Publications des membres du Ceped

2020



  • Lira Luciana Campelo et Prado Helena (2020) « “Nossos filhos não são cobaias”: objetificação dos sujeitos de pesquisa e saturação do campo durante a epidemia de Zika », Ilha Revista de Antropologia, 22 (2) (novembre 23), p. 96-131. DOI : 10.5007/2175-8034.2020v22n2p96. https://periodicos.ufsc.br/index.php/ilha/article/view/67605.
    Résumé : Decidimos escrever esse artigo a quatro mãos por uma razão simples: apresentar dois lados da mesma história, a história dos desdobramentos da pesquisa durante a epidemia de Zika. Neste sentido, não somente expomos duas experiências como pesquisadoras em antropologia sobre a epidemia do vírus Zika, mas propomos mostrar como essas duas experiências e vivências revelam de alguma forma um sistema complexo atuando neste contexto específico e envolvendo descobertas científicas, financiamentos internacionais, concorrência de pesquisadores e de instituições, campo com mulheres, crianças vulneráveis e instituições de saúde, trajetórias de amostras biológicas, colaborações – as vezes assimétricas – entre científicos dos chamados ‘Sul e Norte’ do mundo. Esperamos dessa forma chegar a um retrato da Science in the making que proporcionará uma reflexividade a diferentes níveis sobre 1/ nossas práticas como pesquisadores em antropologia em tempos de crise e emergência, e 2/ os diversos significados da relação centro-periferia/pesquisador-pessoas no campo nas ciências que tratam da saúde.
    Mots-clés : Objetificação.


  • Lira Luciana et Prado Helena (2020) « Les effets collatéraux de la recherche sur l’épidémie de Zika au Brésil », Anthropologie et Santé, 21 (novembre 30). DOI : 10.4000/anthropologiesante.7972. http://journals.openedition.org/anthropologiesante/7972.
    Résumé : Nous avons souhaité écrire ce texte en duo pour une raison simple : présenter deux faces d’une même histoire, celle du déroulement de la recherche pendant l’épidémie de maladie à virus Zika. Nous souhaitons en particulier donner à voir les effets collatéraux de la recherche, c’est-à-dire la façon dont s’entremêlent l’objectification des sujets de recherche touchés par l’épidémie de Zika, les points méthodologiques et éthiques concernant l’entrée sur le terrain ethnographique, ses angles morts et impasses, et la légitimité de la collecte des données. Nous espérons ainsi engager une réflexion sur nos pratiques d’anthropologues en temps de crise et d’urgence, et sur les diverses significations des relations chercheurs-sujets de terrain, et centre-périphérie, dans les sciences de la santé.


  • Loenzien Myriam de et Mick Carola (2020) « La lutte contre le VIH/sida entre santé globale et spécificités nationales : les campagnes d’affichage au Viêt Nam », Revue internationale de politique comparée, 27 (1), p. 71. DOI : 10.3917/ripc.271.0071. http://www.cairn.info/revue-internationale-de-politique-comparee-2020-1-page-71.htm?ref=doi.
    Résumé : Les politiques de lutte contre l’épidémie VIH/sida ont été marquées par une internationalisation croissante depuis le milieu des années 1980. Au Viêt Nam, elles ont été rattachées à la politique des « fléaux sociaux » (tệ nạn xã hội) avant un changement radical intervenu au début des années 2000. Cette période, marquée par l’augmentation rapide de la prévalence et par conséquent l’intensification de la lutte contre l’épidémie a amené le Parti communiste au pouvoir et l’État à favoriser une plus grande participation sociale des personnes séropositives et de leurs proches, en conformité avec les normes internationales. Ces postures successives sont visibles dans les campagnes d’affichage dans l’espace public. L’analyse sémiologique de 43 de ces affiches montre que les deux types d’orientation suivis, répressif puis plus participatif, sont associés à des langages visuels différents, avec des références à des codes internationaux versus des contenus plus spécifiques à une culture locale. La trace visuelle des politiques publiques successives menées contre l’épidémie est particulièrement claire en raison de la radicalité du changement, conjuguée à un maintien des messages précédents dans le champ visuel de l’espace public. Les contradictions et divergences résultant de cette polyphonie visuelle sont symptomatiques d’une tension entre deux tendances caractéristiques des policy transfers au Viêt Nam : d’une part, un souci d’intégration économique et politique dans un contexte international contraint, d’autre part la volonté d’affirmation d’une souveraineté nationale. Ces deux postures se traduisent par la conformation à une orientation générale qui conditionne les soutiens apportés par les agences multilatérales et bilatérales, mais n’excluent pas le maintien d’idiosyncrasies, mettant en évidence des messages contrastés.

  • Louart Sarah, Bonnet Emmanuel et Ridde Valery (2020) « Is patient navigation a solution to the problem of "leaving no one behind"? A scoping review of evidence from low-income countries », Health Policy and Planning (novembre 19). DOI : 10.1093/heapol/czaa093.
    Résumé : Patient navigation interventions, which are designed to enable patients excluded from health systems to overcome the barriers they face in accessing care, have multiplied in high-income countries since the 1990s. However, in low-income countries (LICs), indigents are generally excluded from health policies despite the international paradigm of universal health coverage (UHC). Fee exemption interventions have demonstrated their limits and it is now necessary to act on other dimensions of access to healthcare. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the interventions implemented in LICs to support the indigents throughout their care pathway. The aim of this paper is to synthesize what is known about patient navigation interventions to facilitate access to modern health systems for vulnerable populations in LICs. We therefore conducted a scoping review to identify all patient navigation interventions in LICs. We found 60 articles employing a total of 48 interventions. Most of these interventions targeted traditional beneficiaries such as people living with HIV, pregnant women and children. We utilized the framework developed by Levesque et al. (Patient-centred access to health care: conceptualising access at the interface of health systems and populations. Int J Equity Health 2013;12:18) to analyse the interventions. All acted on the ability to perceive, 34 interventions on the ability to reach, 30 on the ability to engage, 8 on the ability to pay and 6 on the ability to seek. Evaluations of these interventions were encouraging, as they often appeared to lead to improved health indicators and service utilization rates and reduced attrition in care. However, no intervention specifically targeted indigents and very few evaluations differentiated the impact of the intervention on the poorest populations. It is therefore necessary to test navigation interventions to enable those who are worst off to overcome the barriers they face. It is a major ethical issue that health policies leave no one behind and that UHC does not benefit everyone except the poorest. Keywords: Patient navigation; access to health care; indigents; scoping review.


