial environment. The methodology used in this paper could be replicated and implemented in different settings and enable more countries to routinely evaluate HIVST programming at the population level.
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  • Gagnon-Dufresne Marie-Catherine, Gautier Lara, Beaujoin Camille, Lamothe Ashley Savard, Mikanagu Rachel, Cloos Patrick, Ridde Valéry et Zinszer Kate (2022) « Considering social inequalities in health in large-scale testing for COVID-19 in Montréal: a qualitative case study », BMC Public Health, 22 (1), p. 749. DOI : 10.1186/s12889-022-13163-3. https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-022-13163-3.
    Résumé : Abstract Background Evidence continues to demonstrate that certain marginalised populations are disproportionately affected by COVID-19. While many studies document the impacts of COVID-19 on social inequalities in health, none has examined how public health responses to the pandemic have unfolded to address these inequities in Canada. The purpose of our study was to assess how social inequalities in health were considered in the design and planning of large-scale COVID-19 testing programs in Montréal (Québec, Canada). Methods Part of the multicountry study HoSPiCOVID, this article reports on a qualitative case study of large-scale testing for COVID-19 in Montréal. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 19 stakeholders involved in planning large-scale testing or working with vulnerable populations during the pandemic. We developed interview guides and a codebook using existing literature on policy design and planning, and analysed data deductively and inductively using thematic analysis in NVivo. Results Our findings suggest that large-scale COVID-19 testing in Montréal did not initially consider social inequalities in health in its design and planning phases. Considering the sense of urgency brought by the pandemic, participants noted the challenges linked to the uptake of an intersectoral approach and of a unified vision of social inequalities in health. However, adaptations were gradually made to large-scale testing to improve its accessibility, acceptability, and availability. Actors from the community sector, among others, played an important role in supporting the health sector to address the needs of specific subgroups of the population. Conclusions These findings contribute to the reflections on the lessons learned from COVID-19, highlighting that public health programs must tackle structural barriers to accessing healthcare services during health crises. This will be necessary to ensure that pandemic preparedness and response, including large-scale testing, do not further increase social inequalities in health.


  • Gallardo Lucille, Gautier Lara, Chabrol Fanny, Traverson Lola, Oliveira Sydia et Ridde Valery (2022) « Consulting firms in the public management of epidemics. A scoping-review protocol », protocols.io. DOI : 10.17504/protocols.io.b4haqt2e. https://www.protocols.io/view/consulting-firms-in-the-public-management-of-epide-b4haqt2e.
    Résumé : The aim of this scoping review is to produce a state of knowledge about the role of private consulting firms in the public management of epidemics. The review will also identify...
    Mots-clés : ⛔ No DOI found.


  • Gautier Lara, Nguengang Wakap Stéphanie, Verrier Florian, da Silva Miranda Érica, Négré Victoria, Hamza Jalel, Poveda Juan-Diego et Bouchon Magali (2022) « Responding to Increasing Health and Social Needs of Unprotected Unaccompanied Minors in Paris in the Context of COVID-19: A Mixed Methods Case Study », Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies (janvier 19), p. 1-20. DOI : 10.1080/15562948.2022.2027057. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15562948.2022.2027057.
    Résumé : Unaccompanied minors (UMs) are children under the age of 18 who settle in a foreign country without a legal representative. In France, many UMs are left unprotected from child welfare services because assessment systems evaluate that they are not minors. In Paris, the non-governmental organization Médecins du Monde (MdM) offers unprotected UMs medical, psychological, and social care. In March 2020, the lockdown policy to contain COVID-19 constrained MdM to adapt its care provision model. This case study sought to answer the following question: how did volunteers and employees of MdM respond to the social and health needs of unprotected UMs during the spring 2020 lockdown in Paris? We analyzed a cohort of 58 UMs for eight weeks of lockdown using secondary quantitative data. We further explored the UMs’ needs and the experience of phone consultations, through 15 interviews with MdM’s program volunteers and employees. Time series showed a steady increase in UMs’ needs. The program’s adapted care provision likely contributed to reducing UMs’ feeling of isolation. It also had several negative consequences for unprotected UMs, volunteers, employees, and Médecins du Monde’s institution. This study highlights the role of non-governmental organizations in providing a particularly vulnerable migrant population – unprotected UMs – care and support, despite operational challenges in crisis times.
    Mots-clés : care provision, COVID-19 pandemic, France, mixed methods study, Unaccompanied Minors.

  • Gosselin Anne (2022) « Les inégalités intergénérationnelles à travers le prisme du statut migratoire », in Jeunesses. D'une crise à l'autre. (Amsellem-Mainguy et Lardeux eds.), première, Paris : Presses de Sciences Po, p. 192. (Collection académique). ISBN : 978-2-7246-3855-4.

