Publications des membres du Ceped

2021

Article de revue


  • Ridde Valéry, Ouedraogo Samiratou et Yaya Sanni (2021) « Closing the diversity and inclusion gaps in francophone public health: a wake-up call », BMJ Global Health, 6 (2) (février), p. e005231. DOI : 10.1136/bmjgh-2021-005231. https://gh.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/bmjgh-2021-005231.
  • Ridde Valéry, Saré Diane, Quan Nha Hong, et Pluye Pierre (2021) « Grilles pour décrire les interventions populationnelles dans les revues des écrits scientifiques en santé », McGill Family Medicine Studies Online, 16:e02.
    Résumé : L'étude a pour objectif de répertorier toutes les grilles de description des interventions populationnelles et celles qui soutiennent l’extraction des données pour la réalisation des revues systématiques des écrits scientifiques en santé publique.
    Mots-clés : ⛔ No DOI found.


  • Rouveau Nicolas, Ky-Zerbo Odette, Boye Sokhna, Simo Fotso Arlette, d’Elbée Marc, Maheu-Giroux Mathieu, Silhol Romain, Kouassi Arsène Kra, Vautier Anthony, Doumenc-Aïdara Clémence, Breton Guillaume, Keita Abdelaye, Ehui Eboi, Ndour Cheikh Tidiane, Boilly Marie-Claude, Terris-Prestholt Fern, Pourette Dolorès, Desclaux Alice, Larmarange Joseph et ATLAS Team (2021) « Describing, analysing and understanding the effects of the introduction of HIV self-testing in West Africa through the ATLAS programme in Côte d’Ivoire, Mali and Senegal », BMC Public Health, 21 (1) (janvier 21), p. 181. DOI : 10.1186/s12889-021-10212-1. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10212-1.
    Résumé : The ATLAS programme aims to promote and implement HIV self-testing (HIVST) in three West African countries: Côte d’Ivoire, Mali, and Senegal. During 2019–2021, in close collaboration with the national AIDS implementing partners and communities, ATLAS plans to distribute 500,000 HIVST kits through eight delivery channels, combining facility-based, community-based strategies, primary and secondary distribution of HIVST. Considering the characteristics of West African HIV epidemics, the targets of the ATLAS programme are hard-to-reach populations: key populations (female sex workers, men who have sex with men, and drug users), their clients or sexual partners, partners of people living with HIV and patients diagnosed with sexually transmitted infections and their partners. The ATLAS programme includes research support implementation to generate evidence for HIVST scale-up in West Africa. The main objective is to describe, analyse and understand the social, health, epidemiological effects and cost-effectiveness of HIVST introduction in Côte d’Ivoire, Mali and Senegal to improve the overall HIV testing strategy (accessibility, efficacy, ethics). Methods ATLAS research is organised into five multidisciplinary workpackages (WPs): Key Populations WP: qualitative surveys (individual in-depth interviews, focus group discussions) conducted with key actors, key populations, and HIVST users. Index testing WP: ethnographic observation of three HIV care services introducing HIVST for partner testing. Coupons survey WP: an anonymous telephone survey of HIVST users. Cost study WP: incremental economic cost analysis of each delivery model using a top-down costing with programmatic data, complemented by a bottom-up costing of a representative sample of HIVST distribution sites, and a time-motion study for health professionals providing HIVST. Modelling WP: Adaptation, parameterisation and calibration of a dynamic compartmental model that considers the varied populations targeted by the ATLAS programme and the different testing modalities and strategies. Discussion ATLAS is the first comprehensive study on HIV self-testing in West Africa. The ATLAS programme focuses particularly on the secondary distribution of HIVST. This protocol was approved by three national ethic committees and the WHO’s Ethical Research Committee.
    Mots-clés : Côte d’Ivoire, HIV self-testing, HIV/AIDS, Mali, Senegal, West Africa.


  • Rozée Virginie et Schantz Clémence (2021) « Les violences gynécologiques et obstétricales : construction d’une question politique et de santé publique », Sante Publique, 33 (5), p. 629-634. DOI : 10.3917/spub.215.0629. https://www.cairn.info/revue-sante-publique-2021-5-page-629.htm.
    Résumé : Le concept de « violences gynécologiques et obstétricales » a émergé au début des années 2000 en Amérique latine dans les milieux militants et scientifiques. Il a été repris à partir des années 2010 dans les débats féministes et politiques français et européens. Les militantes féministes, notamment à travers les réseaux sociaux et les médias, ont joué un rôle important dans la construction de cette question de santé publique. Ce concept est aujourd’hui mobilisé dans l’espace public, politique et académique, en France et à l’international. Il recouvre des réalités et des pratiques médicales diverses et permet de rendre compte des expériences, à la fois objectives et subjectives, des femmes. Les travaux en sciences sociales qui mobilisent cette nouvelle approche conceptuelle sont de plus en plus nombreux. Ils portent cependant majoritairement sur l’accouchement, alors que le domaine de la gynécologie reste plus largement à explorer.