  • Mac-Seing Muriel, Zinszer Kate, Oga Omenka Charity, de Beaudrap Pierre, Mehrabi Fereshteh et Zarowsky Christina (2020) « Pro-equity legislation, health policy and utilisation of sexual and reproductive health services by vulnerable populations in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review », Global Health Promotion (août 4), p. 175797592094143. DOI : 10.1177/1757975920941435. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1757975920941435.
    Résumé : Il y a vingt-cinq ans, la Conférence internationale sur la population et le développement a souligné la nécessité de traiter les droits à la santé sexuelle et reproductive (SSR) à l'échelle mondiale. La région de l'Afrique subsaharienne continue d'afficher les taux les plus élevés de mortalité maternelle et de VIH, affectant principalement les populations les plus vulnérables. Reconnaissant le rôle critique de la politique dans la compréhension de la santé de la population, nous avons mené une revue systématique de la recherche primaire originale qui a examiné les relations entre la législation et les politiques axées sur l'équité et l'utilisation des services de SSR par les populations vulnérables en Afrique subsaharienne. Nous avons recherché dans neuf bases de données bibliographiques des articles pertinents publiés entre 1994 et 2019. Trente-deux études, menées dans 14 pays d'Afrique subsaharienne, répondaient aux critères d'inclusion. Ils se sont concentrés sur l'utilisation des services de santé maternelle, soit par le biais de politiques spécifiques de réduction / suppression des frais, soit par des réformes des soins de santé et des régimes d'assurance pour augmenter l'utilisation des services de SSR. Les résultats de la plupart des études ont montré que la législation et la politique en matière de santé ont favorisé une augmentation de l'utilisation des services, au fil du temps, en particulier pour les soins prénatals, l'accouchement qualifié et l'accouchement en établissement. Cependant, les inégalités sociales de santé persistaient parmi les sous-groupes de femmes. Ni les études examinées ni les politiques ne concernaient spécifiquement les jeunes, les personnes vivant avec le VIH et les personnes handicapées. À l'ère des objectifs de développement durable, s'attaquer aux inégalités en matière de santé dans le contexte des déterminants sociaux de la santé devient inévitable. Recherche quantitative et qualitative systématique et rigoureuse, Mots clés déterminants de la santé , équité / justice sociale , santé maternelle , politique / politique , santé reproductive , Afrique subsaharienne , revue systématique

  • Maynas Bardales César, Suárez Maynas Jeiser et Mick Carola (2020) « Íkaro de la Reconciliación Espiritual. Un canto medicinal shipibo-konibo para el bien común », Manicomio Suyay. Revista de política, literatura y otras dudas, Publication en ligne (décembre 3). https://revistamanicomiosuyay.wordpress.com/2020/12/03/el-ikaro-de-la-reconciliacion-espiritual/.
    Résumé : La tradición shipibo-konibo interpreta la enfermedad como un desequilibrio entre cuerpo, alma, mente y el mundo de los espíritus de las plantas. La enfermedad individual, en otras palabras, se considera como un trastorno ecosistémico; y como tal, no puede ser tratada por una intervención directa por y en el ser humano, sino el onaya busca reestablecer el orden entre el mundo natural y el mundo social.
    Mots-clés : ⛔ No DOI found.

  • Mazuy Magali, de la Rochebrochard Elise, Becquet Valentine et Rozée Virginie (2020) « IVG, grossesse, accouchement : quand la crise sanitaire menace les droits des femmes », The Conversation, mai 5. http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12204/AXKiZjOhqpl52aYY4PCs.

  • Mbow Ndeye Bineta, Senghor Ibrahima et Ridde Valéry (2020) « The resilience of two professionalized departmental health insurance units during the COVID-19 pandemic in Senegal », Journal of Global Health, 10 (2) (décembre), p. 1-6. DOI : 10.7189/jogh.10.020394.


  • Meda Ivlabèhiré Bertrand, Kouanda Seni, Dumont Alexandre et Ridde Valéry (2020) « Effect of a prospective payment method for health facilities on direct medical expenditures in a low-resource setting: a paired pre-post study », Health Policy and Planning, 35 (7) (août 1), p. 775-783. DOI : 10.1093/heapol/czaa039. https://academic.oup.com/heapol/article/35/7/775/5851553.
    Résumé : Almost all sub-Saharan countries have adopted cost-reduction policies to facilitate access to health care. However, several studies underline the reimbursement delays experienced by health facilities, which lead to deficient implementation of these policies. In April 2016, for its free care policy, Burkina Faso shifted from fee-for-service (FFS) paid retrospectively to FFS paid prospectively. This study tested the hypothesis that this new method of payment would be associated with an increase in direct medical expenditures (expenses covered by the policies) associated with deliveries. This paired pre-post study used data from two cross-sectional national surveys. Observations were paired according to the health facility and the type of delivery. We used a combined approach (state and household perspectives) to capture all direct medical expenses (delivery fees, drugs and supplies costs, paraclinical exam costs and hospitalization fees). A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to test the hypothesis that the 2016 distribution of direct medical expenditures was greater than that for 2014. A total of 279 pairs of normal deliveries, 66 dystocia deliveries and 48 caesareans were analysed. The direct medical expenditure medians were USD 4.97 [interquartile range (IQR): 4.30-6.02], 22.10 [IQR: 15.59-29.32] and 103.58 [IQR: 85.13-113.88] in 2014 vs USD 5.55 [IQR: 4.55-6.88], 23.90 [IQR: 17.55-48.81] and 141.54 [IQR: 104.10-172.02] in 2016 for normal, dystocia and caesarean deliveries, respectively. Except for dystocia (P=0.128) and medical centres (P=0.240), the 2016 direct medical expenditures were higher than the 2014 expenses, regardless of the type of delivery and level of care. The 2016 expenditures were higher than the 2014 expenditures, regardless of the components considered. In the context of cost-reduction policies in sub-Saharan countries, greater attention must be paid to the provider payment method and cost-control measures because these elements may generate an increase in medical expenditures, which threatens the sustainability of these policies.


  • Melchior Maria, Desgrées Du Loû Annabel, Gosselin Anne, Datta Geetanjali D., Carabali Mabel, Merckx Joanna et Kaufman Jay S. (2020) « Migrant status, ethnicity and COVID-19: More accurate European data are greatly needed », Clinical Microbiology and Infection (octobre 22). DOI : 10.1016/j.cmi.2020.10.014. https://www.clinicalmicrobiologyandinfection.com/article/S1198-743X(20)30645-5/abstract.
    Résumé : In past months, systematically higher levels of severe COVID-19 illness and death among individuals belonging to migrant or ethnic minority groups have been reported in several countries, including the US, the UK, Sweden, Brazil, Spain, and South Africa. In particular, racialized populations tend to have less access to testing, higher rates of severe disease, higher mortality rates, and worse sequalae when they survive the infection (1-5). The interacting social, behavioral and biological pathways underlying these disparities are doubtlessly complex, but the hierarchy of social advantage in racialized societies drives health status, exposure, housing, employment and access to healthcare, and undoubtedly plays the dominant role (6).


