Publications des membres du Ceped

2021

Article de revue

  • Becquet Valentine, Väisänen Heini, Martinot-Lagarde Isaure et Rossier Clementine (2021) « Rendre l'avortement plus sûr : un impératif », Policy brief AFD, 10. http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12204/AXy2x-mqkgKZhr-bmPM2.
    Résumé : Selon l'OMS, les avortements à risques causent 8 % des décès maternels dans le monde (25 millions par an, dont 97 % dans les pays à revenu faible et intermédiaire). L'avortement est une procédure médicale efficace et sans risque lorsqu'elle est pratiquée correctement. Dans les contextes où l'avortement est légalement restreint, le recours informel à l'avortement médicamenteux et les SAA (Soins après avortement) permettent de réduire les risques sanitaires liés aux avortements clandestins.
    Mots-clés : ⛔ No DOI found.


  • Bernard-Maugiron Nathalie (2021) « La loi sur le khul‘ en Égypte: Contraintes argumentatives et réformes du droit de la famille », Cahiers d'études africaines, LXI (242) (juin 15), p. 395-416. DOI : 10.4000/etudesafricaines.34339. http://journals.openedition.org/etudesafricaines/34339.
    Résumé : Cette contribution propose, à travers l’étude de l’adoption de la loi sur le khul‘ en Égypte (2000) et son application par les tribunaux, d’étudier les processus de légitimation auxquels les autorités égyptiennes ont recouru pour justifier l’introduction de cette réforme dans le système juridique égyptien. Cette contribution montre également comment les ONG féministes elles-mêmes ont fini par accepter de se placer sur le terrain du religieux pour ancrer leur combat en faveur de l’adoption de nouvelles réformes du droit de la famille. Elle révèle, enfin, comment les juges du fond, amenés à se prononcer sur des demandes de divorce pour khul‘, se réfèrent eux aussi très souvent à la loi islamique, mais sans remettre en question l’interprétation pourtant audacieuse adoptée par le législateur.


  • Bernard-Maugiron Nathalie (2021) « L’autonomisation économique des femmes dans la région Moyen-Orient et Afrique du Nord: L’impact des cadres juridiques algérien, égyptien, jordanien, libyen, marocain et tunisien », Cahiers d'études africaines, LXI (242) (juin 15), p. 447-452. DOI : 10.4000/etudesafricaines.34479. http://journals.openedition.org/etudesafricaines/34479.
    Résumé : Malgré les progrès accomplis ces dernières années dans la protection juridique des droits des femmes, l’écart entre les sexes dans la participation à la vie économique persiste dans la région Moyen-Orient et Afrique du Nord. Un rapport de l’OCDE s’interroge sur l’incidence négative des cadres juridiques et de facteurs sociétaux et culturels sur l’autonomie des femmes et leur capacité à s’impliquer dans des activités économiques.


  • Bernard-Maugiron Nathalie et N’Diaye Marième (2021) « Les femmes au cœur des processus de réformes juridiques dans les Afriques musulmanes », Cahiers d'études africaines, LXI (242) (juin 15), p. 265-285. DOI : 10.4000/etudesafricaines.34129. http://journals.openedition.org/etudesafricaines/34129.


  • Biau Sandrine, Bonnet Emmanuel, Dagenais Christian, De Allegri Manuela, Traoré Zoumana, Ouedraogo Abdoul Wahabo, Sow Abdramane, Dubois-Nguyen Karina et Ridde Valéry (2021) « Using Information and Communication Technologies to Engage Citizens in Health System Governance in Burkina Faso: Protocol for Action Research », JMIR Research Protocols, 10 (11) (novembre 16), p. e28780. DOI : 10.2196/28780. https://www.researchprotocols.org/2021/11/e28780.
    Résumé : Background Health systems are complex systems involving a vast range of actors. In West Africa, they are often not accessible or responsive. Burkina Faso has widely expressed, in its public health policy, the need to improve both access to quality care and health system responsiveness. There is also a strong wish to give more voice to citizens. To support Burkinabè institutions in achieving these goals, we have developed an action research (AR) protocol. Objective This paper presents the protocol that will address citizens’ participation in health policies and their empowerment through the expression of opinions, for accountability, as well as the strengthening of the health system using information and communication technologies (ICTs). Methods Our approach will consist of (1) enabling people to express their opinions on the health system by means of a toll-free (TF) service coupled with an interactive voice server (IVS); (2) building an information base with anonymous and reliable data; and (3) conducting information awareness-raising activities, including knowledge transfer (KT) and advocacy, social integration activities, development of OpenData platforms, and the capitalization and media coverage of governance issues. For this purpose, the AR project will be implemented in Burkina Faso. The design uses a concurrent mixed-methods approach. This AR project will evaluate the acceptability, process, effectiveness, and economic costs of the device’s implementation. We will also analyze the potential for the data collected by the device to be used to improve practices. Results Data collection is in progress; the TF number was officially launched on July 1, 2020, and data collection is planned to continue throughout 2021. By using mixed methods, our AR will be approached from a variety of perspectives. Mixed methods will support us in combining the partial insights into sophisticated realities from qualitative inquiries with the data analyses produced by quantitative research. Conclusions This AR is expected to add knowledge on how to increase the empowerment of the population, especially the most vulnerable, to participate in democratic processes and enjoy and exercise their human rights. This protocol recommends implementing a low-cost, contextually adapted technology, associated with an evidence-based approach and carried out on a significant scale. The originality of this approach lies in the fact that it introduces a real AR dimension with local communities and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), combined with an integrated strategy of KT and application throughout the project for all stakeholders. International Registered Report Identifier (IRRID) DERR1-10.2196/28780


  • Biau Sandrine, Bonnet Emmanuel, Dagenais Christian, De Allegri Manuela, Traoré Zoumana, Ouédraogo Abdoul, Sow Abdramane, Dubois-Nguyen Karina et Ridde Valéry (2021) « Technologies’ contribution to the engagement of citizens in strengthening health system governance in Burkina Faso: an action research protocol (Preprint) », JMIR Research Protocols (mars 15). DOI : 10.2196/28780. http://preprints.jmir.org/preprint/28780/accepted.


  • Bonnet Emmanuel, Bodson O., Le Marcis F., Faye A., Sambieni N. E., Fournet F., Boyer F., Coulibaly A., Kadio K., Diongue F. B. et Ridde Valery (2021) « The COVID-19 pandemic in francophone West Africa: from the first cases to responses in seven countries », BMC Public Health, 21 (1) (décembre), p. 1490. DOI : 10.1186/s12889-021-11529-7. https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-021-11529-7.
    Résumé : Abstract Background In early March 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic hit West Africa. In response, countries in the region quickly set up crisis management committees and implemented drastic measures to stem the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The objective of this article is to analyse the epidemiological evolution of COVID-19 in seven Francophone West African countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Senegal) as well as the public health measures decided upon during the first 7 months of the pandemic. Methods Our method is based on quantitative and qualitative data from the pooling of information from a COVID-19 data platform and collected by a network of interdisciplinary collaborators present in the seven countries. Descriptive and spatial analyses of quantitative epidemiological data, as well as content analyses of qualitative data on public measures and management committees were performed. Results Attack rates (October 2020) for COVID-19 have ranged from 20 per 100,000 inhabitants (Benin) to more than 94 per 100,000 inhabitants (Senegal). All these countries reacted quickly to the crisis, in some cases before the first reported infection, and implemented public measures in a relatively homogeneous manner. None of the countries implemented country-wide lockdowns, but some implemented partial or local containment measures. At the end of June 2020, countries began to lift certain restrictive measures, sometimes under pressure from the general population or from certain economic sectors. Conclusion Much research on COVID-19 remains to be conducted in West Africa to better understand the dynamics of the pandemic, and to further examine the state responses to ensure their appropriateness and adaptation to the national contexts.


