Publications des membres du Ceped

2020


  • Rahm Laura (2020) Gender-biased sex selection in South Korea, India and Vietnam: assessing the influence of public policy, Cham : Springer, Cham, 340 p. ISBN : 978-3-030-20233-0.
    Résumé : "This book provides an...analysis of the influence of public policy on sex selection. Three Asian countries were chosen for the comparative policy analysis, namely South Korea, India and Vietnam that share in common a historical legacy of son preference, high levels of sex imbalances and active policy response to curbing the growing demographic masculinization of their nations. The research based on the data collected from field work in the three countries shows that despite the adoption of very similar anti-sex selection policies the outcomes have been markedly different for each of the three countries. These unexpected diverse outcomes are explained partly by their different historical and cultural contexts, and partly to the different social, political and economic institutions and dynamics. This monograph offers...explanations of both within and across country diversities in policy outcomes, pointing to the importance and the limits of cross-national policy learning and adoption, and raising questions about the efficacy of international organizations' current approaches to global policy and knowledge transfer."--


  • Rajan Dheepa, Koch Kira, Rohrer Katja, Bajnoczki Csongor, Socha Anna, Voss Maike, Nicod Marjolaine, Ridde Valery et Koonin Justin (2020) « Governance of the Covid-19 response: a call for more inclusive and transparent decision-making », BMJ Global Health, 5 (5) (mai), p. e002655. DOI : 10.1136/bmjgh-2020-002655. http://gh.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/bmjgh-2020-002655.
    Résumé : Not all countries make their Covid-19 task force membership list public—the available information varies by country. There is currently a predominance of politicians, virologists and epidemiologists in the Covid-19 response at the country level. Experts on non-Covid-19 health, social and societal consequences of Covid-19 response measures are, for the most part, not included in Covid-19 decision-making bodies. There is little transparency regarding whom decision-making bodies are consulting as their source of advice and information. From the available data on Covid-19 decision-making entities, female representation is particularly paltry. In addition, civil society is hardly involved in national government decision-making nor its response efforts, barring some exceptions. We need to be more inclusive and multidisciplinary: the Covid-19 crisis is not simply a health problem but a societal one—it impacts every single person in society one way or another. Decision makers need to address more systematically the suffering from mental illness exacerbations, domestic violence, child abuse, child development delays, chronic diseases and so on, during lockdown.


  • Ratovoson Rila, Kunkel Amber, Rakotovao Jean Pierre, Pourette Dolores, Mattern Chiarella, Andriamiadana Jocelyne, Harimanana Aina et Piola Patrice (2020) « Frequency, risk factors, and complications of induced abortion in ten districts of Madagascar: results from a cross-sectional household survey », BMC Women's Health, 20 (1) (mai 6). DOI : 10.1186/s12905-020-00962-2. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32375746/.
    Résumé : Madagascar has restrictive abortion laws with no explicit exception to preserve the woman’s life. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of abortion in the country and examine the methods, consequences, and risk factors of these abortions.


  • Ravaoarisoa Lantonirina, Razafimahatratra Mamy Jean Jacques, Rakotondratsara Mamy Andrianirina, Pourette Dolorès, Rakotonirina Julio et Rakotomanga Jean de Dieu Marie (2020) « Appréciation des interventions de lutte contre la malnutrition maternelle par la population à Madagascar », Sante Publique, Vol. 32 (1) (juin 29), p. 113-122. DOI : 10.3917/spub.201.0113. https://www.cairn.info/revue-sante-publique-2020-1-page-113.htm.
    Résumé : Madagascar has adopted strategies to fight against maternal malnutrition, but the evaluation of their implementation is not effective. Purpose of research: The present study aims to describe beneficiary appreciation of interventions to fight maternal malnutrition and to identify their expectations. Method: A qualitative study was conducted in the Amoron'i Mania region, Madagascar. The study included mothers of children under 5, pregnant women, and other family members and community members (fathers, grandmothers, matrons and community workers). Six focus groups and 16 individual interviews were conducted to collect the data. The thematic analysis was used. Results: Food supplementation, improved production of agriculture and livestock, and nutrition education, operated by NGOs, are the best-known interventions. The health centers were not mentioned as interveners and their interventions were ignored. The effectiveness of the intervention is generally judged on the benefits perceived by the beneficiaries. Interveners working on a project basis were assessed as unsustainable. Two main problems were mentioned: first, the insufficiency of agricultural production resulting in the inaccessibility of the ingredients required for the nutrition education, and second the low coverage of the interventions. The improvement of agricultural production is the main suggestion mentioned to fight against maternal undernutrition. Conclusions: Beneficiaries thought that existing interventions in the region are insufficient to address the problem of malnutrition among mothers.


  • Ravit Marion, Ravalihasy Andrainolo, Audibert Martine, Ridde Valéry, Bonnet Emmanuel, Raffalli Bertille, Roy Flore-Apolline, N’Landu Anais et Dumont Alexandre (2020) « The impact of the obstetrical risk insurance scheme in Mauritania on maternal healthcare utilization: a propensity score matching analysis », Health Policy and Planning, 35 (4) (janvier 31). DOI : 10.1093/heapol/czz150. https://academic.oup.com/heapol/advance-article/doi/10.1093/heapol/czz150/5718854.
    Résumé : In Mauritania, obstetrical risk insurance (ORI) has been progressively implemented at the health district level since 2002 and was available in 25% of public healthcare facilities in 2015. The ORI scheme is based on pre-payment scheme principles and focuses on increasing the quality of and access to both maternal and perinatal healthcare. Compared with many community-based health insurance schemes, the ORI scheme is original because it is not based on risk pooling. For a pre-payment of 16–18 USD, women are covered during their pregnancy for antenatal care, skilled delivery, emergency obstetrical care [including caesarean section (C-section) and transfer] and a postnatal visit. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of ORI enrolment on maternal and child health services using data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) conducted in 2015. A total of 4172 women who delivered within the last 2 years before the interview were analysed. The effect of ORI enrolment on the outcomes was estimated using a propensity score matching estimation method. Fifty-eight per cent of the studied women were aware of ORI, and among these women, more than two-thirds were enrolled. ORI had a beneficial effect among the enrolled women by increasing the probability of having at least one prenatal visit by 13%, the probability of having four or more visits by 11% and the probability of giving birth at a healthcare facility by 15%. However, we found no effect on postnatal care (PNC), C-section rates or neonatal mortality. This study provides evidence that a voluntary pre-payment scheme focusing on pregnant women improves healthcare services utilization during pregnancy and delivery. However, no effect was found on PNC or neonatal mortality. Some efforts should be exerted to improve communication and accessibility to ORI. Maternal health, neonatal mortality, pre-payment scheme, universal health coverage, Mauritania, Sub-Saharan Africa Topic: pregnancycesarean sectionhealth care facilityinsurancemauritaniamotherspostnatal careobstetricsprenatal careneonatal mortalityhealth care usemalnutrition-inflammation-cachexia syndrome
    Pièce jointe Texte intégral 450.4 ko (source)


  • Rey Matthieu et Ruiz de Elvira Laura (2020) « Luttes de sens, cadrages et grammaire lexicale en contexte révolutionnaire. Le cas de la Syrie (2011-2012) », Cultures & conflits, 117 (juillet 1), p. 11-33. DOI : 10.4000/conflits.21372. http://journals.openedition.org/conflits/21372.
    Résumé : Le combat entre le régime syrien et ses opposants s’est en partie joué sur un plan interprétatif et discursif. Loin d’être anodins, les termes et les expressions employés, ainsi que les cadrages des événements proposés par les différents acteurs de la crise révolutionnaire, sont porteurs de significations sociales et politiques situées. L’objectif de cet article est de les analyser en contextualisant les moments de leur émergence et en évoquant l’imaginaire collectif avec lesquels ils font résonance. Il montre tout d’abord la forte prégnance du local, malgré le travail d’alignement permanent qui cherche à les unifier et les universaliser ; ensuite, leur résonance avec des récits historiques qui facilitent leur diffusion et les inscrivent dans la longue durée ; enfin, leur articulation avec une réalité du terrain changeante. La production langagière des acteurs de la crise participe ainsi à la construction de cette dernière pour en devenir une partie constitutive fondamentale. Mots-clés : luttes de sens, cadrages, grammaire lexicale, crise révolutionnaire, Syrie, 2011-2012 Keywords : giving meaning, framing, lexical grammar, revolutionary crisis, Syria, 2011-2012