  • Mensah Keitly, Assoumou Nelly, Duchesne Véronique, Pourette Dolorès, DeBeaudrap Pierre et Dumont Alexandre (2020) « Acceptability of HPV screening among HIV-infected women attending an HIV-dedicated clinic in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire », BMC Women's Health, 20 (1) (juillet 28), p. 155. DOI : 10.1186/s12905-020-01021-6. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12905-020-01021-6.
    Résumé : Cervical cancer incidence is high among women living with HIV due to high-risk HPV persistence in the cervix. In low-income countries, cervical cancer screening is based on visual inspection with acetic acid. Implementing human papilloma virus (HPV) screening through self-sampling could increase women’s participation and screening performance. Our study aims to assess the preintervention acceptability of HPV screening among HIV-infected women in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire.

  • Meyer Jean-Baptiste (2020) « Cette université à distance que le Covid 19 a encouragé en Afrique », Le Point Afrique, août 6. https://www.lepoint.fr/afrique/cette-universite-a-distance-que-le-covid-19-a-encouragee-en-afrique-06-08-2020-2386949_3826.php#.

  • Meyer Jean-Baptiste (2020) « Learning at a distance : some lessons from the lockdown, in North Africa », University World News, juillet 2. https://www.universityworldnews.com/post.php?story=20200629133119735.


  • Meyer Jean-Baptiste (2020) « Pierre Puchot (dir.), Islam et politique », Hommes & migrations, 1330 (juillet 17), p. 244. DOI : 10.4000/hommesmigrations.11718. http://journals.openedition.org/hommesmigrations/11718.
    Résumé : Cet ouvrage collectif compare l’émergence des mouvements islamistes dans 13 pays de la région MENA (Moyen-Orient et Afrique du Nord) : l’Égypte, l’Arabie Saoudite, le Levant, le Liban, partiellement l’Irak et la Syrie, le Qatar, la Tunisie, le Maroc, l’Algérie, la Turquie, Gaza, le Yemen ainsi que les engagements extérieurs des États-Unis. Chaque pays fait l’objet d’une analyse essentiellement politique et historique de l’émergence et des vicissitudes des mouvements islamistes. Les descriptions convergent sur la période récente des « Printemps arabes » et se centrent sur des mouvements qui gravitent autour du pouvoir et parfois l’investissent. Elles font, pour la plupart, référence au mouvement des Frères musulmans de Hassan al-Banna durant les années 1930 en Égypte, qu’elles identifient comme origine ou inspiration de l’islam politique contemporain.

  • Meyer Jean-Baptiste (2020) « Université à distance: en Afrique des expériences encourageantes pendant la crise du Covid 19 », The Conversation, juillet 2. https://theconversation.com/universite-a-distance-en-afrique-des-experiences-encourageantes-pendant-la-crise-du-covid-141719.

  • Meyer Jean-Baptiste, Pilon Marc et Ravalihasy Andrainolo (2020) Les effectifs étudiants en Afrique au XXIe siècle : évolution passée et exercice de prospective, Working Papers du CEPED (48), Paris : Ceped, 31 p. https://www.ceped.org/wp.
    Résumé : L’enseignement supérieur africain reste peu développé comparé aux autres régions du monde. Les taux d’inscription étudiante demeurent moins élevés, dans un contexte où la jeunesse du continent s’accroît considérablement et rapidement. Les objectifs du développement durable (ODD) des Nation unies ainsi que l’agenda 2063 de l’Union Africaine (UA) préconisent sans équi-voque une tendance à rattraper les niveaux mondiaux en la matière. Ce document de travail entend fournir des repères quanti-tatifs quant à ces développements escomptés. Il relève dans un premier temps les travaux analysant l’évolution quantitative de la population passant par l’enseignement supérieur, leurs méthodes, leurs conclusions et leurs anticipations. Puis l’analyse s’attache à décrire le contexte africain et le recueil de données le concernant. Enfin, des projections rigoureuses des effectifs étudiants sur les deux horizons (ODD et UA) sont établies.


  • Mick Carola, Fernández María E., Alvarado Chuqui Cástula, Amasifuen Guerra Carlos A., Kleiche-Dray Mina, López Minchán Ana Paula et Silva López Jhonsy Omar (2020) « Regional development in Amazonas, Peru: science-society interactions for sustainability », The Anthropocene Review (septembre 16), p. 205301962095121. DOI : 10.1177/2053019620951210. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2053019620951210.

  • Mishtal Joanna, De Zordo Silvia, Capelli Irene, Martino Anastasia, Rahm Laura et Zanini Giulia (2020) « Political (in)action in abortion governance during COVID-19 in Europe: a call for a harmonized EU response during public health crises », Medical Anthropology Quarterly (juin 19). http://medanthroquarterly.org/2020/06/19/political-inaction-in-abortion-governance-during-covid-19-in-europe-a-call-for-a-harmonized-eu-response-during-public-health-crises/.


  • Moreau Nicolas, Roy Melissa, Wilson Andrew et Atlani-Duault Laetitia (2020) « “Life is more important than football”: Comparative analysis of Tweets and Facebook comments regarding the cancellation of the 2015 African Cup of Nations in Morocco », International Review for the Sociology of Sport (janvier 20), p. 1-24. DOI : 10.1177/1012690219899610. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1012690219899610.
    Résumé : This study analyzes comments from two major social media, Facebook and Twitter, regarding the controversial cancellation of the 2015 African Cup of Nations (CAN) in Morocco and its transfer to Equatorial Guinea, a move precipitated by the contemporaneous outbreaks of Ebola in West Africa. Using frame analysis methodology (frames being the central ideas structuring a narrative account of an issue, event or controversy), it investigates how the sporting and health worlds are understood and conceptualized on Twitter and Facebook, in the context of a specific event. We also investigated the extent to which these frames are platform-specific. Data were collected by keyword extraction and submitted to a qualitative thematic and frame analysis, from which we identified six frames (Epidemic management, Sporting event, Political, Skepticism, Religion, and Economic). Analysis of these frames identified a number of classic issues from the sociology of not only football and epidemics but also of African political issues. The cancellation of the CAN thus provides an excellent window into the complex links between sport, heath and politics. Indeed, the online comments of social media users expressed a rich range of pre-existing frustrations, beliefs and political positions. Our results show that, in the context of the cancellation of the 2015 CAN, tweets mostly framed the event as an epidemic management issue, while Facebook comments typically framed it as an epidemic management, sporting and political event. Some themes treated in a factual way on Twitter became politicized on Facebook where, in addition, new political themes emerged. We conclude that studying social media conversations relating to a mega-sporting event could provide sociologically valuable insights about topics not typically directly associated with sport or health. Keywords African Cup of Nation, Ebola, epidemic management, football, Facebook, qualitative thematic analysis, rhetorical frame analysis, soccer, social media, Twitter


  • Mouté Charles, Desgrées du Loû Annabel, Beninguisse Gervais et DeBeaudrap Pierre (2020) « Impact of disability on the transitions to adulthood of men and women in Cameroon », Alter, 14 (1) (février), p. 27-39. DOI : 10.1016/j.alter.2019.09.007. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1875067219301440.
    Résumé : The transition to adulthood is a critical stage in human development because it shapes the future lives of many young people. Little is known about how disability affects this transition. Most of the available evidence comes from high-resource settings, where the situation differs greatly from that of resource-limited countries. Using the data from the HandiVIH ANRS 12302 study, we aimed to examine the effect of disability on the social markers of the transition to adulthood in an African context with regard to gender and the nature and severity of the limitations. Our results show that men and women with disabilities experience significant delays in completing the different transitions to adulthood and, consequently, live in more precarious situations at the beginning of adulthood. We also found complex variations in the effects of disability with regard to disability characteristics and gender. These results call for gender- and disability-sensitive transitional programmes to achieve the goal of equal opportunity as envisioned in the sustainable development goals.