  • Gosselin Anne, Malroux Inès, Desprat Diane, Devetter François-Xavier, Memmi Sarah, Pannetier Julie, Valat Emmanuel et Melchior Maria (2022) « Prévalence des risques psychosociaux au travail et santé mentale parmi les immigrés et descendants d’immigrés : résultats de l’enquête nationale Conditions de Travail-Risques psychosociaux 2016 », Bull Epidémiol Hebd, 7, p. 141-9. http://beh.santepubliquefrance.fr/beh/2022/7/2022_7_2.html.
    Résumé : Objectifs – Peu d’études se sont penchées sur les risques psychosociaux parmi les immigrés et les descendants d’immigrés et leur association avec la santé mentale. Notre étude a pour objectif : 1) de décrire la prévalence de deux indicateurs qui recouvrent les dimensions d’exigence psychologique, de latitude décisionnelle et d’isolement au travail : le job strain (tension au travail : faible latitude/forte demande) et l’iso-strain (combinaison d’une situation de job strain et d’un faible soutien social) selon le statut migratoire et modéliser la probabilité d’être exposé ; 2) vérifier que les associations entre le job strain, l’iso-strain et l’anxiété sont similaires pour tous les groupes (immigrés, descendants d’immigrés). Méthodes – Nous avons utilisé l’enquête nationale transversale Conditions de Travail-Risques Psychosociaux 2016 (N=24 640). L’anxiété a été mesurée par le score GAD-Mini, outil diagnostique pour repérer le trouble anxieux généralisé. Les prévalences du job strain et de l’iso-strain ont été décrites selon le statut migratoire et le sexe. Des régressions de Poisson ont été utilisées pour modéliser la probabilité d’être exposé au job strain et à l’iso-strain. La prévalence de l’anxiété a été ensuite décrite selon le statut migratoire et le sexe. Dans chaque groupe de population, nous modélisons la probabilité de l’anxiété en fonction des caractéristiques sociodémographiques, des antécédents de santé mentale et de l’expérience du job strain ou de l’iso-strain. Résultats – Les prévalences de risques psychosociaux varient fortement selon le statut migratoire, avec des immigrés plus exposés que la population majoritaire (ni immigrée, ni descendante d’immigrés). Après ajustement, être un immigré d’Afrique reste associé au job strain (ratio incidence risque ajusté : IRRa=1,21 ; IC95%: [0,99-1,47]), et être un descendant d’immigré d’Afrique à l’iso-strain (IRRa=1,33 [1,05-1,69]). La prévalence de l’anxiété était particulièrement haute parmi les descendants d’immigrés d’Afrique (12%). Dans cette population, le job strain et l’iso-strain étaient associés à l’anxiété (IRRa job strain=2,70 [1,22-6,01] ; IRRa iso-strain=4,26 [2,29-7,92]). Conclusion – Dans la lignée des travaux internationaux, notre étude montre que les immigrés et descendants d’immigrés sont particulièrement exposés au job strain et à l’iso-strain, ce qui pourrait contribuer à détériorer leur santé mentale.
    Mots-clés : ⛔ No DOI found.


  • Gosselin Anne, Warszawski Josiane, Bajos Nathalie et for the EpiCov Study Group (2022) « Higher risk, higher protection. COVID-19 risk among immigrants in France: results from the population-based EpiCov survey », European Journal of Public Health (avril 27), p. ckac046. DOI : 10.1093/eurpub/ckac046. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckac046.
    Résumé : Immigrants and ethnic/racialized minorities have been identified as being at higher risk of COVID-19 infection, but few studies report on their exposures and prevention behaviours. This study aims to examine the social distribution of COVID-19 exposure (overcrowding, working outside the home, use of public transport to go to work) and prevention behaviours (use of face masks, washing hands, respect for physical distance) in France during the first wave of the epidemic.We used the EpiCov population-based survey from a random sample of individuals aged 15 years or more. We determined the distribution of the self-reported outcomes according to migratory status and sex, using chi2 tests. We modelled the probability of outcomes with logistic regression. Finally, we focused the analysis on the Greater Paris area and accounted for neighbourhood characteristics.A total of 111,824 participants were included in the study. Overall, immigrant groups from non-European countries were more exposed to COVID-19-related factors and more respectful of prevention measures. The probability of overcrowding and the use of public transport was higher for immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa (aOR=3.71 [3.19;4.32], aOR=6.36 [4.86; 8.32]) than for the majority population. Immigrant groups were less likely to have a non-systematic use of face masks and to breach physical distancing than the majority population (for immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa, aOR=0.32 [0.28; 0.37] and aOR=0.71 [0.61; 0.81], respectively). Living in a neighbourhood with a higher share of immigrants was associated with higher exposure and better prevention behaviours.In France, immigrants had a higher exposure to COVID-19-related factors and more systematic prevention behaviours.