  • Boulay Sébastien (2021) « Valérie Robin Azevedo, Sur les sentiers de la violence. Politiques de la mémoire et conflit armé au Pérou », L'Homme, 238 (août 19), p. 183-185. DOI : 10.4000/lhomme.40313. http://journals.openedition.org/lhomme/40313.
  • Bousmah Marwân-Al-Qays, Boyer Sylvie, Lalou Richard et Ventelou Bruno (2021) « Reassessing the demand for community-based health insurance in rural Senegal: Geographic distance and awareness », SSM - population health, 16 (décembre), p. 100974.
    Résumé : Limited access to information is one of the main health insurance market imperfections in developing countries. Differential access to information may determine individuals' awareness of health insurance schemes, thereby influencing their probability of enrollment. Relying on primary data collected in 2019-2020 in rural Senegal, we estimate the uptake of community-based health insurance using a Heckman-type model to correct for awareness-based sample selection bias. Besides showing that health insurance awareness is a precondition for effective enrollment in community-based health insurance schemes, we also bring new evidence on the roles which geographic factors and individual risk preference play in health insurance uptake by rural dwellers. We show that geographic distance prevents individuals from accessing information on health insurance schemes, and discourage those who are informed from enrolling, because of the additional distance they must travel to benefit from covered healthcare services. Results also show that individual risk preference influences health insurance uptake, but only when information barriers are taken into account. Overall, our results could help decision-makers better shape the universal health coverage roadmap, as policies to improve health insurance awareness differ substantially from policies to improve the features of health insurance schemes.
    Mots-clés : Awareness, Geographic distance, Health insurance, Risk preference, Selection bias, Senegal, Sub-Saharan Africa.

  • Bousmah Marwân-al-Qays, Nishimwe Marie Libérée, Kuaban Christopher et Boyer Sylvie (2021) « Free access to antiretroviral treatment and protection against the risk of catastrophic health expenditure in people living with HIV: evidence from Cameroon », BMC Health Services Research, 21 (1) (avril 7), p. 313. DOI : 10.1186/s12913-021-06331-5.
    Résumé : To foster access to care and reduce the burden of health expenditures on people living with HIV (PLHIV), several sub-Saharan African countries, including Cameroon, have adopted a policy of removing HIV-related fees, especially for antiretroviral treatment (ART). We investigate the impact of Cameroon’s free antiretroviral treatment (ART) policy, enacted in May 2007, on catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) risk according to socioeconomic status, in PLHIV enrolled in the country’s treatment access program.
    Mots-clés : Cameroon, Catastrophic health expenditure, Costs, Free antiretroviral treatment, HIV, Policy evaluation, Poverty, Treatment.


  • Boye Sokhna, Bouaré Seydou, Ky-Zerbo Odette, Rouveau Nicolas, Simo Fotso Arlette, d'Elbée Marc, Silhol Romain, Maheu-Giroux Mathieu, Vautier Anthony, Breton Guillaume, Keita Abdelaye, Bekelynck Anne, Desclaux Alice, Larmarange Joseph et Pourette Dolorès (2021) « Challenges of HIV Self-Test Distribution for Index Testing When HIV Status Disclosure Is Low: Preliminary Results of a Qualitative Study in Bamako (Mali) as Part of the ATLAS Project », Frontiers in Public Health, 9 (mai 19). DOI : 10.3389/fpubh.2021.653543. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpubh.2021.653543/full?&utm_source=Email_to_authors_&utm_medium=Email&utm_content=T1_11.5e1_author&utm_campaign=Email_publication&field=&journalName=Frontiers_in_Public_Health&id=653543.
    Résumé : The rate of HIV status disclosure to partners is low in Mali, a West African country with a national HIV prevalence of 1.2%. HIV self-testing (HIVST) could increase testing coverage among partners of people living with HIV (PLHIV). This study aims to improve our understanding of the practices, limitations and issues related to the distribution of HIV self-tests at an HIV care clinic in Bamako, Mali. An ethnographic survey was conducted in 2019. It consisted of (i) individual interviews with 8 health professionals involved in the distribution of HIV self-tests; (ii) 591 observations of medical consultations, including social service consultations, with PLHIV; (iii) 7 observations of peer educator-led PLHIV group discussions. HIVST was discussed in only 9% of the observed consultations (51/591). When HIVST was discussed, the discussion was almost always initiated by the health professional rather than PLHIV. HIVST was discussed infrequently because in most of the consultations, it was not appropriate to propose partner HIVST (e.g., when PLHIV were widowed, did not have partners, or had delegated someone to renew their prescriptions). Some PLHIV had not disclosed their HIV status to their partners. Dispensing HIV self-tests was time-consuming, and medical consultations were very short. Three main barriers to HIV self-test distribution when HIV status had not been disclosed to partners were identified: (1) almost all health professionals avoided offering HIVST to PLHIV when they thought or knew that the PLHIV had not disclosed their HIV status to partners; (2) PLHIV were reluctant to offer HIVST to their partners if they had not disclosed their HIV-positive status to them; (3) there was limited use of strategies to support the disclosure of HIV status. In conclusion, it is essential to strengthen strategies to support the disclosure of HIV+ status. It is necessary to develop a specific approach for the provision of HIV self-tests for the partners of PLHIV by rethinking the involvement of stakeholders. This approach should provide them with training tailored to the issues related to the (non)disclosure of HIV status and gender inequalities, and improving counseling for PLHIV.
    Mots-clés : HIV self-testing, HIV status disclosure, Index testing, Knowledge of HIV status, Mali, Partners of PLHIV, People living with HIV, Screening -.


  • Brunot Stéphanie (2021) « Uso intergeneracional del garífuna y del español en siete comunidades garífuna de Honduras », Forma y Función, 34 (2) (juillet 30). DOI : 10.15446/fyf.v34n2.88605. https://revistas.unal.edu.co/index.php/formayfuncion/article/view/88605.
    Résumé : This paper presents a research study of the use of Garifuna and Spanish among and across three age-groups (children, parents and grandparents) based on spontaneous and planned observations of family interactions in seven villages on the Caribbean coast of Honduras. Using a quantitative and qualitative methodology for first-hand data processing, it was observed that, although the three age-groups switch between Spanish and Garifuna, it is the children’s group that introduces more Spanish in daily interactions. It was observed that Spanish exchanges from the children´s group doubled those from the grandparents’ group. The linguistic attitudes of the youngsters can be understood as variants of an identity function. However, there is still some balance between both languages as the speakers continue to use the non-dominant language, Garifuna, in informal contexts and in home.


  • Cambon Linda, Bergeron Henri, Castel Patrick, Ridde Valéry et Alla François (2021) « Cuando la respuesta mundial a la pandemia de la COVID-19 no tiene en cuenta la promoción de la salud », Global Health Promotion, 28 (2), p. 111-114. DOI : 10.1177/17579759211015130. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/17579759211015130.


  • Cambon Linda, Bergeron Henri, Castel Patrick, Ridde Valéry et Alla François (2021) « Quand la réponse mondiale à la pandémie de COVID-19 se fait sans la promotion de la santé », Global Health Promotion (mai 25), p. 175797592110151. DOI : 10.1177/17579759211015131. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/17579759211015131.


  • Cambon Linda, Bergeron Henri, Castel Patrick, Ridde Valéry et Alla François (2021) « When the worldwide response to the COVID-19 pandemic is done without health promotion », Global Health Promotion, 28 (2) (juin), p. 3-6. DOI : 10.1177/17579759211015129. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/17579759211015129.


  • Carof Solenne, Pombet Thibaud et Schultz Emilien (2021) « Entre catégorie médicale et expérience située : quelle(s) spécificité(s) des cancers pédiatriques ? », Anthropologie et Santé, 23 (novembre 23). DOI : 10/gn6phr. http://journals.openedition.org/anthropologiesante/10500.