  • Ndour Mamour et Alexandre Laurice (2020) « L’évolution du modèle d’affaires des organisations de l’entrepreneuriat social : le cas des jeunes entreprises du numérique en France », Revue internationale P.M.E.: Économie et gestion de la petite et moyenne entreprise, 33 (1), p. 75. DOI : 10.7202/1069284ar. http://id.erudit.org/iderudit/1069284ar.


  • Ndour Mamour et Alexandre Laurice (2020) « La dynamique du modèle d’affaires des start-ups dans le secteur des TIC, le cas des entreprises sociales au Sénégal », Management & Avenir, N°115 (1), p. 15. DOI : 10.3917/mav.115.0015. http://www.cairn.info/revue-management-et-avenir-2020-1-page-15.htm?ref=doi.
    Résumé : Cet article tente de répondre à la question suivante : « comment les différents éléments du modèle d’affaires des start-ups sociales évoluent dans le temps dans un pays en transition ? ». Grâce à l’étude approfondie de 10 start-ups sociales dans le secteur des TIC au Sénégal, il a été démontré que le modèle d’affaires évolue selon les phases de développement des entreprises, et la proposition de valeur peut évoluer de trois façons : (1) l’adaptation de l’offre par modification ou changement de l’offre ; (2) l’enrichissement de l’offre de départ par l’ajout de services annexes ; (3) la création d’une nouvelle offre liée ou non à l’offre de départ pour la cible actuelle ou pour une nouvelle cible. Il semblerait également que le modèle d’affaires social sénégalais n’a pas encore atteint la phase de maturité d’un modèle d’affaires social d’une entreprise française.


  • Nguyen Hoa Thi, Torbica Aleksandra, Brenner Stephan, Kiendrébéogo Joël Arthur, Tapsoba Ludovic, Ridde Valéry et De Allegri Manuela (2020) « Economic Evaluation of User-Fee Exemption Policies for Maternal Healthcare in Burkina Faso: Evidence From a Cost-Effectiveness Analysis », Value in Health, 23 (3) (mars), p. 300-308. DOI : 10.1016/j.jval.2019.10.007. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1098301519351794.
    Résumé : Objectives The reduction and removal of user fees for essential care services have recently become a key instrument to advance universal health coverage in sub-Saharan Africa, but no evidence exists on its cost-effectiveness. We aimed to address this gap by estimating the cost-effectiveness of 2 user-fee exemption interventions in Burkina Faso between 2007 and 2015: the national 80% user-fee reduction policy for delivery care services and the user-fee removal pilot (ie, the complete [100%] user-fee removal for delivery care) in the Sahel region. Methods We built a single decision tree to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the 2 study interventions and the baseline. The decision tree was populated with an own impact evaluation and the best available epidemiological evidence. Results Relative to the baseline, both the national 80% user-fee reduction policy and the user-fee removal pilot are highly cost-effective, with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of $210.22 and $252.51 per disability-adjusted life-year averted, respectively. Relative to the national 80% user-fee reduction policy, the user-fee removal pilot entails an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $309.74 per disability-adjusted life-year averted. Conclusions Our study suggests that it is worthwhile for Burkina Faso to move from an 80% reduction to the complete removal of user fees for delivery care. Local analyses should be done to identify whether it is worthwhile to implement user-fee exemptions in other sub-Saharan African countries.

  • Niangoran Serge, Inghels Maxime, Kouassi Arsène Kra, Bekelynck Anne, Carillon Séverine, Sika Lazare, Danel Christine, Koné Mariatou et Larmarange Joseph (2020) « Physicians' knowledge of Hepatitis B and C in Côte d'Ivoire » (poster), présenté à INTEREST 2020, online. http://interestworkshop.org/.
    Résumé : Background: Viral hepatitis is a major public health problem in Côte d'Ivoire, with a prevalence of 8% to 10% for hepatitis B and 1% for hepatitis C. Research indicates that there is a lack of awareness of hepatitis in the general population; however, there remains little evidence concerning physician’s knowledge of the virus. We, thus, investigate physician’s knowledge on viral hepatitis B and C, which can be the first condition for screening and treatment. Materials and methods: In 2018, we conducted a cross-sectional Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) telephone survey on a random sample of physicians working in health facilities in Côte d'Ivoire. Data collected included an assessment of knowledge about viral hepatitis B and C and their personal attitudes towards hepatitis screening and vaccination. We created a knowledge score based on 14 variables (screening test variables, HBV viral load variables, treatment indications variables, treatment availability and associated costs variables) and identified the associated factors using a multivariate Poisson model. Results: Among the 542 physicians contacted, 316 physicians participated in the survey (58%). The vast majority of doctors spontaneously cited cirrhosis (79%) and liver cancer (77%) as the main complications of viral hepatitis. Screening modalities were also well known. Knowledge of modes of transmission and prevention were uneven : blood transmission 88%, sexual 78%, saliva 27%, during pregnancy or childbirth 20%. Physicians' knowledge of the prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in the population remains very limited (32% indicates between 5% and 15% for HBV while 33% indicates less than 5% for HCV) In terms of treatment, less than half knew the conditions for initiating hepatitis B treatment (42%) or the existence of curative treatment for hepatitis C (34%). Similarly, few knew the cost of associated treatments or tests (23%), such as HBV viral load (17%). A higher knowledge score was associated with having a close relative infected by viral hepatitis (RR=1.09 [1.00 – 1.19], p=0.052), receiving training on viral hepatitis (RR=1.16 [1.04 – 1.29], p=0,008) and testing for any viral hepatitis (RR=1.16 [1.04 – 1.29], p=0.008). Conclusion: The fight against viral hepatitis requires the involvement of physicians. Findings suggest that many physicians are in need of ongoing training on prevention and treatment of viral hepatitis.