  • Ridde Valéry, Aho Joséphine, Ndao Elhadji Malick, Benoit Magalie, Hanley Jill, Lagrange Solène, Fillol Amandine, Raynault Marie-France et Cloos Patrick (2020) « Unmet healthcare needs among migrants without medical insurance in Montreal, Canada », Global Public Health (mai 27), p. 1-14. DOI : 10.1080/17441692.2020.1771396. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17441692.2020.1771396.
    Résumé : While access to healthcare for permanent residents in Canada is well known, this is not the case for migrants without healthcare coverage. This is the first large-scale study that examines the unmet healthcare needs of migrants without healthcare coverage in Montreal. 806 participants were recruited: 436 in the community and 370 at the NGO clinic. Proportions of individuals reporting unmet healthcare needs were similar (68.4% vs. 69.8%).The main reason invoked for these unmet needs was lacking money (80.6%). Situations of not working or studying, not having had enough food in the past 12 months, not having a medical prescription to get medication and having had a workplace injury were all significantly associated with higher odds of having unmet healthcare needs. Unmet healthcare needs were more frequent among migrants without healthcare coverage than among recent immigrants or the citizens with health healthcare coverage (69%, 26%, 16%). Canada must take measures to enable these individuals to have access to healthcare according to their needs in order to reduce the risk of worsening their health status, something that may have an impact on the healthcare system and population health. The Government of Quebec announced that all individuals without any healthcare coverage will have access to COVID-19 related health care. We hope that this right, the application of which is not yet obvious, can continue after the pandemic for all health care.
    Note Note
    <p>doi: 10.1080/17441692.2020.1771396</p>

  • Ridde Valéry et Ba Mame-Penda (2020) « La pandémie du Covid-19 vue d'Afrique », Article Opinion Commentaire (AOC), avril 26. https://aoc.media/analyse/2020/04/26/la-pandemie-du-covid-19-vue-dafrique/.
    Résumé : Si la situation sanitaire en Afrique inquiète de plus en plus, il est difficile d’en avoir une vision claire. Comment les différents pays du continent réagissent-ils à la pandémie ? Quels enseignements ont-ils tiré de l’épidémie d’Ebola ? Les systèmes sanitaires africains sont souvent défaillants et le risque d’une sous-estimation des cas patent, mais la solidarité à toutes les échelles du continent dessine l’espoir du moindre mal.

  • Ridde Valéry, Dabiré Solange et Dagenais Christian (2020) « L’utilisation de la recherche par les ONG : un appel à actions et à réflexions », Alternatives Humanitaires, 13 (mars 18), p. 86-101. http://alternatives-humanitaires.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/AH_N13_5_Innovations_Ridde_VFR.pdf.
    Résumé : Les auteurs rappellent l’importance de tenir compte des résultats de recherche pour les interventions des ONG et montrent les défis techniques et politiques que cela pose. Ils suggèrent plusieurs démarches favorables à la prise en compte des recherches, tout en expliquant que l’on manque encore de connaissances et d’actions à ce propos. Ainsi, ce texte brosse un portrait succinct de l’état de la question pour suggérer la participation en 2021 à un possible dossier d’Alternatives Humanitaires centré sur le transfert des connaissances par les ONG.
    Mots-clés : ⛔ No DOI found.


  • Ridde Valéry, Pérez Dennis et Robert Emilie (2020) « Using implementation science theories and frameworks in global health », BMJ Global Health, 5 (4) (avril), p. e002269. DOI : 10.1136/bmjgh-2019-002269. http://gh.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/bmjgh-2019-002269.
    Résumé : In global health, researchers and decision makers, many of whom have medical, epidemiology or biostatistics background, are increasingly interested in evaluating the implementation of health interventions. Implementation science, particularly for the study of public policies, has existed since at least the 1930s. This science makes compelling use of explicit theories and analytic frameworks that ensure research quality and rigour. Our objective is to inform researchers and decision makers who are not familiar with this research branch about these theories and analytic frameworks. We define four models of causation used in implementation science: intervention theory, frameworks, middle-range theory and grand theory. We then explain how scientists apply these models for three main implementation studies: fidelity assessment, process evaluation and complex evaluation. For each study, we provide concrete examples from research in Cuba and Africa to better understand the implementation of health interventions in global health context. Global health researchers and decision makers with a quantitative background will not become implementation scientists after reading this article. However, we believe they will be more aware of the need for rigorous implementation evaluations of global health interventions, alongside impact evaluations, and in collaboration with social scientists.


  • Rikap Cecilia (2020) « Amazon: A story of accumulation through intellectual rentiership and predation », Competition & Change (juin 17), p. 102452942093241. DOI : 10.1177/1024529420932418. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1024529420932418.
    Résumé : This article elaborates on intellectual monopoly theory as a form of predation and rentiership using Amazon as a case study. By analysing Amazon's financial statements, scientific publications and patents, we show that Amazon's economic power heavily relies on its systematic innovations and capacity to centralize and analyse customized data that orients its business and innovations. We demonstrate how Amazon's innovation activities have evolved over time with growing importance of technologies related to data and machine learning. We also map Amazon's innovation networks with academic institutions and companies. We show how Amazon appropriates intellectual rents from these networks and from technological cooperation with other intellectual monopolies. We argue that Amazon, as other data-driven monopolies, predates value from suppliers and third-party companies participating in its platform. One striking characteristic of Amazon is the low rate of reported profits. The centrality of innovations leads us to suggest an alternative calculation that shows that Amazon's profits are not as low as they appear in Annual Reports. We also argue that lower profits are coherent with Amazon's rentiership and predatory strategy since they contribute to the avoidance of accusations of excessive market power. Finally, the paper offers preliminary observations on: (i) the complementarities between financial and intellectual rentierism and (ii) how data-driven intellectual monopoly expands big corporations' political power. Going beyond the specific case of Amazon, we thus contribute to a better understanding of the role of lead firms and power dynamics within innovation networks.


  • Rikap Cecilia et Flacher David (2020) « Who collects intellectual rents from knowledge and innovation hubs? questioning the sustainability of the singapore model », Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 55 (décembre), p. 59-73. DOI : 10.1016/j.strueco.2020.06.004. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0954349X20303763.
    Résumé : While knowledge and innovation are produced in networks involving diverse actors, associated rents are greatly appropriated by global leaders, mostly coming from core countries, that become intellectual monopolies. This raises the question on emerging or peripheral countries companies' capacity to catch-up, innovate and compete for intellectual rents. The article considers the case of Singapore who has pursued a knowledge hub strategy aimed at: 1) creating world class universities inserted in global knowledge networks of defined fields; and 2) capturing intellectual rents through those institutions' research and contributing to local firms' catching up. We show that research universities caught-up. However, we find that foreign companies, particularly multinationals, capture most of Singapore's intellectual rents at the expense of local companies and research institutions. Overall, our findings point to the limitations of Singapore's knowledge hub as a catching-up strategy. The article ends discussing the relevancy of these findings for emerging countries in general.


  • Rikap Cecilia et Lundvall Bengt-Åke (2020) « Big tech, knowledge predation and the implications for development », Innovation and Development (décembre 7), p. 1-28. DOI : 10.1080/2157930X.2020.1855825. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/2157930X.2020.1855825.
    Résumé : This paper focuses on tech giants as active drivers of a phase of globalization characterized by growth in digital services trade combined with a general shift to intangible assets. By analysing how Google, Amazon and Microsoft organize their innovation activities, we show that they continuously monopolize knowledge while outsourcing innovation steps to other firms and research institutions. The paper compares science and technology collaborations with patent co-ownership suggesting knowledge predation from those other organizations. We also highlight that selected tech giants combine the collection of innovation rents with rents from exclusive access to data. We, therefore, refer to tech giants as data-driven intellectual monopolies, each organizing and controlling a global corporate innovation system (CIS). Intellectual monopolies predate knowledge (including data when they are data-driven) from their CIS that they turn into intangible assets. The paper ends with reflections on the implications for innovation and development.