  • Chao Fengqing, Gerland Patrick, Cook Alex Richard, Guilmoto Christophe Z et Alkema Leontine (2021) « Projecting sex imbalances at birth at global, regional and national levels from 2021 to 2100: scenario-based Bayesian probabilistic projections of the sex ratio at birth and missing female births based on 3.26 billion birth records », BMJ Global Health, 6 (8) (août), p. e005516. DOI : 10.1136/bmjgh-2021-005516. https://gh.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/bmjgh-2021-005516.
    Résumé : Introduction Skewed levels of the sex ratio at birth (SRB) due to sex-selective abortions have been observed in several countries since the 1970s. They will lead to long-term sex imbalances in more than one-third of the world’s population with yet unknown social and economic impacts on affected countries. Understanding the potential evolution of sex imbalances at birth is therefore essential for anticipating and planning for changing sex structures across the world. Methods We produced probabilistic SRB projections from 2021 to 2100 based on different scenarios of sex ratio transition and assessed their implications in terms of missing female births at global, regional and national levels. Based on a comprehensive SRB database with 3.26 billion birth records, we project the skewed SRB and missing female births with a Bayesian hierarchical time series mixture model. The SRB projections under reference scenario S1 assumed SRB transitions only for countries with strong statistical evidence of SRB inflation, and the more extreme scenario S2 assumed a sex ratio transition for countries at risk of SRB inflation but with no or limited evidence of ongoing inflation. Results Under scenario S1, we projected 5.7 (95% uncertainty interval (1.2; 15.3)) million additional missing female births to occur by 2100. Countries affected will be those already affected in the past by imbalanced SRB, such as China and India. If all countries at risk of SRB inflation experience a sex ratio transition as in scenario S2, the projected missing female births increase to 22.1 (12.2; 39.8) million with a sizeable contribution of sub-Saharan Africa. Conclusion The scenario-based projections provide important illustrations of the potential burden of future prenatal sex discrimination and the need to monitor SRBs in countries with son preference. Policy planning will be needed in the years to come to minimise future prenatal sex discrimination and its impact on social structures.
    Pièce jointe Texte intégral 844.9 ko (source)


  • Chao Fengqing, Guilmoto Christophe Z. et Ombao Hernando (2021) « Sex ratio at birth in Vietnam among six subnational regions during 1980–2050, estimation and probabilistic projection using a Bayesian hierarchical time series model with 2.9 million birth records », éd. par Srinivas Goli, PLOS ONE, 16 (7) (juillet 14), p. e0253721. DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0253721. https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0253721.
    Résumé : The sex ratio at birth (SRB, i.e., the ratio of male to female births) in Vietnam has been imbalanced since the 2000s. Previous studies have revealed a rapid increase in the SRB over the past 15 years and the presence of important variations across regions. More recent studies suggested that the nation’s SRB may have plateaued during the 2010s. Given the lack of exhaustive birth registration data in Vietnam, it is necessary to estimate and project levels and trends in the regional SRBs in Vietnam based on a reproducible statistical approach. We compiled an extensive database on regional Vietnam SRBs based on all publicly available surveys and censuses and used a Bayesian hierarchical time series mixture model to estimate and project SRB in Vietnam by region from 1980 to 2050. The Bayesian model incorporates the uncertainties from the observations and year-by-year natural fluctuation. It includes a binary parameter to detect the existence of sex ratio transitions among Vietnamese regions. Furthermore, we model the SRB imbalance using a trapezoid function to capture the increase, stagnation, and decrease of the sex ratio transition by Vietnamese regions. The model results show that four out of six Vietnamese regions, namely, Northern Midlands and Mountain Areas, Northern Central and Central Coastal Areas, Red River Delta, and South East, have existing sex imbalances at birth. The rise in SRB in the Red River Delta was the fastest, as it took only 12 years and was more pronounced, with the SRB reaching the local maximum of 1.146 with a 95% credible interval (1.129, 1.163) in 2013. The model projections suggest that the current decade will record a sustained decline in sex imbalances at birth, and the SRB should be back to the national SRB baseline level of 1.06 in all regions by the mid-2030s.


  • Chavez Henry et Gaybor Jacqueline (2021) « Transformations in the Ecuadorian Scientific Landscape: A Bibliometric Analysis of the Main Publications Trends and the Role of the Scientific Networks and the Public International Scholarship Program », Journal of Scientometric Research, 10 (1s) (juin), p. s115-s128. DOI : 10/gkf2rf. https://www.jscires.org/article/423.


  • Cicchelli Vincenzo et Octobre Sylvie (2021) « La culture à l’âge global. Une analyse par la circulation des produits culturels », Réseaux, 226-227 (2-3), p. 19-43. DOI : 10.3917/res.226.0019. https://www.cairn.info/revue-reseaux-2021-2-3-page-19.htm.
    Résumé : L’objectif de cet article est de fournir au lecteur un modèle théorique d’appréhension des dimensions culturelles de la globalisation, saisies à l’aune de la circulation des produits issus des industries culturelles globales. Pour ce faire, il procède tout d’abord à une mise en perspective des principaux outils analytiques, proposés dès le début des années 1990, dont certains ont joué un rôle fondamental dans le tournant global de la culture. Les travaux mobilisés mettaient en évidence trois tensions majeures dans les transformations profondes des identités culturelles qui sont loin d’avoir été dissipées : entre homogénéisation et hétérogénéisation, entre impérialisme culturel américano-occidental et résistances ethno-nationales, entre promotion locale et hybridation. Puisant dans ce corpus canonique, l’article propose un modèle à quatre vecteurs pour analyser les différentes dimensions de la globalisation de la culture : la production et la distribution des marchandises esthétiques (dans le cadre du capitalisme esthétique), la compétition politique dans l’arène globale pour l’hégémonie culturelle (par le recours au soft power), la construction et la promotion de l’authenticité et de la différence culturelles (par le biais des intermédiaires) et le réglage de la distance entre le proche, le familier et le lointain, l’exotique (par des amateurs cosmopolites socialisés à la différence culturelle à travers leurs consommations).


  • Cicchelli Vincenzo et Octobre Sylvie (2021) « La globalisation de la culture à l’aune de la circulation des produits culturels », Reseaux, N° 226-227 (2) (avril 26), p. 9-15. DOI : 10/gncvs6. https://www.cairn.info/revue-reseaux-2021-2-page-9.htm.
    Résumé : l existe depuis une trentaine d’années un grand nombre de livres, d’articles et de numéros spéciaux de revues en langue anglaise consacrés à la globalisation de la culture, dans sa double dynamique de transformation des identités culturelles et de circulation des biens culturels, travaux rassemblés sous la bannière des global studies. En dehors d’auteurs tels que Arjun Appadurai (2001), John Urry (2005), Homi K. Bhabha (2007), Ulf Hannerz (2010), Manuel Castells (2013) ou encore Henri Jenkins (2013), de nombreux autres, à la renommée internationale tout aussi établie, ont en revanche rarement fait l’objet de traduction et leur discussion dans l’espace francophone a été très réduite. Ce constat, déjà réalisé il y a quelques années par Alain Caillé et Stéphane Dufoix (2013) sur la faiblesse des études globales en langue française à quelques exceptions près, est toujours d’actualité, malgré certaines avancées : on peut citer à titre d’exemple la création, en 2019, du Global Research Institute of Paris rattaché à l’Université de Paris. Ce numéro double de Réseaux contribue à combler cette lacune, en se focalisant principalement sur la circulation des produits culturels. Sans pouvoir prétendre à une impossible exhaustivité, ce numéro ambitionne à la fois de familiariser le lecteur francophone avec les concepts les plus saillants de ce domaine et de rassembler, pour la première fois, des travaux francophones, menés dans des champs disciplinaires divers.

  • Cicchelli Vincenzo et Octobre Sylvie (2021) « Les crispations de la jeunesse contemporaine », Telos (décembre 20). https://www.telos-eu.com/fr/societe/les-crispations-de-la-jeunesse-contemporaine.html.