  • Ruiz de Elvira Laura (2021) « De l’engagement armé à l’engagement humanitaire : trajectoires militantes, émotions et sentiments moraux dans la Syrie post-2011: », Critique internationale, 91 (2) (avril 27), p. 23-44. DOI : 10.3917/crii.091.0026. https://www.cairn.info/revue-critique-internationale-2021-2-page-23.htm?ref=doi.


  • Saulnier Dell D, Blanchet Karl, Canila Carmelita, Cobos Muñoz Daniel, Dal Zennaro Livia, de Savigny Don, Durski Kara N, Garcia Fernando, Grimm Pauline Yongeun, Kwamie Aku, Maceira Daniel, Marten Robert, Peytremann-Bridevaux Isabelle, Poroes Camille, Ridde Valery, Seematter Laurence, Stern Barbara, Suarez Patricia, Teddy Gina, Wernli Didier, Wyss Kaspar et Tediosi Fabrizio (2021) « A health systems resilience research agenda: moving from concept to practice », BMJ Global Health, 6 (8) (août), p. e006779. DOI : 10.1136/bmjgh-2021-006779. https://gh.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/bmjgh-2021-006779.
    Résumé : Health system resilience, known as the ability for health systems to absorb, adapt or transform to maintain essential functions when stressed or shocked, has quickly gained popularity following shocks like COVID-19. The concept is relatively new in health policy and systems research and the existing research remains mostly theoretical. Research to date has viewed resilience as an outcome that can be measured through performance outcomes, as an ability of complex adaptive systems that is derived from dynamic behaviour and interactions, or as both. However, there is little congruence on the theory and the existing frameworks have not been widely used, which as diluted the research applications for health system resilience. A global group of health system researchers were convened in March 2021 to discuss and identify priorities for health system resilience research and implementation based on lessons from COVID-19 and other health emergencies. Five research priority areas were identified: (1) measuring and managing systems dynamic performance, (2) the linkages between societal resilience and health system resilience, (3) the effect of governance on the capacity for resilience, (4) creating legitimacy and (5) the influence of the private sector on health system resilience. A key to filling these research gaps will be longitudinal and comparative case studies that use cocreation and coproduction approaches that go beyond researchers to include policy-makers, practitioners and the public.


  • Schantz Clémence (2021) « Biomédicalisation massive de l’accouchement au Cambodge après 150 ans de résistance », Moussons, 38 (novembre 25), p. 85-110. DOI : 10/gnpdzk. http://journals.openedition.org/moussons/8023.


  • Schantz Clémence, Lhotte Marie et Pantelias Anne-Charlotte (2021) « Dépasser les tensions éthiques devant les demandes maternelles de césarienne », Santé Publique, Vol. 32 (5) (mars 2), p. 497-505. DOI : 10.3917/spub.205.0497. https://cairn.info/revue-sante-publique-2020-5-page-497.htm?ref=doi.
    Résumé : Introduction : Dans un contexte juridique centré sur le droit et l’autonomie de la patiente, certaines femmes souhaitent pouvoir choisir leur mode d’accouchement. Les sages-femmes étant les actrices de premier recours des femmes enceintes avec une grossesse physiologique, nous avons voulu savoir s’il était, pour elles, éthiquement recevable d’accompagner une femme dans sa décision de césarienne. Méthode : Cette enquête est une étude ancillaire du programme de recherche CESARIA validé par le Comité de Protection des Personnes Sud Méditerranée IV et déclaré au CNIL. Trente-sept entretiens semi-directifs ont été réalisés auprès de sages-femmes et de femmes. Résultats : La majorité des femmes et des sages-femmes partagent une vision de l’accouchement comme « naturel » et considèrent la demande de césarienne comme relevant de la déviance. Lorsqu’elle est formulée, cette demande place les sages-femmes dans une situation de tension éthique. D’une part, les sages-femmes souhaitent orienter les femmes vers l’accouchement par voie basse qu’elles considèrent comme étant la norme, et ce choix incarne les principes éthiques de bienfaisance et de non-malfaisance. D’autre part, les sages-femmes expriment vouloir respecter le choix et la liberté des patientes, illustrant le principe éthique de respect de l’autonomie. Conclusion : L’enjeu éthique de la césarienne sur demande ne se situe pas tant dans la décision d’accepter ou non une césarienne, mais plutôt dans l’écoute de cette demande. Prendre en considération une indication médicale plus largement que la simple indication obstétricale permet d’accompagner de manière éthique ces demandes, dans le respect de l’autonomie de la femme enceinte.