  • Robert Emilie, Rajan Dheepa, Koch Kira, Muggleworth Weaver Alyssa, Porignon Denis et Ridde Valery (2020) « Policy dialogue as a collaborative tool for multistakeholder health governance: a scoping study », BMJ Global Health, 4 (Suppl 7) (avril), p. e002161. DOI : 10.1136/bmjgh-2019-002161. http://gh.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/bmjgh-2019-002161.
    Résumé : Introduction Health system governance is the cornerstone of performant, equitable and sustainable health systems aiming towards universal health coverage. Global health actors have increasingly been using policy dialogue (PD) as a governance tool to engage with both state and non-state stakeholders. Despite attempts to frame PD practices, it remains a catch-all term for both health systems professionals and researchers. Method We conducted a scoping study on PD. We identified 25 articles published in English between 1985 and 2017 and 10 grey literature publications. The analysis was guided by the following questions: (1) How do the authors define PD? (2) What do we learn about PD practices and implementation factors? (3) What are the specificities of PD in low-income and middle-income countries? Results The analysis highlighted three definitions of policy dialogue: a knowledge exchange and translation platform, a mode of governance and an instrument for negotiating international development aid. Success factors include the participants’ continued and sustained engagement throughout all the relevant stages, their ability to make a constructive contribution to the discussions while being truly representative of their organisation and their high interest and stake in the subject. Prerequisites to ensuring that participants remained engaged were a clear process, a shared understanding of the goals at all levels of the PD and a PD approach consistent with the PD objective. In the context of development aid, the main challenges lie in the balance of power between stakeholders, the organisational or technical capacity of recipient country stakeholders to drive or contribute effectively to the PD processes and the increasingly technocratic nature of PD. Conclusion PD requires a high level of collaborative governance expertise and needs constant, although not necessarily high, financial support. These conditions are crucial to make it a real driver of health system reform in countries’ paths towards universal health coverage.


  • Robert Emilie et Ridde Valéry (2020) Dealing With Complexity and Heterogeneity in a Collaborative Realist Multiple Case Study in Low- and Middle-Income Countries, 1 Oliver's Yard, 55 City Road, London EC1Y 1SP United Kingdom : SAGE Publications Ltd. ISBN : 978-1-5297-3230-6. https://methods.sagepub.com/case/complexity-heterogeneity-collaborative-realist-low-middle-income-countries.
    Résumé : A qualitative realist evaluation research was conducted in six African countries to understand a complex and multifaceted World Health Organization program that provides technical and financial support to Ministries of Health in low- and middle-income countries. This support aims to foster the institutionalization of policy dialogue as a collaborative governance device, the purpose of which is the advancement of universal health coverage. This case study illustrates the realist and collaborative approach used in this multi-country research. It highlights the methodological and pedagogical challenges we faced and for which we propose recommendations. We specifically present our collaborative approach with both our research collaborators and our World Health Organization colleagues, the step of co-construction of the intervention theory, and the three successive stages of data analysis. This case is for readers who have a basic understanding of the realist approach, case study, and evaluation. Readers who are not familiar with these methods are encouraged to first refer to the recommended readings.

  • ROBIN Nelly (2020) « Barcelone ou la mort » : au Sénégal, des femmes et des hommes en quête d’avenir », The Conversation, novembre 26. https://theconversation.com/barcelone-ou-la-mort-au-senegal-des-femmes-et-des-hommes-en-quete-davenir-150146.
    Résumé : Depuis le mois de septembre 2020, l’ampleur des départs en pirogue d’émigrants du Sénégal vers les îles Canaries a interpellé les politiques et ému l’opinion publique, informée des naufrages répétés et des pertes en vies humaines au large de Dakar.Cet article, tiré de l’étude « Immobilité sociale versus mobilité sociale – Les causes profondes de l’émigration internationale », entend déconstruire les idées reçues sur les causes de l’émigration et faire entendre le point de vue subjectif des acteurs de la migration afin de rendre compte des conditions dans lesquelles se construit la décision d’émigrer.

  • ROBIN Nelly (2020) « L’émigration des jeunes, un nouvel enjeu social pour le Sénégal », The Conversation, novembre 25. https://theconversation.com/lemigration-des-jeunes-un-nouvel-enjeu-social-pour-le-senegal-150310.
    Résumé : Depuis l’automne, l’archipel des îles Canaries connaît une forte accélération des arrivées de migrants subsahariens, candidats à l’immigration en Europe. Plus de 2 000 ont accosté en seulement deux jours, début novembre. Parmi eux, des mineurs sénégalais. Leur présence questionne les logiques habituelles de l’émigration sénégalaise et interroge ce désir de partir coûte que coûte au péril de sa vie.

  • Rudasingwa Martin, Yeboah Edmund, Allegri de Manuela, Bonnet Emmanuel, Ridde Valéry, Somé Paul-André, Muula Adamson, Chitha Bona Mukoshya et Mphuka Chrispin (2020) Estimating the distributional incidence of healthcare spending on maternal health services in Sub-Saharan Africa: Benefit Incidence Analysis in Burkina Faso, Malawi, and Zambia. (AFD Research paper No. 141), Paris : AFD. https://www.afd.fr/en/ressources/estimating-distributional-incidence-healthcare-spending-maternal-health-services-sub-saharan-africa-benefit-incidence-analysis-burkina-faso-malawi-and-zambia.
    Résumé : L'amélioration de l'accès aux services de santé maternelle est une préoccupation politique essentielle, en particulier en Afrique subsaharienne (ASS) où les taux de mortalité maternelle restent très élevés, en particulier parmi les segments les plus pauvres de la société. Par conséquent, à la suite de l'appel mondial à réduire la mortalité maternelle inscrit dans l'Objectif de développement durable 3, de multiples interventions ont été conçues et mises en œuvre dans les pays d'Afrique subsaharienne pour favoriser les progrès vers la couverture sanitaire universelle (CSU) des services de santé maternelle, y compris l'assistance qualifiée à l'accouchement. Alors que les preuves de l'impact de ces interventions sur l'accès à l'utilisation des services se multiplient, les preuves de l'incidence distributive de l'investissement financier qu'elles impliquent sont encore limitées. Cet article vise à combler ce manque de connaissances en effectuant une analyse quasi-longitudinale de l'incidence des bénéfices pour évaluer l'égalité des dépenses de santé publiques et globales pour les services de santé maternelle dans trois pays d'Afrique subsaharienne: le Burkina Faso, le Malawi et la Zambie. L'étude s'est appuyée sur des données sur l'utilisation des soins de santé tirées de différentes enquêtes auprès des ménages au niveau national (y compris l'enquête démographique et sur la santé, l'enquête sur le financement basé sur les performances et l'enquête sur la santé et les dépenses des ménages en Zambie) et les données sur les dépenses de santé tirées des comptes nationaux de la santé. Les résultats démontrent une égalité croissante des dépenses de santé au fil du temps, mais aussi une hétérogénéité persistante considérable de l'incidence distributionnelle entre les provinces / régions / districts. Ces résultats suggèrent que la mise en œuvre de réformes spécifiques à la CSU ciblant les soins maternels a été efficace pour accroître l'égalité dans les dépenses de santé, ce qui signifie que davantage de ressources financières ont atteint les segments les plus pauvres de la société, mais n'était pas encore suffisante pour éliminer les différences entre les provinces / régions / districts. Des recherches supplémentaires sont nécessaires pour étudier les sources des disparités régionales et identifier des stratégies pour les surmonter.