  • Clavel Nathalie, Badr Janine, Gautier Lara, Lavoie-Tremblay Mélanie et Paquette Jesseca (2021) « Risk Perceptions, Knowledge and Behaviors of General and High-Risk Adult Populations Towards COVID-19: A Systematic Scoping Review », Public Health Reviews, 42, p. 1-22. DOI : 10.3389/phrs.2021.1603979. https://doi.org/10.3389/phrs.2021.1603979.
    Résumé : The COVID-19 pandemic represents a major crisis for governments and populations. The public’s risk perceptions, knowledge, and behaviors are key factors that play a vital role in the transmission of infectious diseases. Our scoping review aims to map the early evidence on risk perceptions, knowledge, and behaviors of general and high-risk adult populations towards COVID-19. A systematic scoping review was conducted of peer-reviewed articles in five databases on studies conducted during the early stages of COVID-19. Thirty-one studies meeting the inclusion criteria were appraised and analyzed.The levels of risk perceptions, knowledge, and behaviors towards COVID-19 were moderate to high in both general and high-risk adult populations. The perceived severity of the disease was slightly higher than the perceived susceptibility of getting COVID-19. Adults were knowledgeable about preventive behaviors. Nevertheless, an important knowledge gap regarding the asymptomatic transmission of COVID-19 was reported in many studies. Our review identified hand-washing and avoiding crowded places as dominant preventive behaviors. Being a female, older, more educated, and living in urban areas was associated with better knowledge of COVID-19 and appropriate preventive behaviors.


  • Coulibaly Pierre, Schantz Clémence, Traoré Brehima, Bagayoko Nanko S., Traoré Abdoulaye, Chabrol Fanny et Guindo Oumar (2021) « In the era of humanitarian crisis, young women continue to die in childbirth in Mali », Conflict and Health, 15 (1). DOI : 10.1186/s13031-020-00334-5. https://link.springer.com/epdf/10.1186/s13031-020-00334-5.
    Résumé : Maternal mortality occurs mostly in contexts of poverty and health system collapse. Mali has a very high maternal mortality rate and this extremely high mortality rate is due in part to longstanding constraints in maternal health services. The central region has been particularly affected by the humanitarian crisis in recent years, and maternal health has been aggravated by the conflict. Sominé Dolo Hospital is located in Mopti, central region. In the last decade, a high number of pregnant or delivering women have died in this hospital. We conducted a retrospective and exhaustive study of maternal deaths occurring in Mopti hospital. Between 2007 and 2019, 420 women died, with an average of 32 deaths per year. The years 2014–2015 and the last 2 years have been particularly deadly, with 40 and 50 deaths in 2018 and 2019, respectively. The main causes were hypertensive disorders/eclampsia and haemorrhage. 80% of these women’s deaths were preventable. Two major explanations result in these maternal deaths in Sominé Dolo’s hospital: first, a lack of accessible and safe blood, and second, the absence of a reference and evacuation referral system, all of which are aggravated by security issues in and around Mopti. Access to quality hospital care is in dire need in the Mopti region. There is an urgent need for a safe blood collection system and free of charge for pregnant women. We also strongly recommend that the referral/evacuation system be reinvigorated, and that universal health coverage be strengthened.


  • Cu Anthony, Meister Sofia, Lefebvre Bertrand et Ridde Valéry (2021) « Assessing healthcare access using the Levesque’s conceptual framework– a scoping review », International Journal for Equity in Health, 20 (1) (décembre), p. 116. DOI : 10.1186/s12939-021-01416-3. https://equityhealthj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12939-021-01416-3.
    Résumé : Abstract Introduction Countries are working hard to improve access to healthcare through Universal Healthcare Coverage. To genuinely address the problems of healthcare access, we need to recognize all the dimensions and complexities of healthcare access. Levesque’s Conceptual Framework of Access to Health introduced in 2013 provides an interesting and comprehensive perspective through the five dimensions of access and the five abilities of the population to access healthcare. The objectives of this paper are to identify and analyze all empirical studies that applied Levesque’s conceptual framework for access to healthcare and to explore the experiences and challenges of researchers who used this framework in developing tools for assessing access. Methods A scoping review was conducted by searching through four databases, for studies citing Levesque et al. 2013 to select all empirical studies focusing on healthcare access that applied the framework. An initial 1838 documents underwent title screening, followed by abstract screening, and finally full text screening by two independent reviewers. Authors of studies identified from the scoping review were also interviewed. Results There were 31 studies identified on healthcare access using the Levesque framework either a priori , to develop assessment tool/s (11 studies), or a posteriori , to organize and analyze collected data (20 studies) . From the tools used, 147 unique questions on healthcare access were collected, 91 of these explored dimensions of access while 56 were about abilities to access. Those that were designed from the patient’s perspective were 73%, while 20% were for health providers, and 7% were addressed to both. Interviews from seven out of the 26 authors, showed that while there were some challenges such as instances of categorization difficulty and unequal representation of dimensions and abilities, the overall experience was positive. Conclusion Levesque’s framework has been successfully used in research that explored, assessed, and measured access in various healthcare services and settings. The framework allowed researchers to comprehensively assess the complex and dynamic process of access both in the health systems and the population contexts. There is still potential room for improvement of the framework, particularly the incorporation of time-related elements of access.


  • d'Elbée Marc, Traore Métogara Mohamed, Badiane Kéba, Vautier Anthony, Simo Fotso Arlette, Kabemba Odé Kanku, Rouveau Nicolas, Godfrey-Faussett Peter, Maheu-Giroux Mathieu, Boily Marie-Claude, Medley Graham Francis, Larmarange Joseph, Terris-Prestholt Fern et ATLAS Team (2021) « Costs and Scale-Up Costs of Integrating HIV Self-Testing Into Civil Society Organisation-Led Programmes for Key Populations in Côte d'Ivoire, Senegal, and Mali », Frontiers in Public Health, 9 (mai 24). DOI : 10.3389/fpubh.2021.653612. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpubh.2021.653612/full.
    Résumé : Despite significant progress on the proportion of individuals who know their HIV status in 2020, Côte d’Ivoire (76%), Senegal (78%), and Mali (48%) remain far below, and key populations (KP) including female sex workers (FSW), men who have sex with men (MSM), and people who use injectable drugs (PWuID) are the most vulnerable groups with a HIV prevalence at 5%-30%. HIV self-testing (HIVST), a process where a person collects his/her own specimen, performs an HIV test, and interprets the result, was introduced in 2019 as a new testing modality through the ATLAS project coordinated by the international partner organisation Solthis (IPO). In this paper, we estimate the costs of implementing HIVST through twenty-three civil society organisations (CSO)-led models for KP in Côte d’Ivoire (N=7), Senegal (N=11), and Mali (N=5). We modelled costs for programme transition (2021) and early scale-up (2022-2023). Between July 2019 and September 2020, a total of 51,028, 14,472 and 34,353 HIVST kits were distributed in Côte d’Ivoire, Senegal, and Mali, respectively. Across countries, 64%-80% of HIVST kits were distributed to FSW, 20%-31% to MSM, and 5%-8% to PWuID. Average costs per HIVST kit distributed ranged $12-$15 (FSW), $14-$27 (MSM), and $15-$143 (PWuID), driven by personnel costs at various intervention levels (53%-78% of total costs), and HIVST kits costs (2%-15%). Estimated average costs at scale-up ranged $6-$13 (FSW), $6-$23 (MSM), and $14-$50 (PWuID), and were mainly explained by the spreading of IPO costs over higher HIVST distribution volumes. In all three countries, CSO-led HIVST kit provision to KP showed relatively high costs during the study period related to the progressive integration of the programme to CSO activities and contextual challenges (COVID-19 pandemic, country safety concerns). The analysis of costs at scale suggests that, in the transition to scale-up and further integration of the HIVST programme into CSO existing activities, this model can evolve into an affordable HIV testing strategy. This is particularly relevant as it remains today the most promising strategy for reaching KP of the HIV epidemic, their sexual partners, and FSW clients not accessing HIV testing. Further research will assess the overall cost-effectiveness of this model.
    Mots-clés : Costs and Cost Analysis, Côte d'Ivoire, diagnosis, Female sex workers, HIV self-testing, Key populations, Knowledge of HIV status, Mali, Men who have sex with men, People who use injectable drugs, Scale-up, screening, Senegal, West Africa.