  • Guilmoto Christophe Z (2022) « What can Europe’s history of gender bias tell us about Asia’s contemporary experience? », The History of the Family, 27 (4) (octobre 2), p. 801-813. DOI : 10.1080/1081602X.2022.2124302. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/1081602X.2022.2124302.


  • Guilmoto Christophe Z. (2022) « An alternative estimation of the death toll of the Covid-19 pandemic in India », éd. par Bernardo Lanza Queiroz, PLOS ONE, 17 (2) (février 16), p. e0263187. DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0263187. https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0263187.
    Résumé : The absence of reliable registration of Covid-19 deaths in India has prevented proper assessment and monitoring of the coronavirus pandemic. In addition, India’s relatively young age structure tends to conceal the severity of Covid-19 mortality, which is concentrated in older age groups. In this paper, we present four different demographic samples of Indian populations for which we have information on both their demographic structures and death outcomes. We show that we can model the age distribution of Covid-19 mortality in India and use this modeling to estimate Covid-19 mortality in the country. Our findings point to a death toll of approximately 3.2–3.7 million persons by early November 2021. Once India’s age structure is factored in, these figures correspond to one of the most severe cases of Covid-19 mortality in the world. India has recorded after February 2021 the second outbreak of coronavirus that has affected the entire country. The accuracy of official statistics of Covid-19 mortality has been questioned, and the real number of Covid-19 deaths is thought to be several times higher than reported. In this paper, we assembled four independent population samples to model and estimate the level of Covid-19 mortality in India. We first used a population sample with the age and sex of Covid-19 victims to develop a Gompertz model of Covid-19 mortality in India. We applied and adjusted this mortality model on two other national population samples after factoring in the demographic characteristics of these samples. We finally derive from these samples the most reasonable estimate of Covid-19 mortality level in India and confirm this result using a fourth population sample. Our findings point to a death toll of about 3.2–3.7 million persons by late May 2021. This is by far the largest number of Covid-19 deaths in the world. Once standardized for age and sex structure, India’s Covid-19 mortality rate is above Brazil and the USA. Our analysis shows that existing population samples allow an alternative estimation of deaths due to Covid-19 in India. The results imply that only one out of 7–8 deaths appear to have been recorded as a Covid-19 death in India. The estimates also point to a very high Covid-19 mortality rate, which is even higher after age and sex standardization. The magnitude of the pandemic in India requires immediate attention. In the absence of effective remedies, this calls for a strong response based on a combination of non-pharmaceutical interventions and the scale-up of vaccination to make them accessible to all, with an improved surveillance system to monitor the progression of the pandemic and its spread across India’s regions and social groups.


  • Guzmán Rosas Susana Carolina (2022) « La institucionalización científica de los saberes tradicionales sobre plantas medicinales en la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México », Revista de Antropología y Sociología : Virajes, 24 (2) (juillet 1), p. 164-191. DOI : 10.17151/rasv.2022.24.2.9. https://revistasojs.ucaldas.edu.co/index.php/virajes/article/view/7256.
    Résumé : Este trabajo analiza la valorización de saberes tradicionales sobre plantas medicinales en el espacio académico-científico mexicano, focalizando suinstitucionalización en la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM). Así, considerando que la figura de una tesis, y su propuesta, constituye un instrumento de movilización de saberes, se identificaron y caracterizaron los trabajos realizados a este respecto en la UNAM durante las décadas1900-2010, complementando los datos mediante investigación documental y entrevistas con actores clave. Encontrando que durante la década de 1970el interés por el estudio de las plantas medicinales irrumpió abruptamente en el espacio académico-científico de la UNAM, manteniendo una tendencia creciente hasta nuestros días, configurándose paulatinamente como un objeto de estudio válido, aperturando nuevas líneas de investigacióny configurando un nuevo campo de conocimiento: la etnobotánica médica. No obstante, este nuevo campo emerge al seno de otros campos, desde loscuales aún se le aborda y materializa, circulando en una existencia todavía un poco velada.


  • Guzmán-Rosas Susana Carolina (2022) « Ethnicity as a social determinant of energy poverty: the case of Mexican indigenous population », Local Environment, 27 (9) (septembre 2), p. 1075-1101. DOI : 10.1080/13549839.2022.2100879. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13549839.2022.2100879.
  • Hagège Meoïn et Pourette Dolorès (2022) « Pratiques autour du cancer du col : regards croisés à partir d’enquêtes qualitatives à La Réunion et à Mayotte » (Communication orale), présenté à ONCOTOM. 11ème Congrès de cancérologie des départements & régions d’outre-mer, La Saline, La Réunion.