  • Niangoran Serge, Inghels Maxime, Kouassi Arsène Kra, Bekelynck Anne, Carillon Séverine, Sika Lazare, Koné Mariatou, Desgrées du Loû Annabel et Larmarange Joseph (2020) « Connaissances des médecins sur les hépatites virales B et C en Côte d’Ivoire et facteurs associés » (poster PL189), présenté à AFRAVIH 2020, Dakar. http://www.afravih2020.org/.
    Résumé : Objectifs Avec une prévalence de 8% à 10% pour l’hépatite B et de 1% pour l’hépatite C, les hépatites virales constituent un problème de santé publique majeur en Côte d’Ivoire. Alors que ces infections sont mal connues en population générale, qu’en est-il des médecins ? Matériels et Méthodes Une enquête transversale par téléphone a été réalisée en 2018 auprès d’un échantillon aléatoire de 316 médecins exerçant dans des structures de santé en Côte d’Ivoire. Le questionnaire administré portait notamment sur l’évaluation des connaissances sur les hépatites virales B et C ainsi que leurs attitudes personnelles face au dépistage et à la vaccination. Un score de connaissance a été créé à partir de 14 variables (figure) et les facteurs associés ont été mesurés à l’aide d’un modèle multivarié de Poisson. Résultats La grande majorité des médecins citent spontanément la cirrhose et le cancer du foie comme principales complications des hépatites virales. Les modalités de dépistage sont également bien connues. Les connaissances en termes de modes de transmission et de moyens de prévention sont inégales, tandis qu’un tiers a une idée des prévalences des hépatites B et C en Côte d’Ivoire. En matière de prise en charge, moins de la moitié connaît les indications de traitement pour l’hépatite B ou l’existence d’un traitement curatif pour l’hépatite C (figure). De même, peu connaissent les coûts des traitements ou des examens comme la charge virale VHB. Le score de connaissances varie selon le type de structure, le sexe, le fait de connaître un proche porteur d’une hépatite virale, le fait qu’une ONG intervienne ou non dans la structure de santé, avoir suivi une formation sur les hépatites virales et le fait de s’être soi-même fait dépister. Conclusion La lutte contre les hépatites virales passe nécessairement par une implication accrue de l’ensemble des médecins, et notamment par des formations continues à la prévention et à la prise en charge qui doivent être développées.


  • Oluwaseyi Somefun Dolapo et Simo Fotso Arlette (2020) « The effect of family and neighbourhood social capital on youth mental health in South Africa », Journal of Adolescence, 83 (août 1), p. 22-26. DOI : 10.1016/j.adolescence.2020.06.009. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140197120300944.
    Résumé : Introduction Despite the prevalence of mental illness among young adults in South Africa, few studies have examined its correlation with social capital using nationally representative data. Sources of social capital are different for youth, which is why understanding the correlation between family and neighbourhood social capital and mental health outcomes is important for designing optimal interventions. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between social capital and youth mental health. We also sought to understand whether family social capital was more protective for the mental health of youth compared to neighbourhood social capital. Methods Using the National Income Dynamics Survey data for South Africa, we examine these associations among 2307 youth aged 15–24 across the four waves. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine these associations. Results Our findings emphasize the substantial burden of mental illness among youth in South Africa (26% in wave 4). Although results for parental presence were not significant, family social capital measured by household income significantly decreased the odds of incident depression only for those belonging to the third quintile (aOR 0.74, 95% CI 0.54–1.01). High perception of crime in the neighbourhood was associated with significantly higher odds of incident depression (aOR 1.33, 95% CI 1.06–1.67). Conclusions Our results confirm the independent effect of neighbourhood characteristics on youth mental health and did not support family social capital as being protective for developing depression. This implies that youth program planners must focus on community context in improving youth developmental outcomes such as mental health.
    Mots-clés : Depression, Family, Mental health, Neighbourhood, Social capital, South Africa, Youth.

  • Orozco L, Pirela Arnoldo, Requier-Desjardins D et Guibert M (2020) « Hydrocarbons, agro-food production and energy transition in Latin America: Theoretical elements of the debate », Caravelle, 115, p. 11-24. DOI : 10.4000/caravelle.8556.
    Résumé : Climate change poses a double threat to Latin America, both to agricultural production and to the exploitation of its main comparative advantage; fossil resources. This paper's aim is to tackle the technological convergence/divergence in Latin America between the hydrocarbon and agrifood value chains in a context of energy transition. This theoretical work is based on existing literature.

  • Ouedraogo Wendkouni, Biau Sandrine, Bonnet Emmanuel et Ridde Valery (2020) Scoping review protocol on the use of telephone in the implementation of citizen participation in the processes of developing health system strengthening reforms/policies in Sub-Saharan Africa (participation in decision-making) v1 (protocols.io.bky7kxzn). https://www.protocols.io/view/scoping-review-protocol-on-the-use-of-telephone-in-bky7kxzn.

  • Pannetier Julie et Ravalihasy Andrainolo (2020) « Les femmes migrantes face aux violences sexuelles en France », The Conversation (mai 29). https://theconversation.com/les-femmes-migrantes-face-aux-violences-sexuelles-en-france-138896.
    Résumé : Les violences sexuelles envers les femmes immigrées sont fréquentes mais restent largement invisibles dans les statistiques publiques en Europe. Si l’opinion publique y a été sensibilisée dans les pays de transit comme en Libye, c’est beaucoup moins le cas lorsque ces violences ont lieu dans le pays de destination. Rappelons que les personnes originaires d’Afrique subsaharienne représentent 13 % des immigrés en France. Parmi ces personnes, la moitié sont des femmes. Même après la migration, les femmes sont confrontées à des contextes marqués par des insécurités multiples qui les exposent à des violences sexuelles, rarement documentées et analysées. Leurs effets sur la santé sont également peu étudiés.
    Mots-clés : ⛔ No DOI found.


  • Paul Elisabeth, Brown Garrett W et Ridde Valery (2020) « COVID-19: time for paradigm shift in the nexus between local, national and global health », BMJ Global Health, 5 (4) (avril), p. e002622. DOI : 10.1136/bmjgh-2020-002622. http://gh.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/bmjgh-2020-002622.


  • Paul Elisabeth, Brown Garrett W., Ensor Tim, Ooms Gorik, van de Pas Remco et Ridde Valéry (2020) « We shouldn’t count chickens before they hatch: results-based financing and the challenges of cost-effectiveness analysis », Critical Public Health (janvier 3), p. 1-6. DOI : 10.1080/09581596.2019.1707774. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09581596.2019.1707774.
    Résumé : Results-based financing (RBF) is subject to fierce debate and the evidence-base on its cost effectiveness is scarce. To our knowledge, only one cost-effectiveness study of RBF in a lower-middle income country has been published in a peer reviewed journal. That study – in Zambia – concludes that RBF is cost-effective, which was then uncritically repeated in an editorial accompanying its release. Here we would like to warn against readily accepting the conclusion of the cost-effectiveness study of RBF in Zambia, because its conclusions are not straightforward and could be dangerously misleading, especially for those readers unfamiliar with health economics. After outlining the results from the Zambia’s RBF cost-effectiveness study, we point to important methodological issues related to cost-effectiveness analysis, showing how key assumptions produce particular results. We then reflect on how cost-effectiveness is different from efficiency and affordability – which is important, since cost-effectiveness studies often have considerable influence on national health financing strategies and policy priorities. Finally, we provide an alternative reading of the evidence on RBF in Zambia. Namely, when examined from an efficiency point of view, the study actually demonstrates that RBF is less efficient than the simpler alternative of providing more resources to health facilities, unconditioned on performance, which will be of most interest to a government with tight budget constraints. As a result, existing claims that RBF is cost-effective are overstated, requiring further and more nuanced examination with more adequate research methods.