  • Schantz Clémence, Pantelias Anne-Charlotte, Loenzien Myriam de, Ravit Marion, Rozenberg Patrick, Louis-Sylvestre Christine et Goyet Sophie (2021) « ‘A caesarean section is like you've never delivered a baby’: A mixed methods study of the experience of childbirth among French women », Reproductive Biomedicine & Society Online, 12 (mars), p. 69-78. DOI : 10.1016/j.rbms.2020.10.003. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2405661820300277.
    Résumé : The experience of childbirth has been technologized worldwide, leading to major social changes. In France, childbirth occurs almost exclusively in hospitals. Few studies have been published on the opinions of French women regarding obstetric technology and, in particular, caesarean section. In 2017–2018, we used a mixed methods approach to determine French women’s preferences regarding the mode of delivery, and captured their experiences and satisfaction in relation to childbirth in two maternity settings. Of 284 pregnant women, 277 (97.5%) expressed a preference for vaginal birth, while seven (2.5%) women expressed a preference for caesarean section. Vaginal birth was also preferred among 26 women who underwent an in-depth interview. Vaginal birth was perceived as more natural, less risky and less painful, and to favour mother–child bonding. This vision was shared by caregivers. The women who expressed a preference for vaginal birth tended to remain sexually active late in their pregnancy, to find sexual intercourse pleasurable, and to believe that vaginal birth would not enlarge their vagina. A large majority (94.5%) of women who gave birth vaginally were satisfied with their childbirth experience, compared with 24.3% of those who underwent caesarean section. The caring attitude of the caregivers contributed to increasing this satisfaction. The notion of women’s ‘empowerment’ emerged spontaneously in women’s discourse in this research: women who gave birth vaginally felt satisfied and empowered. The vision shared by caregivers and women that vaginal birth is a natural process contributes to the stability of caesarean section rates in France.


  • Schultz Emilien et Ward J.K. (2021) « Public perceptions of scientific advice: toward a science savvy public culture? », Public Health, 194 (mai), p. 86-88. DOI : 10.1016/j.puhe.2021.02.007. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0033350621000652.


  • Schultz Émilien, Ward Jeremy K., Atlani-Duault Laëtitia, Holmes Seth M. et Mancini Julien (2021) « French Public Familiarity and Attitudes toward Clinical Research during the COVID-19 Pandemic », International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18 (5) (mars 5), p. 2611. DOI : 10.3390/ijerph18052611. https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/18/5/2611.
    Résumé : The COVID-19 pandemic put clinical research in the media spotlight globally. This article proposes a first measure of familiarity with and attitude toward clinical research in France. Drawing from the “Health Literacy Survey 2019” (HLS19) conducted online between 27 May and 5 June 2020 on a sample of the French adult population (N = 1003), we show that a significant proportion of the French population claimed some familiarity with clinical trials (64.8%) and had positive attitudes (72%) toward them. One of the important findings of this study is that positive attitudes toward clinical research exist side by side with a strong distancing from the pharmaceutical industry. While respondents acknowledged that the pharmaceutical industry plays an important role in clinical research (68.3%), only one-quarter indicated that they trust the industry (25.7%). Positive attitudes toward clinical trials were associated with familiarity with clinical trials (Odds Ratio, OR 2.97 [1.90–4.63]), financial difficulties (OR 0.63 [0.46–0.85]), as well as mistrust of doctors (0.48 [0.27–0.85]) and of scientists (OR 0.62 [0.38–0.99]). Although the French media provided a great deal of information on how clinical research works during the first months of the pandemic, there remains profound mistrust of the pharmaceutical industry in France. This suspicion can undermine crisis management, especially in the areas of vaccine development and preparation for future pandemics.
    Pièce jointe Texte intégral 725.9 ko (source)