  • Dagenais Christian, Hébert Catherine et Ridde Valéry (2021) « Video as an effective knowledge transfer tool to increase awareness among health workers and better manage dengue fever cases », Journal of Global Health Reports (novembre), p. e2021100. DOI : 10.29392/001c.29879.


  • Dagenais Christian, Proulx Michelle, Mc Sween-Cadieux Esther, Nikiema Aude, Bonnet Emmanuel, Ridde Valéry et Somé Paul-André (2021) « Collaborative research and knowledge translation on road crashes in Burkina Faso: the police perspective 18 months on », Health Research Policy and Systems, 19 (1) (décembre), p. 3. DOI : 10.1186/s12961-020-00654-1. https://health-policy-systems.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12961-020-00654-1.
    Résumé : In this commentary, we present a follow-up of two articles published in 2017 and 2018 about road traffic crashes, which is an important public health issue in Africa and Burkina Faso. The first article reported on a research project, conducted in partnership with local actors involved in road safety, carried out in Ouagadougou in 2015. Its aim was to test the effectiveness, acceptability, and capacity of a surveillance system to assess the number of road traffic crashes and their consequences on the health of crash victims. Several knowledge translation activities were carried out to maximize its impact and were reported in the 2018 article published in HRPS: monthly reports presenting the research data, large-format printed maps distributed to the city’s police stations, and a deliberative workshop held at the end of the research project. The present commentary presents our efforts to deepen our understanding of the impacts of the knowledge translation strategy, based on follow-up interviews, 18 months after the workshop, with the heads of the road traffic crash units in Ouagadougou police stations ( n  = 5). Several benefits were reported by respondents. Their involvement in the process prompted them to broaden their knowledge of other ways of dealing with the issue of road crashes. This led them, sometimes with their colleagues, to intervene differently: more rapid response at collision sites, increased surveillance of dangerous intersections, user awareness-raising on the importance of the highway code, etc. However, sustaining these actions over the longer term has proven difficult. Several lessons were derived from this experience, regarding the importance of producing useful and locally applicable research data, of ensuring the acceptability of the technologies used for data collection, of using collaborative approaches in research and knowledge translation, of ensuring the visibility of actions undertaken by actors in the field, and of involving decision-makers in the research process to maximize its impacts.


  • De Allegri Manuela, Rudasingwa Martin, Yeboah Edmund, Bonnet Emmanuel, Somé Paul André et Ridde Valéry (2021) « Does the implementation of UHC reforms foster greater equality in health spending? Evidence from a benefit incidence analysis in Burkina Faso », BMJ Global Health, 6 (12) (décembre), p. e005810. DOI : 10.1136/bmjgh-2021-005810. https://gh.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/bmjgh-2021-005810.
    Résumé : Introduction Burkina Faso is one among many countries in sub-Saharan Africa having invested in Universal Health Coverage (UHC) policies, with a number of studies have evaluated their impacts and equity impacts. Still, no evidence exists on how the distributional incidence of health spending has changed in relation to their implementation. Our study assesses changes in the distributional incidence of public and overall health spending in Burkina Faso in relation to the implementation of UHC policies. Methods We combined National Health Accounts data and household survey data to conduct a series of Benefit Incidence Analyses. We captured the distribution of public and overall health spending at three time points. We conducted separate analyses for maternal and curative services and estimated the distribution of health spending separately for different care levels. Results Inequalities in the distribution of both public and overall spending decreased significantly over time, following the implementation of UHC policies. Pooling data on curative services across all care levels, the concentration index (CI) for public spending decreased from 0.119 (SE 0.013) in 2009 to −0.024 (SE 0.014) in 2017, while the CI for overall spending decreased from 0.222 (SE 0.032) in 2009 to 0.105 (SE 0.025) in 2017. Pooling data on institutional deliveries across all care levels, the CI for public spending decreased from 0.199 (SE 0.029) in 2003 to 0.013 (SE 0.002) in 2017, while the CI for overall spending decreased from 0.242 (SE 0.032) in 2003 to 0.062 (SE 0.016) in 2017. Persistent inequalities were greater at higher care levels for both curative and institutional delivery services. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the implementation of UHC in Burkina Faso has favoured a more equitable distribution of health spending. Nonetheless, additional action is urgently needed to overcome remaining barriers to access, especially among the very poor, further enhancing equality.


  • Detemple Marie, Aboubacar Salou, Aboubacar Adam Elhadj, Moha Mahaman, Alkassoum Ibrahim et Chabrol Fanny (2021) « Innovations et gestion des déchets médicaux : le cas du nouvel hôpital de référence de Niamey, Niger », Sante Publique, 33 (5), p. 729-739. DOI : 10.3917/spub.215.0729. https://www.cairn.info/revue-sante-publique-2021-5-page-729.htm.

  • Diagne Ibra, Petit Véronique et Boiro Djibril (2021) « Accidental Trihexyphenidyl Intoxication in a Seven-Year Old Child: A Case Report from Senegal », Journal of Psychiatry & Mental Disorders, 6 (3), p. 1045. https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03320988.
    Résumé : Trihexyphenidyl or Artane® /Parkinane® is an anti-cholinergic drug belonging to the antimuscarinic class. It is used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and widely in psychiatry for the management of extrapyramidal side effects of neuroleptics. Its overdose leads to a central and peripheral anti-cholinergic syndrome. We report here the case of a seven-year-old Senegalese boy who developed signs of intoxication due to accidental ingestion of a high dose of trihexyphenidyl and recovered completely after administration of parenteral antipyretic, gastric lavage and supportive care in a paediatric setting.
    Mots-clés : ⛔ No DOI found.


  • Diagne Ibra, Petit Véronique, Seck Khadim, Ba El Hadj Makhtar, Ndiaye Ndongo Ndeye Diale, Sylla Aida et Thiam Mamadou Habib (2021) « Caractéristiques de la population carcérale suivie en ambulatoire au service de psychiatrie du Centre Hospitalier National Universitaire de Fann, Sénégal », Pan African Medical Journal, 39 (221) (juillet 29). DOI : 10.11604/pamj.2021.39.221.23700. https://www.panafrican-med-journal.com/content/article/39/221/full.
    Résumé : Introduction: les troubles psychiatriques affectent une grande proportion de la population carcérale. En effet, depuis plusieurs années, les conditions de détention dans les prisons sénégalaises sont décriées en évoquant notamment la surpopulation. Ces conditions jouent probablement un rôle déterminant dans la survenue des troubles psychiques dans cette population. Ce travail décrit les caractéristiques sociodémographiques et cliniques chez ces détenus suivis en ambulatoire au service de psychiatrie du Centre Hospitalier National Universitaire Universitaire (CHNU) de Fann. Méthodes: l´étude était de type rétrospectif et descriptif. Les auteurs avaient colligé tous les détenus ayant consulté à l´Unité de la Consultation Externe du service de Psychiatrie du CHNU de Fann entre le 1er janvier 2005 et le 31 décembre 2010, soit sur une période de six ans. Résultats: notre population d´étude était constituée de 62 détenus répartis en 92% d´hommes et 8% de femmes. L´âge moyen était de 32 ans, près de trois quarts des individus (72,6%) étaient célibataires. Leur situation professionnelle était précaire dans la majorité des cas et 69,3% d´entre eux n´avaient pas atteint le niveau d´étude secondaire. L´insomnie était le motif de consultation le plus important (29%) suivis des cas d´hallucinations acousticoverbales (22,6%). L´agressivité physique et/ou les menaces envers les codétenus étaient observées dans 17,7% des cas. Les principales catégories diagnostiques constatées étaient les troubles schizophréniques (32,3%) et les troubles dépressifs (27,4%). Entre 2005 et 2010, le nombre de consultations des détenus a été multiplié par trois/an passants de 7 à 19. Conclusion: il ressort de cette étude, que la population carcérale, suivie en ambulatoire en psychiatrie, est caractérisée par un âge jeune, majoritairement masculin et célibataire, de bas niveau d´instruction, de statut professionnel désavantagé. Un profil semblable a été dégagé dans la littérature internationale sur le même sujet. En l´état actuel du développement socio-économique et sanitaire du Sénégal, nous remarquons, que bien que le nombre de consultations des détenus augmente au fil des années, que seuls les individus avec des troubles mentaux sévères parviennent dans les services sanitaires spécialisés. Compte tenu de l´effectif de la population carcérale, des parcours biographiques des détenus, des conditions de détention et de l´absence de certaines pathologies, une enquête conduite dans les prisons s´avère nécessaire afin d´évaluer les besoins de soins de santé mentale des populations carcérales et les problématiques spécifiques qui pourraient les affecter.
    Mots-clés : ⚠️ Invalid DOI.