  • Hassine Amir, Antoni Guillemette, Fender Muriel, Slama Katia, Léandri François-Xavier, Fanon Jean-Luc, Auvray Christelle, Bandjee Marie Christine Jaffar, Traversier Nicolas, Fagour Laurence, Rochaix Lise, Fiorina Camilla, Pourette Dolorès, Opigez Eric, Dumont Alexandre, Bardou Marc et Group Resiste Study (2022) « Combined incentive actions, focusing on primary care professionals, to improve cervical cancer screening in women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged geographical areas: a study protocol of a hybrid cluster randomised effectiveness and implementation trial- RESISTE », BMJ Open, 12 (11) (novembre 1), p. e065952. DOI : 10.1136/bmjopen-2022-065952. https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/12/11/e065952.
    Résumé : Introduction Cervical cancer (CC) causes thousands of deaths each year. Nearly 100% of cases are caused by oncogenic strains of human papillomavirus (HPV). In most industrialised countries, CC screening (CCS) is based on the detection of HPV infections. For many reasons including lower adherence to CCS, underserved women are more likely to develop CC, and die from it. We aim to demonstrate that the use of incentives could improve screening rates among this population. Methods and analysis Our cluster randomised, controlled trial will include 10 000 women aged 30–65 years eligible for CCS, living in deprived areas in four French departments, two mainlands and two overseas, and who did not perform physician-based HPV testing within the framework of the nationally organised screening programme. HPV self-sampling kit (HPVss) will be mailed to them. Two interventions are combined in a factorial analysis design ending in four arms: the possibility to receive or not a financial incentive of €20 and to send back the self-sampling by mail or to give it to a health professional, family doctor, gynaecologist, midwife or pharmacist. The main outcome is the proportion of women returning the HPVss, or doing a physician-based HPV or pap-smear test the year after receiving the HPVss. 12-month follow-up data will be collected through the French National Health Insurance database. We expect to increase the return rate of HPV self-samples by at least 10% (from 20% to 30%) compared with the postal return without economic incentive. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval was first obtained on 2 April 2020, then on July 29 2022. The ethics committee classified the study as interventional with low risk, thus no formal consent is required for inclusion. The use of health insurance data was approved by the Commission Nationale Informatique et Libertés on 14 September 2021 (ref No 920276). An independent data security and monitoring committee was established. The main trial results will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal. Trial registration number NCT04312178.
    Mots-clés : Gynaecological oncology, Health economics, Health policy, ONCOLOGY, PREVENTIVE MEDICINE, PUBLIC HEALTH.


  • Inghels Maxime, Kane Ros, Lall Priya, Nelson David, Nanyonjo Agnes, Asghar Zahid, Ward Derek, McCranor Tracy, Kavanagh Tony, Hogue Todd, Phull Jaspreet et Tanser Frank (2022) « Ethnicity and risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection among the healthcare workforce: Results of a retrospective cohort study in rural United Kingdom », International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 122 (septembre), p. 115-122. DOI : 10.1016/j.ijid.2022.05.013. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1201971222002818.
    Résumé : Background The reason why Black and South Asian healthcare workers are at a higher risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection remain unclear. We aimed to quantify the risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection among healthcare staff who belong to the ethnic minority and elucidate pathways of infection. Methods A one-year follow-up retrospective cohort study has been conducted among National Health Service employees who were working at 123 facilities in Lincolnshire, UK. Results Overall, 13,366 professionals were included. SARS-CoV-2 incidence per person-year was 5.2% (95% CI: 3.6–7.6%) during the first COVID-19 wave (January–August 2020) and 17.2% (13.5–22.0%) during the second wave (September 2020–February 2021). Compared with White staff, Black and South Asian employees were at higher risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection during both the first wave (hazard ratio, HR 1.58 [0.91–2.75] and 1.69 [1.07–2.66], respectively) and the second wave (HR 2.09 [1.57–2.76] and 1.46 [1.24–1.71]). Higher risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection persisted even after controlling for age, sex, pay grade, residence environment, type of work, and time exposure at work. Higher adjusted risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection were also found among lower-paid health professionals. Conclusion Black and South Asian health workers continue to be at higher risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection than their White counterparts. Urgent interventions are required to reduce SARS-CoV-2 infection in these ethnic groups. Keywords SARS-CoV-2 COVID-19 Risk factors Ethnicity Health profession United Kingdom
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