  • Ruiz de Elvira Laura (2020) « Regard de Laura Ruiz de Elvira sur la société civile en Syrie d’avant-guerre », Moyen-Orient, 47. https://www.areion24.news/produit/moyen-orient-n-47/.

  • Ruiz de Elvira Laura (2020) « Vers la fin du contrat social en Syrie ? », Audio, Radio Cause Commune, Paris : Radio Cause Commune. https://cause-commune.fm/podcast/le-monde-en-questions-16/.
    Résumé : En Syrie de 2006 à 2010, doctorante à l’Institut Français du Proche Orient de Damas, elle effectue ses recherches sur les associations caritatives, confessionnelles ou non, et leur maillage territorial. Ces associations de bienfaisance, durant la décennie qui précède le soulèvement populaire de 2011, jouent un rôle de plus en plus important au moment où l’État syrien en voulant se moderniser se décharge de certaines fonctions et missions sociales qu’il accomplissait traditionnellement en faveur des plus démunis. Dans un contexte de paupérisation, n’excluant pas la constitution de quelques grandes fortunes affichant un luxe tapageur inaccessible à la plupart de la population, ces associations sont en première ligne pour faire face à l’exode rural faisant suite à la grande sécheresse de 2007, à l’afflux de réfugiés en provenance d’Irak à partir de 2003, à la défaillance des secteurs publics de la santé et de l’éducation. Après l’éphémère printemps de Damas, l’État policier resserre son contrôle social et politique sur la population, mais il devient de plus en plus évident qu’il ne dispose d’aucun levier d’action pour faire fonctionner les institutions, moderniser les infrastructures du pays, redistribuer les richesses, protéger les plus faibles.


  • Ruiz de Elvira Laura (2020) « Les associations chrétiennes de Damas.: La fidélité discrète, la “joie” et une “vie qui continue” malgré la guerre », Les Cahiers d’EMAM, 32 (mai 4). DOI : 10.4000/emam.2727. http://journals.openedition.org/emam/2727.
    Résumé : À partir de l’étude à distance des pages Facebook et des réseaux sociaux de trois associations chrétiennes de Damas, l’objectif de cet article est de mettre en lumière les réponses et les stratégies qu’une partie des associations syriennes et des communautés chrétiennes du pays ont adopté face à la « crise révolutionnaire » et au conflit. Il fait l’hypothèse que face aux structures et réseaux qui ont choisi la voie de la dissidence [voice] et ont par la suite été fermées ou noyautées par les services de renseignements et le ministère des Affaires sociales et du Travail, ou face à celles qui ont ouvertement soutenu le régime et l’armée régulière dans leur entreprise d’écrasement du mouvement révolutionnaire, les associations chrétiennes ont pour la plupart adopté la voie d’une fidélité discrète et tenté de s’adapter pour continuer à vivre « comme si de rien n’était », dans la « joie » et l’« amour ». This paper seeks to study the responses and the strategies that some of the Syrian associations and Christian communities have adopted since 2011 in order to face the “revolutionary crisis” and the conflict. In order to do so, it explores the Facebook accounts and the social networks of three Christian associations working in Damascus. It shows that contrary to the structures and networks that have chosen voice over silence and have therefore been closed or infiltrated by the intelligence services and the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour, and contrary to those who have openly supported the regime in its attempts to crush the revolutionary movement, most of the Christian associations have adopted a discreet form of loyalty and tried to adapt themselves in order to go on as if nothing happened, with joy and love.


  • Samb Oumar Mallé, Essombe Christiane et Ridde Valery (2020) « Meeting the challenges posed by per diem in development projects in southern countries: a scoping review », Globalization and Health, 16 (1). DOI : 10.1186/s12992-020-00571-6. https://globalizationandhealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12992-020-00571-6.
    Résumé : This study presents the results of a review whose goal is to generate knowledge on the possible levers of action concerning per diem practices in southern countries in order to propose reforms to the existing schemes. Methodology A synthesis of available knowledge was performed using scoping review methodology: a literature search was conducted using several databases (Medline, Cinahl, Embase, PubMed, Google Scholar, ProQuest) and grey literature. A total of 26 documents were included in the review. Furthermore, interviews were conducted with the authors of the selected articles to determine whether the proposed recommendations had been implemented and to identify any outcomes. Results For the most part, the results of this review are recommendations supporting per diem reform. In terms of strategy, the recommendations call for a redefinition of per diems by limiting their appeal. Issued recommendations include reducing daily allowance rates, paying per diem only in exchange for actual work, increasing control mechanisms or harmonizing rates across organizations. In terms of operations, the recommendations call for the implementation of concrete actions to reduce instances of abuse, including not paying advances or introducing reasonable flat-rate per diem. That said, the authors contacted stated that few per diem reforms had been implemented as a result of the issued recommendations. Conclusion The results of the study clearly identify possible levers of action. Such levers could make up the groundwork for further reflection on context and country-specific reforms that are carried out using a dynamic, participatory and consensual approach.
  • Sambou Césarine, Allavena Clotilde, DeBeaudrap Pierre et Pourette Dolorès (2020) « Pratiques et logiques de hiérarchisation des maladies chroniques dans la prise en charge en médecine générale des personnes vivants avec le VIH (PvVIH) polypathologiques âgées de 70 ans et plus : Étude SEPTAVIH-Quali » (Poster), présenté à E-Congrès SFLS 2020.

  • Sandron Frédéric (2020) Vieillissement de la population mondiale et développement, Working Papers du CEPED (47), Paris : Ceped, 27 p. https://www.ceped.org/wp.
    Résumé : Le vieillissement de la population mondiale est en cours, il est inéluctable, y compris dans les pays du Sud. S’il est d’une temporalité lente, il n’en demeure pas moins qu’il consiste en une véritable révolution démographique qui entraînera dans son sillage tout au long du 21e siècle de profondes transformations sociales, économiques ou cultu-relles. Cependant, l’hétérogénéité des niveaux de développement des pays ainsi que du rythme des processus de vieillissement démographique est suffisamment importante pour que ses conséquences ne soient pas les mêmes ni de la même ampleur dans tous les pays. C’est cette diversité de situations qui sera passée en revue ici, avec un zoom particulier sur les pays du Sud.


  • Schantz Clémence (2020) « Accouchement normal : accompagnement de la physiologie et interventions médicales. Recommandations de la Haute Autorité de Santé (HAS) avec la collaboration du Collège National des Gynécologues Obstétriciens Français (CNGOF) et du Collège National des Sages-Femmes de France (CNSF) – Accueil, suivi et prise en charge non médicamenteuse de la douleur de la femme pendant le travail », Gynécologie Obstétrique Fertilité & Sénologie, 48 (12) (décembre), p. 883-890. DOI : 10.1016/j.gofs.2020.09.014. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2468718920302713.

  • Schantz Clémence (2020) Construire le corps féminin, Pratiques obstétricales et biomédicalisation de l’accouchement au Cambodge, Paris : L 'Harmattan, 234 p. (Anthropologies et médecines). ISBN : 978-2-343-19985-6.
    Résumé : Cet ouvrage de Clémence Schantz (sage-femme, sociologue, docteure diplômée de socio-démographie de l’Université de Paris en 2016, chercheure associée du Ceped) interroge la vision idéalisée des Nations unies concernant la santé maternelle au Cambodge, à partir d’une enquête de terrain intensive dans deux provinces du pays. En observant de l’intérieur et « par le bas » les pratiques obstétricales, l’enquête documente leur construction historique et sociale et montre que ces techniques biomédicales sont fréquemment détournées de leur usage afin de répondre à des exigences sociales : par exemple, resserrer le vagin des femmes afin d’augmenter le plaisir sexuel des hommes.