  • Diallo Alhassane, Carlos-Bolumbu Miguel, Cervantes-Gonzalez Minerva, Wozniak Veronika, Diallo Mamadou Hassimiou, Diallo Boubacar Djelo, Delamou Alexandre et Galtier Florence (2021) « Immunogenicity and safety of Ebola virus vaccines in healthy adults: a systematic review and network meta-analysis », Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics (juillet 16), p. 1-13. DOI : 10.1080/21645515.2021.1932214. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/21645515.2021.1932214.


  • Domingos Tanguy, Simonella (2021) « Adoption internationale et (re)définition du rapport aux origines : la mise en œuvre de la Convention de La Haye sur la protection des enfants et la coopération en matière d’adoption internationale (CLH93) au Bénin », Enfances Familles Générations [En ligne], 37 (mai). DOI : 10/gnm4s8. http://journals.openedition.org/efg/11575.
    Résumé : Cadre de la recherche : Le Bénin, pays d’origine peu investi jusque-là dans l’adoption, a ratifié en 2018 la CLH93 qui entraine une évolution de son système de protection de l’enfance et de la perception locale de l’adoption. Objectifs : Dans le cadre de ce numéro qui interroge les « origines » sous différents angles, cette contribution explore les transformations occasionnées par cette convention dans un contexte social à l’ancrage traditionnel fort. Méthodologie : Les analyses s’appuient sur les données collectées dans les pays d’accueil et au Bénin, et s’inscrivent dans mon parcours doctoral portant sur une étude comparative des politiques et pratiques d’adoption internationale en France et en Allemagne. Résultats : Il en ressort que l’origine est une notion centrale dans la culture béninoise et qu’elle est étroitement reliée à l’identité de l’individu. L’adoption est une pratique méconnue dans ce contexte où se perpétuent les usages traditionnels de confiage d’enfants. L’adoption internationale et la rupture qu’elle provoque dans l’identité de l’enfant imposent une nouvelle conceptualisation de l’origine, au-delà de la définition essentialiste qui y prévaut. La mise en œuvre adéquate de la CLH93 requiert des changements à plusieurs niveaux, et crée de nouvelles attentes institutionnelles qui pourraient se révéler trop lourdes. Conclusions : L’origine est au cœur des débats sur l’adoption. Saisir l’origine dans ce cadre revient notamment à s’interroger sur les représentations qui y sont associées localement, et à prendre en compte les attentes spécifiques des familles biologiques, sans pénaliser les adoptés. Contribution : Cet article est une contribution à une meilleure connaissance des pays d’origine, peu étudiés et souvent enfermés dans une « uniformité de fait ». Il met en évidence la force des usages traditionnels et les freins possibles à une mise en œuvre adéquate de la CLH93 dans le contexte béninois.


  • Duchesne Véronique (2021) « Mobile phones, non-human agents at the service of assisted reproduction: monitoring and gendered dual allegiance », Horizontes Antropológicos, 27 (61) (décembre), p. 143-162. DOI : 10/gnqsdh. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-71832021000300143&tlng=en.
    Résumé : Abstract For sub-Saharan women enrolled in a protocol for assisted reproductive technology (ART), the use of mobile phones entails dual allegiance: toward the services of reproductive medicine and toward their transnational family. Indispensable for medically monitoring women’s reproductive bodies, the mobile phone enters the process for producing female gametes and contributes to the gender asymmetry typical of biomedicalized procreation. It is also used to maintain contacts with transnational family members who, from a distance, obtrude in the woman’s reproductive life. The use of mobile phones extends biomedical power over the woman’s body into her everyday life and the normative power of her transnational family into reproduction. Paradoxically, the mobile telephone allows collateral relatives to support the woman seeking reproduction assistance while also “hypermedicalizing” the woman’s daily life. Also paradoxically, this everyday companion is conductive to individual autonomy while also being used for new forms of surveillance and control. The data come from fieldwork conducted in the greater Paris area between 2011 and 2013 within a network of ART professionals and their patients. , Resumo Para as mulheres subsaarianas inscritas em um protocolo de tecnologia reprodutiva assistida (TRA), o uso de telefones celulares implica dupla fidelidade: para com os serviços da medicina reprodutiva e para com sua família transnacional. Indispensável para o monitoramento médico dos corpos reprodutivos das mulheres, o telefone celular entra no processo de produção de gametas femininos e contribui para a assimetria de gênero típica da procriação biomedicalizada. Também é utilizado para manter contatos com membros da família transnacional que, à distância, intrometem-se na vida reprodutiva da mulher. O uso de telefones celulares estende o poder biomédico sobre o corpo da mulher em sua vida cotidiana e o poder normativo de sua família transnacional para a reprodução. Paradoxalmente, o telefone celular permite que parentes colaterais apoiem a mulher em busca de assistência reprodutiva ao mesmo tempo que “hipermedicaliza” a vida diária da mulher. Também paradoxalmente, esse companheiro cotidiano é condutivo à autonomia individual ao mesmo tempo que é utilizado para novas formas de vigilância e controle. Os dados vêm do trabalho de campo realizado na região da Grande Paris entre 2011 e 2013 dentro de uma rede de profissionais de TRA e seus pacientes.

  • El Abid Ghislaine (2021) « Promotion de la culture artistique marocaine par des travailleurs immigrés en France. Le parcours de Monsieur Mustapha Idbihi, ancien travailleur de l’usine Renault Billancourt », Hommes & Migrations, 1332 (janvier). (Dossier : Diaspora africaine et créativité). https://www.histoire-immigration.fr/hommes-migrations/article/promotion-de-la-culture-artistique-marocaine-par-des-travailleurs-immigres.
    Résumé : Ouvrier spécialisé au sein de l’usine Renault Billancourt devenu producteur artistique dans les années 1970-1980, Mustapha Idbihi demeure un indéfectible passeur de cultures. En organisant des concerts et autres événements culturels à l’attention des travailleurs et de leurs familles, il a contribué à la diffusion de nombreux talents venus du Maghreb. Par son parcours singulier, cet immigré marocain OS en France a su faire de la culture un élément de mixité et un facteur de mobilité sociale.
    Mots-clés : ⛔ No DOI found.