  • Paul Elisabeth, Brown Garrett W., Kalk Andreas, Van Damme Wim, Ridde Valery et Sturmberg Joachim (2020) « “When My Information Changes, I Alter My Conclusions.” What Can We Learn From the Failures to Adaptively Respond to the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic and the Under Preparedness of Health Systems to Manage COVID-19? », International Journal of Health Policy and Management. DOI : 10.34172/ijhpm.2020.240. https://www.ijhpm.com/article_3972.html.
    Mots-clés : COVID-19, Evidence-Based Policy, Health Policies, Public Health, SARS-CoV-2, Systemic Approach.


  • Paul Elisabeth, Brown Garrett W. et Ridde Valéry (2020) « Misunderstandings and ambiguities in strategic purchasing in low‐ and middle‐income countries », The International Journal of Health Planning and Management (juillet 16), p. hpm.3019. DOI : 10.1002/hpm.3019. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/hpm.3019.
    Résumé : Strategic purchasing is branded as an approach that is necessary for progress towards universal health coverage. While we agree that publicly purchased health services should respond to society's needs and patient expectations, and thus generally endorse strategic purchasing, here we would like to explore two emerging concerns within current discussions in low‐ and middle‐income countries. First, there exists a great deal of misunderstanding and conceptual unclarity, within practitioner groups, around the concept of strategic purchasing and what instruments it incorporates. Second, there is a growing trend to regularly fuse strategic purchasing into a performance‐based financing (PBF) discourse in ways that increasingly blur their distinctive properties and policy orientations, while perhaps too easily obfuscating potential tensions. We believe the discourse on strategic purchasing would benefit from better conceptual clarity by dissociating and prioritising its two objectives, namely: priority should be given to needs‐based allocation of resources, while rewarding performance is a subsequent concern. We argue there is a need for a more thoroughgoing conceptual and empirical re‐examination of strategic purchasing's priorities, its link with PBF, as well as for a wider evidence‐base on what strategic purchasing tools exist and which are most appropriate for diverse contexts.

  • Paul Elisabeth et Ridde Valéry (2020) « Évaluer les effets des différentes mesures de lutte contre le Covid-19, mission impossible ? », The Conversation, avril 5. https://theconversation.com/evaluer-les-effets-des-differentes-mesures-de-lutte-contre-le-covid-19-mission-impossible-135060.

  • Pellegrini Chloé, Alazali Monia et Meyer Jean-Baptiste (2020) L’enseignement supérieur au Maroc : état des lieux et comparaison public/privé, Working Papers du CEPED (46), Paris : Ceped. https://www.ceped.org.
    Résumé : L’enseignement supérieur marocain se développe rapidement. Il s’accroît considérablement et se transforme particulièrement depuis deux décennies. Le présent document examine ces évolutions à la lumière des statistiques locales. Elles couvrent de façon variable les différents secteurs de l’enseignement supérieur mais offrent globalement un panorama édifiant de ces transformations. Il permet de caractériser la massification en cours et de constater comment le pays répond aux enjeux de formation post-scolaire d’une population jeune aux effectifs croissants. Il scrute tour à tour puis en comparaison les différents éléments des secteurs publics et privés : répartition géographique, distribution par domaine, évolution temporelle. Il examine les complémentarités éventuelles de ces deux secteurs et l’enjeu d’employabilité de leurs diplômés.


  • Pérez Myriam Cielo, Chandra Dinesh, Koné Georges, Singh Rohit, Ridde Valery, Sylvestre Marie-Pierre, Seth Aaditeshwar et Johri Mira (2020) « Implementation fidelity and acceptability of an intervention to improve vaccination uptake and child health in rural India: a mixed methods evaluation of a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial », Implementation Science Communications, 1 (1) (décembre), p. 88. DOI : 10.1186/s43058-020-00077-7. https://implementationsciencecomms.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s43058-020-00077-7.
    Résumé : The Tika Vaani intervention, an initiative to improve basic health knowledge and empower beneficiaries to improve vaccination uptake and child health for underserved rural populations in India, was assessed in a pilot cluster randomized trial. The intervention was delivered through two strategies: mHealth (using mobile phones to send vaccination reminders and audio-based messages) and community mobilization (face-to-face meetings) in rural Indian villages from January to September 2018. We assessed acceptability and implementation fidelity to determine whether the intervention delivered in the pilot trial can be implemented at a larger scale. Methods We adapted the Conceptual Framework for implementation fidelity to assess acceptability and fidelity of the pilot interventions using a mixed methods design. Quantitative data sources include a structured checklist, household surveys, and mobile phone call patterns. Qualitative data came from field observations, intervention records, semi-structured interviews and focus groups with project recipients and implementers. Quantitative analyses assessed whether activities were implemented as planned, using descriptive statistics to describe participant characteristics and the percentage distribution of activities. Qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis and in the light of the implementation fidelity model to explore moderating factors and to determine how well the intervention was received. Results Findings demonstrated high (86.7%) implementation fidelity. A total of 94% of the target population benefited from the intervention by participating in a face-to-face group meeting or via mobile phone. The participants felt that the strategies were useful means for obtaining information. The clarity of the intervention theory, the motivation, and commitment of the implementers as well as the periodic meetings of the supervisors largely explain the high level of fidelity obtained. Geographic distance, access to a mobile phone, level of education, and gender norms are contextual factors that contributed to heterogeneity in participation. Conclusions Although the intervention was evaluated in the context of a randomized trial that could explain the high level of fidelity obtained, this evaluation provides confirmatory evidence that the results of the study reflect the underlying theory. The mobile platform coupled with community mobilization was well-received by the participants and could be a useful way to improve health knowledge and change behavior.



  • Pérez Myriam Cielo, Singh Rohit, Chandra Dinesh, Ridde Valéry, Seth Aaditeshwar et Johri Mira (2020) « Development of an mHealth Behavior Change Communication Strategy: A case-study from rural Uttar Pradesh in India » (présenté à COMPASS '20: ACM SIGCAS Conference on Computing and Sustainable Societies), in Proceedings of the 3rd ACM SIGCAS Conference on Computing and Sustainable Societies, Ecuador : ACM, p. 274-278. ISBN : 978-1-4503-7129-2. DOI : 10.1145/3378393.3402505. https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3378393.3402505.