  • Schantz Clémence (2020) « Modeler son sexe au Cambodge pour garder son mari à la maison », Droits et Culture, 79 (1), p. 185-205. DOI : 10.4000/droitcultures.6241. http://journals.openedition.org/droitcultures/6241.
    Résumé : La technique biomédicale de la périnéorraphie au Cambodge se pratique chez des femmes jeunes et en bonne santé afin de resserrer leur vagin et augmenter leur capital érotique en cherchant à accroître le plaisir sexuel masculin. Cet article décrit la pratique et sa particularité au Cambodge, et montre que cette technique est détournée de son objectif médical afin de répondre à une demande sociale. À travers une observation participante de onze mois dans des maternités de Phnom Penh et l’analyse des discours collectés entre 2013 et 2016 au Cambodge, il apparaît que cette pratique mutilante émerge dans un contexte de mutation du modèle conjugal et familial où les femmes souhaitent limiter le recours de leur mari à la prostitution.
  • Schantz Clémence (2020) « Ce que la césarienne révèle de la violence structurelle », Colloque international présenté à Violences et soutiens à la maternité, octobre 15, EHESP - Rennes, France.


  • Schantz Clémence, Aboubakar Moufalilou, Traoré Abou Bakary, Ravit Marion, Loenzien Myriam de et Dumont Alexandre (2020) « Caesarean section in Benin and Mali: increased recourse to technology due to suffering and under-resourced facilities », Reproductive Biomedicine & Society Online, 10 (juin), p. 10-18. DOI : 10.1016/j.rbms.2019.12.001. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2405661820300010.
  • Schantz Clemence, Lhotte Marie et Pantelias Anne-Charlotte (2020) « Moving beyond the ethical tension of caesarean section on maternal request », Sante Publique, 32 (5-6) (septembre), p. 497-505.
    Résumé : Introduction: In a legal context focused on the right and autonomy of the patient, some women wish to be able to choose their mode of childbirth. As midwives are primary care-givers for pregnant women with a physiological pregnancy, we wanted to find out whether it was ethically acceptable for them to accompany a woman in her decision to have a caesarean section. Purpose of research: This survey is an ancillary study of the CESARIA research program validated by the Comite de Protection des Personnes Sud Mediterranee IV and declared to the CNIL. Thirty-seven semi-directive interviews were conducted with midwives and women. Results: The majority of women and midwives share a vision of childbirth as "natural" and consider the request for caesarean section as a pathology. When formulated, this request places midwives in a situation of ethical tension. On the one hand, midwives wish to refer women to vaginal birth as the norm, and this choice embodies the ethical principles of beneficence and non-maleficence. On the other hand, midwives express a desire to respect patient choice and freedom, illustrating the ethical principle of respect for autonomy. Conclusions: The ethical issue of caesarean section on demand lies not so much in the decision to accept or not to accept a caesarean section but rather in listening to the request. Taking into consideration a medical indication more broadly than the simple obstetrical indication makes it possible to ethically support these requests while respecting the pregnant woman's autonomy.
    Mots-clés : ⛔ No DOI found.
  • Schantz Clémence (2020) « Body symbolics, obstetric practices, and the improvement of maternal health in Cambodia », in The Anthropological Demography of Health, par Véronique Petit, Kaveri Qureshi, Yves Charbit, et Philip Kreager, Oxford University Press, p. 450-471.

  • Seppey Mathieu, Ridde Valéry et Somé Paul-André (2020) « Scaling-Up Performance-Based Financing in Burkina Faso: From PBF to User Fees Exemption Strategic Purchasing », Int J Health Policy Manag, p. 1-13. DOI : 10.34172/ijhpm.2020.209.


  • Sha Sohan et Quet Mathieu (2020) « From Expression to Expulsion: Digital Public Spaces as Theatres of Operations in Nepal », Science, Technology and Society (avril 22), p. 097172182091289. DOI : 10.1177/0971721820912896. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0971721820912896.
    Résumé : On 2 May 2016, Robert Penner, Canadian national residing in Nepal with a working visa, was arrested and then deported to Canada and his visa being cancelled. Based upon an analysis of the documentation related to his arrest and expulsion, this article analyses the articulation of different operations of control. A chain of public interventions and governmental actions makes the substance of the management of digital expression in Nepal and this has to be analysed with tools from media studies and science and technology studies. We present different operative regimes: Twitter accounts and discussions, police action and arrests, and court petitions. We analyse how operational levels are connected and how their interconnections lead to the criminalisation of one individual, most notably through the reformulations of the accusations by different groups of people via different devices. This in turn shows how specific technical interventions determine the control of the public space. These analyses then add to the debate upon the 'digital public sphere' by offering a critique of its spatial metaphor from a view focused on its performative stakes-public spaces not as sites of discussion, but as theatres of operations.


  • Sia D., Dondbzanga B.D.G., Carabali M., Bonnet Emmanuel, Enok Bonong P.R. et Ridde Valery (2020) « Effect of a free healthcare policy on health services utilization for non‐malarial febrile illness by children under five years in Burkina Faso: an interrupted time series analysis », Tropical Medicine & International Health (juillet 19), p. tmi.13468. DOI : 10.1111/tmi.13468. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/tmi.13468.
    Résumé : Objective To assess the effect of a free healthcare policy for children under five years old implemented in Burkina Faso since April 2016, on the use of healthcare of non‐malarial febrile illnesses (NMFI). Methods To assess the immediate and long‐term effect of the free healthcare policy in place, we conducted an interrupted time series analysis of routinely collected data on febrile illnesses from three urban primary health centers of Ouagadougou between January 1, 2015 and December 31, 2016. Results Of the 39,046 febrile cases reported in the study period, 17,017 NMFI were included in the study. Compared to the period before the intervention, we observed an immediate, non‐statistically significant increase of 7% in the number of NMFI (IRR=1.07; 95% CI= 0.75, 1.51). Compared to the trend that would have been expected in absence of the intervention, the results showed a small but sustained increase of 6% in the trend of monthly number of NMFI during the intervention period (IRR= 1.06; 95%CI= 1.01, 1.12). Conclusion Our study highlighted an increase in the uptake of health care services, specifically for NMFI by children under five years of age, after the implementation of a free care policy. This analysis contributes to informing decision‐makers on the need to strengthen the capacities of health care centers and to anticipate the challenges of the sustainability of this policy.


  • Sieleunou Isidore, De Allegri Manuela, Roland Enok Bonong Pascal, Ouédraogo Samiratou et Ridde Valéry (2020) « Does performance-based financing curb stock-outs of essential medicines? Results from a randomised controlled trial in Cameroon », Tropical Medicine & International Health (mai 23). DOI : 10.1111/tmi.13447. http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/tmi.13447.
    Résumé : Objectif En 2011, le gouvernement du Cameroun a lancé son programme de financement basé sur la performance (FBP). Notre étude a examiné les effets de l'intervention PBF sur la disponibilité des médicaments essentiels (EM). Les méthodes Essai de contrôle randomisé par lequel le PBF et trois groupes de comparaison distincts ont été randomisés dans un total de 205 établissements de santé dans trois régions. Les données de base ont été collectées entre mars et mai 2012 et les données finales 36 mois plus tard. Nous avons défini la disponibilité de plusieurs groupes EM en évaluant les ruptures de stock pendant au moins un jour au cours des 30 jours précédant la date de l'enquête et en estimant les changements attribuables au FBP à l'aide d'une série de modèles de régression de différence en différence, ajustés pour le niveau de l'établissement concerné co-varie. Les données ont été analysées stratifiées par région et zone pour évaluer l'hétérogénéité de l'effet. Résultats Nos estimations suggèrent que l'intervention PBF n'a eu aucun effet sur les ruptures de stock de médicaments de soins prénatals (p = 0,160), les vaccins (p = 0,396), la gestion intégrée des médicaments contre les maladies infantiles (p = 0,681) et les médicaments du travail et d'accouchement (p = 0,589). Cependant, l'intervention a été associée à une réduction significative de 34% des ruptures de stock de médicaments de planification familiale (p = 0,028). Nous avons observé une hétérogénéité des effets entre les régions et les zones, avec des diminutions significatives des ruptures de stock de produits de planification familiale dans la région du Nord-Ouest (p = 0,065) et dans les zones rurales (p = 0,043). Conclusions L'intervention du PBF au Cameroun a eu des effets limités sur la réduction des ruptures de stock des EM. Ces mauvais résultats étaient probablement la conséquence d'un échec partiel de la mise en œuvre, allant de l'interruption et de l'arrêt des services à l'autonomie limitée des installations dans la gestion de la prise de décision et au retard considérable dans le paiement de la performance.