  • Erlich Valérie, Gérard Étienne et Mazzella Sylvie (2021) « La triple torsion des mobilités étudiantes. Financiarisation de l’enseignement supérieur, concurrence sur le marché mondial et différenciations sociales accrues des parcours », Agora débats/jeunesses, 88 (2), p. 53-69. DOI : 10.3917/agora.088.0053. https://www.cairn.info/revue-agora-debats-jeunesses-2021-2-page-53.htm.
    Résumé : Venus en France pour y poursuivre leurs études supérieures, les étudiants en migration internationale sont censés retourner dans leur pays après l’obtention de leur diplôme. S’il en va ainsi pour une grande part d’entre eux, une autre part, non négligeable, tend à prolonger son séjour puis à rester sur place, parfois définitivement : pour quelles raisons ? La question du « pourquoi » mérite d’être posée mais également celle du « comment ». Si les raisons de s’installer en France sont multiples, nous verrons, en lisant ce dossier, comment, au fil de leur séjour, nombre d’étudiants et d’étudiantes s’habituent à vivre en France alors que leurs liens avec leur pays d’origine se distendent…


  • Fillol Amandine, Gautier Lara et Ridde Valéry (2021) « L’avènement de la couverture sanitaire universelle dans la gouvernance globale: », Revue internationale des études du développement, 247 (3) (novembre 10), p. 139-172. DOI : 10.3917/ried.247.0139. https://www.cairn.info/revue-internationale-des-etudes-du-developpement-2021-3-page-139.htm?ref=doi.


  • Fillol Amandine, Ridde Valéry, Dumont Alexandre et Martin-Prevel Yves (2021) « Créer une communauté de pratique sur la recherche interventionnelle en santé mondiale: », Santé Publique, Vol. 33 (1) (juin 24), p. 127-136. DOI : 10.3917/spub.211.0127. https://www.cairn.info/revue-sante-publique-2021-1-page-127.htm?ref=doi.
    Résumé : Introduction : Dans le milieu francophone, mais surtout en France, la recherche interventionnelle en santé mondiale est encore peu développée de façon institutionnelle. L’institut de recherche pour le développement (IRD) est l’un des principaux acteurs publics en recherche en santé mondiale en France. Au sein de cet institut, les chercheurs publient et communiquent peu sur la recherche interventionnelle malgré le fait qu’ils en font au quotidien. C’est pourquoi, depuis quelques années, le département Santé et Sociétés de l’IRD cherche à institutionnaliser un réseau des acteurs de l’IRD en recherche interventionnelle en santé des populations. Objectif : L’objectif de cet article est d’analyser les besoins des acteurs de santé mondiale et les éléments qui permettraient de construire une communauté de pratique pour ainsi amorcer un ancrage institutionnel de la recherche interventionnelle en santé mondiale à travers la mobilisation des acteurs à l’IRD. Méthode : Une recherche qualitative a été réalisée en 2017 avec notamment la réalisation d’entretiens individuels et collectifs. Les résultats permettent d’observer : i) une définition de la RISP qui se différencie selon les participants, ii) une nécessité d’augmenter les interactions formelles et informelles pour répondre au besoin de se former et de développer le partage d’expérience, de renforcer les opportunités de rencontres et de liens interpersonnels, d’augmenter la communication et la visibilité des actions mises en œuvre), iii) une volonté des participants de progresser ensemble pour pallier certains défis inhérents à la santé mondiale tels que l’interdisciplinarité, les partenariats Nord-Sud, ou la communication avec les différents publics. Conclusion : Faire de la recherche interventionnelle en santé des populations nécessite une certaine remise en question des manières de faire de la recherche et implique donc des changements importants dans le quotidien des chercheurs. Il est indispensable d’avoir un support institutionnel pour les développer, telle que la communauté de pratique. Toutefois, l’inexistence de cette communauté de pratique trois ans après montre les défis d’opérationnalisation et de mise en œuvre d’une telle initiative.


  • Fiorentino Marion, Nishimwe Marie, Protopopescu Camelia, Iwuji Collins, Okesola Nonhlanhla, Spire Bruno, Orne-Gliemann Joanna, McGrath Nuala, Pillay Deenan, Dabis François, Larmarange Joseph, Boyer Sylvie et for the ANRS 12249 TaSP Study Group (2021) « Early ART Initiation Improves HIV Status Disclosure and Social Support in People Living with HIV, Linked to Care Within a Universal Test and Treat Program in Rural South Africa (ANRS 12249 TasP Trial) », AIDS and Behavior, 25 (4) (avril), p. 1306-1322. DOI : 10.1007/s10461-020-03101-y. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-020-03101-y.
    Résumé : We investigated the effect of early antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation on HIV status disclosure and social support in a cluster-randomized, treatment-as-prevention (TasP) trial in rural South Africa. Individuals identified HIV-positive after home-based testing were referred to trial clinics where they were invited to initiate ART immediately irrespective of CD4 count (intervention arm) or following national guidelines (control arm). We used Poisson mixed effects models to assess the independent effects of (a) time since baseline clinical visit, (b) trial arm, and (c) ART initiation on HIV disclosure (n = 182) and social support (n = 152) among participants with a CD4 count > 500 cells/mm3 at baseline. Disclosure and social support significantly improved over follow-up in both arms. Disclosure was higher (incidence rate ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.24 [1.04; 1.48]), and social support increased faster (1.22 [1.02; 1.46]) in the intervention arm than in the control arm. ART initiation improved both disclosure and social support (1.50 [1.28; 1.75] and 1.34 [1.12; 1.61], respectively), a stronger effect being seen in the intervention arm for social support (1.50 [1.12; 2.01]). Besides clinical benefits, early ART initiation may also improve psychosocial outcomes. This should further encourage countries to implement universal test-and-treat strategies.


  • Gabarro Céline, Knobé Sandrine et Schultz Emilien (2021) « Le paysage associatif du cancer : quelles spécificités pour les associations de parents ? », Anthropologie et Santé, 23 (novembre 23). DOI : 10/gn6phn. http://journals.openedition.org/anthropologiesante/9749.
    Résumé : Cet article part du constat d’un engagement associatif important dans le domaine de l’oncologie pédiatrique, qui se différencie de l’oncologie adulte, où il est réputé moindre. À partir d’une comparaison de l’engagement associatif dans le domaine de l’oncologie pédiatrique et dans celui de l’oncologie adulte, l’article montre la spécificité des associations de parents. Bien que l’expérience de la maladie constitue un moteur commun de l’engagement, l’analyse met en évidence deux formes particulières d’associations de parents, peu visibles chez les patients adultes. Il s’agit d’une part des associations rattachées à un service hospitalier, et de l’autre des associations « personnalisées ». Au-delà des différences en termes d’organisation ou d’action entre ces deux types d’associations, c’est surtout l’incidence de l’expérience de la maladie sur l’identité parentale, et son issue (décès de l’enfant ou rémission) qui donnent du sens à l’engagement des parents. En documentant l’engagement associatif dans le domaine des cancers pédiatriques, cet article invite ainsi à s’intéresser davantage aux conséquences des recompositions des identités parentales dans les dynamiques associatives en lien avec la maladie.


  • Gautier Lara, Poveda Juan-Diego, Nguengang Wakap Stéphanie, Bouchon Magali et Quesnel-Vallée Amélie (2021) « Adapting care provision and advocating for unprotected unaccompanied minors in Paris in the context of COVID-19 », Global Health Promotion (janvier 13), p. 175797592098419. DOI : 10.1177/1757975920984193. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1757975920984193.
    Résumé : Unaccompanied minors (UMs) are children under 18 who arrive on the territory of a foreign country without the care of a guardian. In many countries their access to social and health care services depends on their legal recognition as minors. For instance, in France, high rejection rates of minor status place unprotected UMs in social precarity, such that in Paris, civil society organizations (CSOs) have stepped in to offer social, medical, and psychological care to unprotected UMs. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic however, CSOs had to adapt their care provision. We review promising CSO-led initiatives to ensure continuity of care for this population. In doing so, we highlight how, by promoting UMs’ healthy behaviors in the context of the pandemic, continued social interactions between CSO members and unprotected UMs may have contributed to disease prevention among UMs. In addition, CSOs have continued to advocate for sheltering unprotected UMs, calling on public authorities to take action.