  • Pérouse de Montclos Marc-Antoine (2020) Une guerre perdue : la France au Sahel, Paris : J.C. Lattès, 311 p. (Essais et Documents). ISBN : 978-2-7096-6603-9. http://www.documentation.ird.fr/hor/fdi:010077657.
    Résumé : Janvier 2013 : l'armée française intervient au Mali. C'est sa plus grosse opération militaire à l'étranger depuis la guerre d'Algérie. François Hollande avait pourtant annoncé que la France n'interviendrait pas. L'objectif au départ était seulement d'appuyer une éventuelle opération de paix des Nations-Unies pour rétablir l'ordre. Mais avec la prise par les djihadistes de Tombouctou, de Gao, de Kidal, il faut agir, dit-on, sinon Bamako pourrait tomber. Tout le "Sahélistan" serait aux mains des fous de Dieu. La France est alors la seule à intervenir. L'auteur, chercheur, spécialiste des questions africaines et du djihadisme, écoute les partisans de l'opération Serval, les déclarations d'intention qui balaient toute critique. Il suit le déroulement de l'opération : l'intervention aurait dû être le déroulement de l'opération : l'intervention aurait dû être courte, elle s'éternise et avec des effets dévastateurs. Les mouvances djihadistes ont étendu leurs actions, les violences intercommunautaires se sont multipliées. Un livre passionnant sur une guerre lointaine où la France joue un rôle majeur. Un chercheur renommé qui refuse le silence et les mensonges sur ce que fait la France et au nom de quoi elle le fait.


  • Pérouse de Montclos Marc-Antoine (2020) « Boko Haram : un cas d’école de l’échec de l’islam politique au Nigeria », Canadian Journal of African Studies / Revue canadienne des études africaines (avril 28), p. 1-18. DOI : 10.1080/00083968.2019.1700141. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00083968.2019.1700141.
    Résumé : This article analyses some of the reasons why Boko Haram proved unable to govern the territories it was able to control before its allegiance to the Islamic State and its withdrawal into the Lake Chad wetlands in 2015. The group's political failure is not limited to its fragmentation, its criminalisation, its lack of qualified professionals and the inadequacy of a 'low cost' insurgency. Indeed, the predatory character of the sect is both a cause and a symptom of its disorganisation and inability to govern. Claiming the legitimacy of the jihad of Ousmane dan Fodio in Sokoto, the movement never sought to resuscitate the Borno Empire to raise taxes and dispense very rudimentary justice. Thus, the case of Boko Haram demonstrates in its own way the failure of political Islamand attempts to extend the scope of Sharia law in Nigeria since the end of the military dictatorship in 1999.


  • Pérouse de Montclos Marc-Antoine (2020) « "Horn, Sahel and Rift : faultlines, of the African Jihad". - Hansen, Stig Jarle, London, Hurst [Compte rendu de lecture] », Small Wars and Insurgencies, 31, p. 204–208. DOI : 10.1080/09592318.2020.1672977. http://www.documentation.ird.fr/hor/fdi:010077400.
    Mots-clés : AFRIQUE SUBSAHARIENNE.

  • Petersen Maya, Larmarange Joseph, Wirth Kathleen E, Skalland Timothy, Ayles Helen, Kamya Moses, Lockman Shahin, Iwuji Collins, Dabis François, Makhema Joseph, Havlir Diane, Floyd Sian, Hayes Richard et UT3C Consortium (2020) « Population-level Viremia Predicts HIV Incidence across the Universal Test and Treat Studies » (communication orale), présenté à Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunitic Infections (CROI), Boston. http://www.croiconference.org/sessions/population-level-viremia-predicts-hiv-incidence-across-universal-test-treat-studies.
    Résumé : Improved understanding of the extent to which increased population-level viral suppression will reduce HIV incidence is needed. Using data from four large Universal Test and Treat Trials, we evaluated the relationship between viremia and incidence and its consistency across epidemic contexts. We analyzed data from 105 communities in the PopART (21 communities in South Africa and Zambia, ~ 25,000 adults each), BCPP (30 communities in Botswana, ~3,600 adults each), ANRS 12249 TasP (22 communities in South Africa, ~1,300 adults each) and SEARCH (32 communities in Uganda and Kenya, ~5,000 adults each) studies. Communities ranged from rural to urban and varied in the mobility of their populations and their sex ratio (~30% to 50% male). HIV incidence was measured via repeat testing between 2012-2018. Population viremia ­– % of all adults (HIV+ or HIV-) with HIV viremia – was estimated at midpoint of follow-up based on HIV prevalence and non-suppression among HIV+, with adjustment for differences between the measurement cohort and underlying population. Community-level regression, adjusted for study, was used to quantify the association between HIV incidence and viremia and to evaluate cross-study heterogeneity. HIV prevalence (measured in 257,929 total persons, PopART: 37,006; BCPP: 12,570; TasP: 20,978; SEARCH: 187,375), ranged from 2% to 40% by community. Non-suppression among HIV+ (measured in 39,928 persons, PopART: 6,233; BCPP: 2,318; TasP: 6,617; SEARCH: 16,209) ranged from 3% to 70%. HIV incidence (measured over 345,844 person-years, PopART: 39,702; BCPP: 8,551; TasP: 26,832; SEARCH: 270,759) ranged from 0.03 to 3.4 per 100PY. Population-level viremia was strongly associated with HIV incidence; pooling across studies, HIV incidence decreased by 0.07/100PY (95% CI: 0.05,0.10, p<0.001) for each 1% absolute decrease in viremia. Incidence was significantly associated with viremia in each study; however, both strength of the incidence-viremia relationship (slope) and projected incidence at 0% viremia (intercept) differed (Figure). Lower population-level HIV viremia was associated with lower HIV incidence in all four Universal Test and Treat Studies, conducted in a wide range of epidemic contexts in sub-Saharan Africa. Differences in external infection rate (due to variation in community size, mobility, and sex ratio) may have contributed to heterogeneity between studies.


  • Petit Véronique (2020) « « Tu peux être en vie et déjà mort » : le quotidien ordinaire d’une personne atteinte de troubles psychiques au Sénégal », Politique Africaine, 1 (157), p. 39-69. DOI : 10.3917/polaf.157.0039. https://www.cairn.info/revue-politique-africaine-2020-1-page-39.htm.
    Résumé : Cet article propose une ethnographie de la vie quotidienne d’une personne atteinte de troubles psychiques et de la manière dont l’aspect chronique de la maladie mentale affecte les dynamiques familiales au sein d’un espace domestique marqué par l’économie morale. La mise en intrigue de cette vie ordinaire à travers les discours révèle les positionnements, les attentes et les ajustements des acteurs les uns aux autres, avec les tensions, les violences symboliques et les émotions qu’ils impliquent.