  • Simo Fotso Arlette (2020) « COVID-19 pandemic, lockdown, restrictions and disability in Africa » (IUSSP), présenté à The COVID-19 Pandemic and Sexual & Reproductive Health in Africa, Online. (IUSSP webinar series). https://iussp.org/sites/default/files/Arlette%20-%20COVID-19%20pandemic%2C%20lockdown%2C%20restrictions%20and%20disability.pdf.


  • Sombié Issa, Degroote Stéphanie, Somé Paul André et Ridde Valéry (2020) « Analysis of the implementation of a community-based intervention to control dengue fever in Burkina Faso », Implementation Science, 15 (1) (mai 14), p. 32. DOI : 10.1186/s13012-020-00989-x. https://implementationscience.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13012-020-00989-x.
    Résumé : Background A community-based dengue fever intervention was implemented in Burkina Faso in 2017. The results achieved vary from one area to another. The objective of this article is to analyze the implementation of this intervention, to better understand the process, and to explain the contextual elements of performance variations in implementation. Methodology The research was conducted in the former sector 22 of the city of Ouagadougou. We adapted the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) to take into account the realities of the context and the intervention. The data collected from the participants directly involved in the implementation using three techniques: document consultation, individual interview, and focus group. Results Two dimensions of CFIR emerge from the results as having had a positive influence on the implementation: (i) the characteristics of the intervention and (ii) the processes of the intervention implementation. The majority of the CFIR constructions were considered to have had a positive effect on implementation. The quality and strength of the evidence received the highest score. The dimension of the external context had a negative influence on the implementation of the intervention. Conclusion The objective of the study was to analyze the influence of contextual elements on the implementation process of a community-based dengue fever intervention. We used the CFIR framework already used by many studies for implementation analysis. Although it was not possible to test this framework in its entirety, it is useful for the analysis of the implementation. Its use is simple and does not require any special skills from users. Usability is indeed an essential criterion for the relevance of using an analytical framework in implementation science.

  • Spagnolo Jessica, Gautier Lara, Champagne François, Leduc Nicole, Melki Wahid, N’Guessan Konan et Charfi Fatma (2020) « Reflecting on knowledge translation strategies from global health research projects in Tunisia and the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire », International Journal of Public Health (octobre 17). DOI : 10.1007/s00038-020-01502-3.
    Résumé : We describe the knowledge translation strategies in two projects and share lessons learned about knowledge sharing and uptake.


  • Spagnolo Jessica, Gautier Lara, Seppey Mathieu et D’souza Nicole Anne (2020) « Re-thinking global and public health projects during the COVID-19 pandemic context: Considerations and recommendations for early- and not-so-early-career researchers », Social Sciences & Humanities Open, 2 (1), p. 100075. DOI : 10.1016/j.ssaho.2020.100075. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2590291120300644.
    Résumé : This commentary aims to provide a glimpse into some of the early and continuing impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on our global and public health projects: research in low-resourced settings; research with vulnerable populations, such as asylum seekers, Indigenous communities, children, and mental health service users; and research with healthcare professionals, frontline workers, and health planners. In the early context of restrictions caused by COVID-19, this commentary highlights our research setbacks and challenges, and the ways in which we are adapting research methodologies, while considering ethical implications related to the pandemic and their impacts on conducting global and public health research. As we learn to become increasingly aware of some of our limitations in the face of the pandemic, some positives are also worth highlighting: we are mobilizing our training and research skills to participate in COVID-19 projects and to disseminate knowledge on COVID-19, including through papers such as this one. However, we do acknowledge that these opportunities have not been equitable. Each thematic section of this commentary concludes with key recommendations related to research in the early and continuing context of the COVID-19 pandemic that we believe to be applicable to early- and not-so-early-career researchers working in the global and public health fields. Previous article in issueNext article in issue Keywords COVID-19ResearchersGlobal healthPublic health
  • Tabet Michel et Boulay Sébastien (2020) SAHARA - Les voix des martyrs, Numérique, Film ethnographique, IRD - Ceped.
    Résumé : Le film se déroule dans les camps de réfugiés sahraouis installés depuis 1975 près de Tindouf, Sud-Ouest algérien, et traite de l’héritage des victimes de violences de masse au sein de la population sahraouie, de la fabrique de figures de martyrs et du sens politique du sacrifice aujourd’hui. Il nous entraîne dans une enquête filmée conduite par deux anthropologues et leur accompagnateur sahraoui auprès de familles de martyrs et de grands blessés de la guerre du Sahara (1975-1991). Au fil des rencontres, la narration évoque l’histoire d’un centre de réhabilitation de blessés de guerre connu de tous sous le nom énigmatique d’Al-Madrasa, « l’école ». Dans cette « école », improvisée au début des années 1980, en pleine guerre du Sahara, ont été formées des centaines de fonctionnaires, d’instituteurs, de cadres du jeune État sahraoui à quelques kilomètres du siège du gouvernement à Rabouni. A travers l’histoire de ce centre et au cours de ce roadtrip saharien, c’est l’histoire de ceux qui se sont sacrifiés pour la libération de leur terre qui se déploie, ce sont les conditions de vie de réfugiés de leurs proches (aidants et familles) qui apparaissent, c’est la mémoire des martyrs sahraouis qui émerge des poèmes composés et mis en musique en leur honneur, c’est la question de la transmission de la lutte politique entre trois générations qui traverse les discussions. La narration se veut ouverte et déambulatoire, capte des scènes de la vie quotidienne, des paysages de désert et de camps de réfugiés ainsi que des propos glanés au gré des rencontres, le tout au rythme envoutant de la guitare électrique de Mahfoudh Ethman, musicien autodidacte sahraoui.


  • Tafuro Sara (2020) « An Economic Framework for Persisting Son Preference: Rethinking the Role of Intergenerational Support », Population Research and Policy Review (juillet 10). DOI : 10.1007/s11113-020-09594-8. http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11113-020-09594-8.
    Résumé : Son preference drives pre- and post-natal discrimination of daughters in many countries. It surprisingly survives in societies undergoing rapid transformation, and its correlates are not fully understood, particularly in the socio-economic sphere. This paper reviews the old-age security motive for son preference and proposes a new framework for this rationale. We argue that in patrilocal contexts, son preference survives where informal economic institutions (community and especially the family) persist as primary safety nets against various instances of income uncertainty, making up for the inefficiencies of state and market (formal institutions). This hypothesis is tested through a cross-country statistical analysis of ecological correlates of pre- and post-natal discrimination. Results confirm that, while son preference expresses through daughters' neglect in more traditional societies, it endures through prenatal selection in contexts of improving living standards and, at the same time, strong reliance on network solidarity and informal insurance strategies. In support of these findings, we briefly review the main country-cases of sex selection, namely South Korea, China, Vietnam, India and the South Caucasian region.


  • Tafuro Sara et Guilmoto Christophe Z. (2020) « Skewed sex ratios at birth: A review of global trends », Early Human Development, 141 (février), p. 104868. DOI : 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2019.104868. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0378378219305225.
    Résumé : Several cultures in the world traditionally favor the birth of sons over that of daughters. This preference drives various forms of discrimination against female births ultimately reflected in demographic imbalances. Over the last decades, modern reproductive technology has made prenatal diagnosis widely accessible to parents. In certain Asian and Eastern European countries, this has led to skewed sex ratio at birth (SRB) as a result of sex-selective abortions. After reviewing motivations and circumstances associated to prenatal sex selection, our paper analyzes global trends in sex imbalances at birth as well as their parity, regional and socio-economic differentials. We focus our attention on the experience of Azerbaijan, India, and South Korea as instances of three distinct SRB trajectories. Finally, we discuss scenarios concerning the future of these sex imbalances and the implications of a consistent number of "missing women" for affected societies.