  • Gosselin Anne, Malroux Inès, Desprat Diane, Devetter François-Xavier, Memmi Sarah, Pannetier Julie, Valat Emmanuel et Melchior Maria (2021) « Prevalence of psychosocial risks among immigrants in France and associations with mental health: findings from the national French Working Conditions Survey », International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health (septembre 30). DOI : 10.1007/s00420-021-01763-2. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00420-021-01763-2.
    Résumé : Few studies examined psychosocial risks among immigrants and explored their association with mental health. Our study aims to 1) describe the prevalence of job strain and iso-strain according to migratory status and model the probability of exposure, 2) verify whether the association between job strain, iso strain and anxiety holds for all immigrant groups.


  • Gosselin Anne, Melchior Maria, Carillon Séverine, Gubert Flore, Ridde Valéry, Kohou Veroska, Zoumenou Iris, Senne Jean-Noël et Desgrées du Loû Annabel (2021) « Deterioration of mental health and insufficient Covid-19 information among disadvantaged immigrants in the greater Paris area », Journal of Psychosomatic Research (avril 30), p. 110504. DOI : 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2021.110504. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022399921001495.
    Résumé : Objectives The aim of this study is to provide information on changes in mental health among disadvantaged immigrants from Sub-Saharan Africa in the Greater Paris area and their level of information about Covid-19. Methods Prior to the Covid-19 epidemic, the Makasi community-based cohort followed 850 immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa in the Greater Paris area. Between the 1st of April and the 7th of June 2020, all participants scheduled for a follow-up survey were systematically included into an additional COVID-19-related wave of data collection (N = 100). We compared participants' type of housing, level of food insecurity, work and mental health (PHQ9) before and during the first COVID-19-related lockdown, using paired-Mc Nemar chi-2 tests. We next described their level of information on Covid-19 and policy measures, broken down by sex. Results Among the 100 participants, 68% had no legal residence permit. Food insecurity was more often reported during lockdown than before (62% vs 52%). 9% of participants had a score indicative of severe depression (PHQ9) before lockdown and 17% afterwards (p = 0.17). Only 51% knew about the possibility of asymptomatic transmission of the COVID-19 virus. Conclusions This study brings original information on a hard-to-reach population group. Our results suggest that the lockdown had a detrimental impact on various economic and mental health aspects among disadvantaged migrants residing in the Greater Paris area.
    Mots-clés : Covid-19, Immigrants, Lockdown/containment, Mental health, Social epidemiology.


  • Gosselin Anne, Melchior Maria, Desprat Diane, Devetter François-Xavier, Pannetier Julie, Valat Emmanuel et Memmi Sarah (2021) « Were immigrants on the frontline during the lockdown? Evidence from France », European Journal of Public Health (août 14), p. ckab094. DOI : 10.1093/eurpub/ckab094. https://academic.oup.com/eurpub/advance-article/doi/10.1093/eurpub/ckab094/6352235.
    Résumé : Abstract In France, immigrants’ excess of mortality was higher than natives’ during the Spring 2020 lockdown. Were immigrants in frontline jobs and more exposed to Covid-19? Based on a nationally representative survey, we model the probability to work in a frontline job according to migratory status, taking sociodemographic and occupational characteristics into account. Compared to natives (Metropolitan France), being an African immigrant was associated to higher probability to work in a frontline job [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.82 (1.23–2.71)], as well as being born in French Overseas Departments [aOR = 1.64 (1.23–2.18)], reflecting racial division of work and higher Sars-Cov-2 exposure of immigrant and minority populations.


  • Guidi Pierre (2021) « Éduquer les femmes de la nation éthiopienne : discours d’émancipation et assignations sexuées (1941-1991): », Autrepart, 87 (3) (mai 21), p. 53-68. DOI : 10/gpgjb4. https://www.cairn.info/revue-autrepart-2018-3-page-53.htm?ref=doi.
    Résumé : De 1941 à 1991, la scolarisation des Éthiopiennes s’est inscrite dans les projets de centralisation et de « modernisation » mis en œuvre sous l’autocratie « progressiste » de Hailé Sélassié (1941-1974), puis le marxisme-léninisme du Derg (1974-1991). Malgré des visions distinctes de l’avenir de la nation, la politique d’éducation des femmes a constamment été conçue en tension entre émancipation et assignations sexuées. Il convient alors de se pencher sur les manières dont ces discours et leurs inflexions se sont traduits dans les savoirs et les pratiques scolaires, puis de comprendre comment les femmes scolarisées se sont approprié et ont transmis les modèles de féminités enseignés. Il s’agira, en définitive, de comprendre comment les Éthiopiennes scolarisées ont questionné leurs rôles sociaux et leurs positions dans la société pour agir sur les rapports sociaux de sexe.


  • Guidi Pierre (2021) « Carole REYNAUD-PALIGOT, L’École aux colonies. Entre mission civilisatrice et racialisation (1816-1940) », Revue d'histoire du XIXe siècle. Société d'histoire de la révolution de 1848 et des révolutions du XIXe siècle, 63 (décembre 1), p. 239-240. DOI : 10.4000/rh19.8053. https://journals.openedition.org/rh19/8053.
    Résumé : Le dernier ouvrage de Carole Reynaud-Paligot, historienne spécialiste de l’histoire du racisme en France et en Europe, constitue un important travail de synthèse sur les politiques scolaires dans l’empire colonial français. La fonction politique et économique de l’école, chargée d’assurer la pérennité du projet colonial en formant une main-d’œuvre et des auxiliaires de l’administration coloniale, ainsi que son rôle idéologique de conquête des esprits, fournit le soubassement de la démonstrati...


  • Guidi Pierre et Rillon Ophélie (2021) « Penser les violences politiques au prisme de l’intime: », Presses de Sciences Po, N° 151 (3) (décembre 22), p. 3-19. (20 & 21. Revue d'histoire). DOI : 10.3917/vin.151.0003. https://www.cairn.info/revue-vingt-et-vingt-et-un-revue-d-histoire-2021-3-page-3.htm?ref=doi.
    Résumé : « Avec l’intimité, nous perdions l’humanité […]. Chacun d’entre nous entrait en lui-même, cherchait en lui un coin obscur, un point solide où il pourrait s’accrocher. Nous faisions en silence le bilan de notre vie, mais les seules traces que nous voyions étaient des trous noirs, aveugles, comme les yeux des fusils automatiques qui nous fixaient [1]. »


  • Hane Fatoumata et Ridde Valéry (2021) « La place des citoyen.n.es dans la santé publique en Afrique : entre volontariat et professionnalisme: », Santé Publique, 33 (4) (novembre 22), p. 471-472. DOI : 10.3917/spub.214.0471. https://www.cairn.info/revue-sante-publique-2021-4-page-471.htm?ref=doi.


  • Inghels Maxime, Kouassi Arsène Kra, Niangoran Serge, Bekelynck Anne, Carillon Séverine, Sika Lazare, Koné Mariatou, Danel Christine, Desgrées du Loû Annabel, Larmarange Joseph et for the research team ANRS 12323 DOD-CI (2021) « Telephone peer recruitment and interviewing during a respondent-driven sampling (RDS) survey: feasibility and field experience from the first phone-based RDS survey among men who have sex with men in Côte d’Ivoire », BMC Medical Research Methodology, 21 (1) (février 5), p. 25. DOI : 10.1186/s12874-021-01208-x. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12874-021-01208-x.
    Résumé : Many respondent-driven sampling (RDS) methodologies have been employed to investigate hard-to-reach populations; however, these methodologies present some limits. We describe a minimally investigated RDS methodology in which peer recruitment and interviewing are phone-based. The feasibility of the methodology, field experiences, validity of RDS assumptions and characteristics of the sample obtained are discussed.
    Mots-clés : Côte d’Ivoire, Men who have sex with men, Phone-based survey, Respondent-driven sampling.
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