  • Petit Véronique (2020) « An Anthropological Demography of Mental Health in Senegal », in The Anthropological Demography of Health, éd. par Véronique Petit, Kaveri Qureshi, Yves Charbit, et Philip Kreager, Oxford : Oxford University Press, p. 153-182. ISBN : 978-0-19-886243-7.
    Résumé : This chapter stems from ongoing field research on mental health in Senegal, an African country in the midst of an epidemiological transition. While mental health has been integrated into global health and sustainable development objectives, it is not a priority in sub-Saharan Africa. Few states have a mental health policy, nor specific programmes and data on the situation of mentally ill people and their families. From the time of the French colonization, Senegal has developed an original strand of psychiatric intervention, the Fann School of Cultural Psychiatry. The current supply of psychiatric care takes place in the multi-therapeutic context of this ethnically and religiously diverse society. The therapeutic pathways of patients are analysed in terms of stigmatization, relationships between patients and healers, socio-economic inequalities, poverty, and the absence of universal medical coverage for the entire population. To understand adherence to psychiatric treatment, one must take into account the family and social dynamics at work in a society increasingly marked by individuation processes and globalization through international migration. In attending to the subtleties of care as conceived by sufferers’ families and social networks, the chapter points to multiple layers of the demographic governance of mental ill health, from the state to local kin and social groups.

  • Petit Véronique et Robin Nelly (2020) « Les circulations transnationales, un des éléments-clés de la gestion de la crise du coronavirus en Afrique », Le Monde afrique, juin 2. https://www.lemonde.fr/afrique/article/2020/06/02/les-circulations-transnationales-un-des-elements-cles-de-la-gestion-de-la-crise-du-coronavirus-en-afrique_6041551_3212.html.

  • Petit Véronique et Robin Nelly (2020) « Covid-19 et migrations en Afrique : la réduction des mobilités, une riposte efficace ? », The Conversation, mai 31. https://theconversation.com/covid-19-et-migrations-en-afrique-la-reduction-des-mobilites-une-riposte-efficace-139283.
    Résumé : Les circulations transnationales constituent l’un des éléments clés de la gestion de la crise du Covid-19 en Afrique. Dans cet article, nous proposons une analyse cartographique de l’origine des premiers cas détectés dans les pays africains et des enjeux de la fermeture des frontières dans un environnement de fortes mobilités.


  • Petitprez K., Guillaume S., Mattuizzi A., Arnal M., Artzner F., Bernard C., Bonnin M., Bouvet L., Caron F.-M., Chevalier I., Daussy-Urvoy C., Ducloy-Bouthorsc A.-S., Garnier J.-M., Keita-Meyer H., Lavillonnière J., Lejeune-Sadaa V., Leray C., Morandeau A., Morau E., Nadjafizade M., Pizzagalli F., Schantz Clémence, Schmitz T., Shojai R., Hédon B. et Sentilhes L. (2020) « Accouchement normal : accompagnement de la physiologie et interventions médicales. Recommandations de la Haute Autorité de Santé (HAS) avec la collaboration du Collège National des Gynécologues Obstétriciens Français (CNGOF) et du Collège National des Sages-Femmes de France (CNSF) – Texte des recommandations (texte court) », Gynécologie Obstétrique Fertilité & Sénologie, 48 (12) (décembre), p. 873-882. DOI : 10.1016/j.gofs.2020.09.013. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2468718920302701.

  • Pilon Marc et Pison Gilles (2020) « Quelles perspectives démographiques pour l'Afrique au XXIe siècle ? », in Prospectives du développement (coord Jean-Jacques Gabas, Marc Lautier, Michel Vernières), Paris : Karthala, p. 99-119. ISBN : 978-2-8111-2810-4.

  • Pirela Arnoldo (2020) « Petroleum geopolitics and authoritarianism in Latin America and the Caribbean: the case of Venezuela », Caravelle, 115, p. 59-73. DOI : en.
    Résumé : This paper focuses on the armed conflicts in Central America in the late 70s and 80s, as they relate to the so-called "turn to the left", which began with Hugo Chavez in 1999. It suggests a reading based on the economic and political history of Venezuela, taking into consideration its development strategy of using oil revenues to break tax dependency from oil. It is in fact the story of a mainly pragmatic nationalism with a social democratic orientation that completes a virtuous circle by the oil industry nationalization in 1976, only to find itself trapped in the limitations of its conflicting strategy; and, with the turn of the century, leading the country into the hands of a successful convergence operation between the traditional authoritarianism of military lodges and the totalitarianism of Soviet-cuban inspiration.
    Mots-clés : ⚠️ Invalid DOI.


  • Pourette Dolorès, Andrianantoandro T V, Rakotoarimanana F M J, Razakamanana M, Rakotomalala O et Ramiaramanana J (2020) « Use of healthcare services at time of delivery: a prospective community based study in Madagascar », European Journal of Public Health, 30 (Supplement_5) (septembre 1), p. ckaa166.908. DOI : 10.1093/eurpub/ckaa166.908. https://academic.oup.com/eurpub/article/doi/10.1093/eurpub/ckaa166.908/5915795.
    Résumé : Abstract Background Maternal mortality remains high in Madagascar (478 deaths per 100,000 live births) and more than 60% of birth are not assisted by professional health workers. This study aimed to determine factors that influence choices of delivery place in two municipalities of Vakinakaratra region. Methods This was a prospective study. 245 pregnant women in the 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy were included and surveyed during Oct-Nov 2016. The same women were re-surveyed 3 months or more after their respective deliveries (June-July 2017). Binary logistic regression was used and the analysis were supported by qualitative interviews conducted with 35 women from the sample, 7 community health workers, 5 professionals health workers and 15 traditional healers and traditional births attendants or 'reninjaza'. Results Overall, 91.8 % of women intended to give birth at health facilities. The reasons given are the quality of services and the medical support in case of complications, the registration of birth and the referrals and encouragement from reninjaza. However, out of 229 mothers interviewed after delivery, only 60.7% gave birth in a health facility. Educated mothers were ORa=6.6 (p &lt; 0.001) times more likely to deliver at health facility and mothers with at least 4 births are ORa=0.17 (p &lt; 0.01) times less likely to do it. The qualitative analysis highlights the cost (logistics and care) as well as the fear of caesarean sections as a brake on childbirth in a health facility. The distance from the health center and the lack of preparation to travel there were also identified. Decisions at the time of childbirth come under the close family. Conclusions Use of maternity services remains low. The implementation of free delivery care policies, formalizing the collaboration between reninjaza and health workers and raising awareness among close family should improve the access to healthcare. Key messages Collaborations between health workers and traditional healers should be formalized. The close family of pregnant women (spouse, mother, mother-in-law) should be the target of awareness raising strategies.
  • Pourette Dolorès, Andrianantoandro Tantely, Rakotoarimanana Feno, Rakotomalala, Olivier et Razakamanana Marilys (2020) « Use of healthcare services at time of delivery: a prospective community based study in Madagascar » (Poster DQ 69), présenté à 16th World Congress on Public Health 2020, Rome (virtual).
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