  • Tchetgnia Lucas, Charbit Yves et Libali Benoit (2020) « Sexuality and HIV Among Young Urban Congolese », in The Anthropological Demography of Health, éd. par Véronique Petit, Kaveri Qureshi, Yves Charbit, et Philip Kreager, Oxford : Oxford University Press, p. 427-449. ISBN : 978-0-19-886243-7.
    Résumé : In the context of the country’s widespread HIV/AIDS epidemic, young Congolese women and men take remarkable risks in their sex lives. They do so aware of what Western biomedicine has shown about modes of AIDS infection and necessary protection against it. This chapter documents and explains the central problem that local risk behaviour raises: how can there be such a gap, in this life-and-death matter, between the awareness of risk and actual behaviour? The chapter argues that several factors are at play: their experience of condom use and other appropriate or inappropriate preventative behaviour in light of prevailing, accepted ideas of the body and sexuality; the main forms of sexual relationships in light of Congolese gender and age relations, combined with the powerful influence of relative poverty; their distrust of national and clinical institutions; and the role of religion and traditional healing practices that speak directly to young people’s understanding and experience of their sexuality and vulnerability. The findings do not provide a formal model of risk which effectively displaces the concepts of rational choice in preventing infection that prevail in clinical programmes. They do, however, show very powerfully that young people act in alignment with reasons that make good sense, given the limited options available to them.

  • Touré Laurence et Ridde Valery (2020) « The emergence of the national medical assistance scheme for the poorest in Mali », Global Public Health. DOI : 10.1080/17441692.2020.1855459.
    Résumé : Background : Universal health coverage (UHC) is now high up the international agenda. There are still major needs to be met in West Africa, particularly in Mali, where providing health care for the poorest remains a big challenge. The majority of the region’s countries are currently seeking to define the content of their compulsory, contribution-based medical insurance system. However, very few countries apart from Mali have decided to, in parallel, develop a solution for poorest that is not based on contributions. Methods : This qualitative research article examines the historical process that has permitted the emergence of this ground-breaking public policy. Results : The research shows that the process has been very long, chaotic and sometimes suspended for long periods. One of the biggest challenges has been that of intersectoriality and the social construction of the groups to be targeted by this public policy (the poorest), as institutional tensions have evolved in accordance with the political issues linked to social protection. Eventually, the medical assistance scheme for the poorest (RAMED) saw the light of day in 2011, funded entirely by the government. Conclusions : RAMED emergence would appear to be attributable not so much to any new concern for the poorest in society but rather to a desire to give the social protection policy engaged in a guarantee of universality. The RAMED nonetheless remains an innovation within French-speaking West Africa.
    Note Note
    <p>doi: 10.1080/17441692.2020.1855459</p>


  • Valente Pablo K., Morin Céline, Roy Melissa, Mercier Arnaud et Atlani-Duault Laetitia (2020) « Sexual transmission of Zika virus on Twitter: A depoliticised epidemic », Global Public Health (mai 21), p. 1-13. DOI : 10.1080/17441692.2020.1768275. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17441692.2020.1768275.
    Résumé : During global health crises, different narratives regarding infectious disease epidemics circulate in traditional media (e.g. news agencies, television channels) and social media. Our study investigated the narratives related to sexual transmission of Zika virus that circulated on Twitter during a public health emergency and analyzed the relationship between information on Twitter and on traditional media. We examined 10,748 tweets posted during the peaks of Twitter activity between January and March 2016. Posts in English, Spanish, French, and Portuguese and websites linked to tweets were manually reviewed and analyzed thematically. During the study period, there were three peaks of Twitter activity related to the sexual transmission of Zika. Most tweets in the first peak (n = 412) had humorous/sarcastic content (55%). Most tweets in the second and third peaks (n = 5,154 and n = 5,182, respectively) disseminated information (>93%). Across languages, textual and visual content on the websites were predominantly placed online by traditional media and highlighted epidemiological narratives published by public health agencies, with little or no mention of the concerns or experiences of individuals most affected by Zika. Prioritising epidemiological/clinical aspects of epidemics may have a depoliticising effect and contribute to overlooking socio-economic determinants of the Zika epidemic and issues related to reproductive justice.

  • Vautier Anthony, Rouveau Nicolas, Diallo Sanata, Traore Marinette, Geoffroy Olivier, Kanku Kabemba Odé, Doumenc Aïdara Clémence et Larmarange Joseph (2020) « Is manufacturer’s Instructions-For-Use sufficient in a multilingual and low literacy context? The example of HIV self-testing in West Africa » (poster), présenté à INTEREST 2020, online. http://interestworkshop.org/.
    Résumé : Background: The ATLAS project aims to promote the use of HIV self-testing (HIVST) in Côte d'Ivoire, Mali and Senegal. In order to ensure accurate HIVST use, it was necessary to evaluate if the manufacturer’s Instructions-For-Use (IFUs), standardized at the international level, provides complete, accessible and adapted information in the 3 countries’ contexts. Materials & Methods: In December 2018, cognitive interviews were conducted with 64 participants, mostly Men who have Sex with Men (40,6%) and Female Sex Workers (43,8%) in Côte d'Ivoire, Mali and Senegal. Among them, 17,2 % never performed HIV test before and 38% of participants cannot read. They were invited to perform an oral HIVST (OraQuick®) and were requested, at each step of the procedure to share their understanding of the IFU for HIVST use, of the result interpretation and of related actions to be taken. All participants had in hands the manufacturer's IFUs in French, including the free national hotline number. Half of them additionally received manufacturer's demonstration video translated into local languages. Directive interviews guide included 50 questions to collect participants’ perception of what was missing or unclear in the supporting tools. The methodology was validated with all national AIDS programmes and ministries of health. Results: Out of 64 HIVST performed, 5 results were positive (7,8%) and confirmed with additional tests. Overall, the IFU was well understood: 58 participants (92%) were able to interpret their HIVST result correctly without assistance. However, some misuses were observed at various stages, particularly for people who cannot read, with some instructions misunderstood or perceived as not adapted. Only participants who can read have access to information as “do not eat” or “do not use the test if you are on ART” as it is not illustrated in the IFUs. Most of the participants did not spontaneously identify the promotion of the free hotline number and/or the link to the demonstration video. Some procedure’s steps were misinterpreted: 7 participants (11%) did not swab correctly the flat pad along the gum, 3 participants (5%) have read the result at inaccurate time (at 20 seconds, at 5 minutes or after 40 minutes), 13 participants (20%) did not put the stand (for the tube including the liquid) in the right way and 8 other participants struggled to slide tube into the stand. Among 42 participants who can not read and/or who had not seen the video beforehand, 14 of them (33%) had at least one difficulty to interpret the result or to understand what to do after the test/result. On the other hand, the results of the cognitive interviews showed that demonstration video provides a real added value to the user’s understanding and accurate HIVST use (31 participants out of 32 found it very easy to understand with 9 of them who felt they do not need the IFUs if they previously watched the demonstration video). The video translation into local languages, produced by the ATLAS project, was very much appreciated by the participants. Conclusion: The manufacturer's IFUs alone appear not to be sufficient in a multilingual, low-literacy context to ensure accurate HIVST use. Access to additional supporting tools (complementary leaflet, demonstration video or free hotline) is essential in the 3 countries’ contexts.


  • Velasco-Pufleau Luis et Atlani-Duault Laëtitia (2020) « Sounds of survival, weaponization of sounds », Violence: An International Journal (special issue), 1 (2) (décembre), p. 265-272. DOI : 10.1177/2633002420976479. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2633002420976479.
    Résumé : In this article, we argue that sonic experiences in contexts of organized violence can be understood as sonic lieux de mémoire (sonic sites of memory). Exploring how these sonic sites are indissociable from the individual and collective experience of places, we show how they form networks of relationships within which the memory of silences and sounds is constructed and actualized. We also argue that these sonic lieux de mémoire can be seen from two perspectives, representing the dark and bright sides of the same phenomenon. On one hand, sound, music, and silence are used as weapons in organized violence, for example, in detention facilities or during wars or political conflicts. On the other hand, they constitute symbolic resources, positive tools that contribute to the (re)construction of subjectivities and thus can serve as tools for survival and resistance. In both cases, sound and musical practices are essential facets of what makes us human.


  • Velasco-Pufleau Luis et Atlani-Duault Laëtitia (2020) « Sounds of survival, weaponization of sounds: Exploring sonic - lieux de mémoire », Violence: An International Journal, 1 (2) (octobre), p. 265-272. DOI : 10/gh58pb. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2633002420976479.
    Résumé : In this article, we argue that sonic experiences in contexts of organized violence can be understood as sonic lieux de mémoire (sonic sites of memory). Exploring how these sonic sites are indissociable from the individual and collective experience of places, we show how they form networks of relationships within which the memory of silences and sounds is constructed and actualized. We also argue that these sonic lieux de mémoire can be seen from two perspectives, representing the dark and bright sides of the same phenomenon. On one hand, sound, music, and silence are used as weapons in organized violence, for example, in detention facilities or during wars or political conflicts. On the other hand, they constitute symbolic resources, positive tools that contribute to the (re)construction of subjectivities and thus can serve as tools for survival and resistance. In both cases, sound and musical practices are essential facets of what makes us human.


  • Willcox Merlin L, Price Jessica, Scott Sophie, Nicholson Brian D, Stuart Beth, Roberts Nia W, Allott Helen, Mubangizi Vincent, Dumont Alexandre et Harnden Anthony (2020) « Death audits and reviews for reducing maternal, perinatal and child mortality », éd. par Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (mars 25). DOI : 10.1002/14651858.CD012982.pub2. http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/14651858.CD012982.pub2.
    Résumé : Background The United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) include reducing the global maternal mortality rate to less than 70 per 100,000 live births and ending preventable deaths of newborns and children under five years of age, in every country, by 2030. Maternal and perinatal death audit and review is widely recommended as an intervention to reduce maternal and perinatal mortality, and to improve quality of care, and could be key to attaining the SDGs. However, there is uncertainty over the most cost-effective way of auditing and reviewing deaths: community-based audit (verbal and social autopsy), facility-based audits (significant event analysis (SEA)) or a combination of both (confidential enquiry). Objectives To assess the impact and cost-effectiveness of different types of death audits and reviews in reducing maternal, perinatal and child mortality. Search methods We searched the following from inception to 16 January 2019: CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase OvidSP, and five other databases. We identified ongoing studies using ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and searched reference lists of included articles. Selection criteria Cluster-randomised trials, cluster non-randomised trials, controlled before-and-after studies and interrupted time series studies of any form of death audit or review that involved reviewing individual cases of maternal, perinatal or child deaths, identifying avoidable factors, and making recommendations. To be included in the review, a study needed to report at least one of the following outcomes: perinatal mortality rate; stillbirth rate; neonatal mortality rate; mortality rate in children under five years of age or maternal mortality rate. Data collection and analysis We used standard Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) group methodological procedures. Two review authors independently extracted data, assessed risk of bias and assessed the certainty of the evidence using GRADE. We planned to perform a meta-analysis using a random-effects model but included studies were not homogeneous enough to make pooling their results meaningful. Main results We included two cluster-randomised trials. Both introduced death review and audit as part of a multicomponent intervention, and compared this to current care. The QUARITE study (QUAlity of care, RIsk management, and TEchnology) concerned maternal death reviews in hospitals in West Africa, which had very high maternal and perinatal mortality rates. In contrast, the OPERA trial studied perinatal morbidity/mortality conferences (MMCs) in maternity units in France, which already had very low perinatal mortality rates at baseline. The OPERA intervention in France started with an outreach visit to brief obstetricians, midwives and anaesthetists on the national guidelines on morbidity/mortality case management, and was followed by a series of perinatal MMCs. Half of the intervention units were randomised to receive additional support from a clinical psychologist during these meetings. The OPERA intervention may make little or no difference to overall perinatal mortality (low certainty evidence), however we are uncertain about the effect of the intervention on perinatal mortality related to suboptimal care (very low certainty evidence).The intervention probably reduces perinatal morbidity related to suboptimal care (unadjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.40 to 0.95; 165,353 births; moderate-certainty evidence). The effect of the intervention on stillbirth rate, neonatal mortality, mortality rate in children under five years of age, maternal mortality or adverse effects was not reported. The QUARITE intervention in West Africa focused on training leaders of hospital obstetric teams using the ALARM (Advances in Labour And Risk Management) course, which included one day of training about conducting maternal death reviews. The leaders returned to their hospitals, established a multidisciplinary committee and started auditing maternal deaths, with the support of external facilitators. The intervention probably reduces inpatient maternal deaths (adjusted OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.98; 191,167 deliveries; moderate certainty evidence) and probably also reduces inpatient neonatal mortality within 24 hours following birth (adjusted OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.90; moderate certainty evidence). However, QUARITE probably makes little or no difference to the inpatient stillbirth rate (moderate certainty evidence) and may make little or no difference to the inpatient neonatal mortality rate after 24 hours, although the 95% confidence interval includes both benefit and harm (low certainty evidence). The QUARITE intervention probably increases the percent of women receiving high quality of care (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.35 - 2.57, moderate-certainty evidence). The effect of the intervention on perinatal mortality, mortality rate in children under five years of age, or adverse effects was not reported. We did not find any studies that evaluated child death audit and review or community-based death reviews or costs. Authors' conclusions A complex intervention including maternal death audit and review, as well as development of local leadership and training, probably reduces inpatient maternal mortality in low-income country district hospitals, and probably slightly improves quality of care. Perinatal death audit and review, as part of a complex intervention with training, probably improves quality of care, as measured by perinatal morbidity related to suboptimal care, in a high-income setting where mortality was already very low. The WHO recommends that maternal and perinatal death reviews should be conducted in all hospitals globally. However, conducting death reviews in isolation may not be sufficient to achieve the reductions in mortality observed in the QUARITE trial. This review suggests that maternal death audit and review may need to be implemented as part of an intervention package which also includes elements such as training of a leading doctor and midwife in each hospital, annual recertification, and quarterly outreach visits by external facilitators to provide supervision and mentorship. The same may also apply to perinatal and child death reviews. More operational research is needed on the most cost-effective ways of implementing maternal, perinatal and paediatric death reviews in low- and middle-income countries


  • Zemirli Zohra Aziadé (2020) Le statut juridique des non-musulmans en Algérie· L'exemple des évangéliques et des ahmadis, PARIS, France : L'Harmattan, 470 p. (Le droit aujourd'hui). ISBN : 978-2-343-21408-5. https://www.editions-harmattan.fr/livre-le_statut_juridique_des_non_musulmans_en_algerie_l_exemple_des_evangeliques_et_des_ahmadis_zohra_aziade_zemirli-9782343214085-67347.html.
    Résumé : Cet ouvrage, portant sur la situation antérieure à 2019, donne des clés d'explication quant aux origines du mouvement de protestation populaire, le hirak. Il montre comment l'État contrôle la société, laquelle, majoritairement sunnite, connaît une pluralité religieuse. La présence des protestants s'est fait connaître en 2004 suite à des conversions massives vers l'évangélisme ; les ahmadis sont apparus dans le paysage juridique en 2016, après une série d'arrestations. À travers l'étude du statut juridique des Algériens non-musulmans, ce travail examine le droit algérien au regard des engagements internationaux de l'Algérie. Il repose sur l'analyse de la jurisprudence, un solide travail de terrain et de nombreux entretiens. Il en ressort que l'État contrôle le champ religieux et que l'Islam sert de référent identitaire dans une Algérie rejetant toute forme religieuse stigmatisée comme étrangère à sa société.
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