  • Seppey Mathieu, Somé Paul-André et Ridde Valéry (2021) « Sustainability determinants of the Burkinabe performance-based financing project », Journal of Health Organization and Management, ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) (février 5). DOI : 10.1108/JHOM-04-2020-0137. https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/JHOM-04-2020-0137/full/html.
    Résumé : A performance-based financing (PBF) pilot project was implemented in 2011 in Burkina Faso. After more than five years of implementation (data collection in 2016), the project's sustainability was not guaranteed. This study's objective is to assess this project's sustainability in 2016 by identifying the presence/absence of different determinants of sustainability according to the conceptual framework of Seppey et al. (2017). Design/methodology/approach It uses a case study approach using in-depth interviews with various actors at the local, district/regional and national levels. Participants (n= 37) included health practitioners, management team members, implementers and senior members of health directions. A thematic analysis based on the conceptual framework was conducted, as well as an inductive analysis. Findings Results show the project's sustainability level was weak according to an unequal presence of sustainability's determinants; some activities are being maintained but not fully routinised. Discrepancies between the project and the context's values appeared to be important barriers towards sustainability. Project's ownership by key stakeholders also seemed superficial despite the implementers' leadership towards its success. The project's objective towards greater autonomy for health centres was also directly confronting the Burkinabe's hierarchical health system. Originality/value This study reveals many fits and misfits between a PBF project and its context affecting its ability to sustain activities through time. It also underlines the importance of using a conceptual framework in implementing and evaluating interventions. These results could be interesting for decision-makers and implementers in further assessing PBF projects elsewhere.

  • Seppey Mathieu, Touré Laurence et Ridde Valéry (2021) « Defining an action-research’s content to improve a policy supporting indigents’ health in Mali: a concept mapping », Journal of Global Health Reports, 5 (avril 19), p. e2021031. DOI : 10.29392/001c.21956.


  • Sjoberg Daniel D., Whiting Karissa, Curry Michael, Lavery Jessica A. et Larmarange Joseph (2021) « The R Journal: Reproducible Summary Tables with the gtsummary Package », The R Journal, 13 (1) (août), p. 570-580. DOI : 10.32614/RJ-2021-053. https://doi.org/10.32614/RJ-2021-053/.
    Résumé : The gtsummary package provides an elegant and flexible way to create publication-ready summary tables in R. A critical part of the work of statisticians, data scientists, and analysts is summarizing data sets and regression models in R and publishing or sharing polished summary tables. The gtsummary package was created to streamline these everyday analysis tasks by allowing users to easily create reproducible summaries of data sets, regression models, survey data, and survival data with a simple interface and very little code. The package follows a tidy framework, making it easy to integrate with standard data workflows, and offers many table customization features through function arguments, helper functions, and custom themes.


  • Sturmberg Joachim, Paul Elisabeth, Van Damme Wim, Ridde Valery, Brown Garrett W. et Kalk Andreas (2021) « The danger of the single storyline obfuscating the complexities of managing SARS‐CoV‐2/COVID‐19 », Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice (novembre 25), p. jep.13640. DOI : 10.1111/jep.13640. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jep.13640.


  • Testoni Federico E., García Carrillo Mercedes, Gagnon Marc-André, Rikap Cecilia et Blaustein Matías (2021) « Whose shoulders is health research standing on? Determining the key actors and contents of the prevailing biomedical research agenda », éd. par Quinn Grundy, PLOS ONE, 16 (4) (avril 7), p. e0249661. DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0249661. https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0249661.
    Résumé : Background Conflicts of interest in biomedical research can influence research results and drive research agendas away from public health priorities. Previous agenda-setting studies share two shortfalls: they only account for direct connections between academic institutions and firms, as well as potential bias based on researchers’ personal beliefs. This paper’s goal is to determine the key actors and contents of the prevailing health and biomedical sciences (HBMS) research agenda, overcoming these shortfalls. Methods We performed a bibliometric and lexical analysis of 95,415 scientific articles published between 1999 and 2018 in the highest impact factor journals within HBMS, using the Web of Science database and the CorText platform. HBMS’s prevailing knowledge network of institutions was proxied with network maps where nodes represent affiliations and edges the most frequent co-authorships. The content of the prevailing HBMS research agenda was depicted through network maps of prevalent multi-terms found in titles, keywords, and abstracts. Results The HBMS research agendas of large private firms and leading academic institutions are intertwined. The prevailing HBMS agenda is mostly based on molecular biology (40% of the most frequent multi-terms), with an inclination towards cancer and cardiovascular research (15 and 8% of the most frequent multi-terms, respectively). Studies on pathogens and biological vectors related to recent epidemics are marginal (1% of the most frequent multi-terms). Content of the prevailing HBMS research agenda prioritizes research on pharmacological intervention over research on socio-environmental factors influencing disease onset or progression and overlooks, among others, the study of infectious diseases. Conclusions Pharmaceutical corporations contribute to set HBMS’s prevailing research agenda, which is mainly focused on a few diseases and research topics. A more balanced research agenda, together with epistemological approaches that consider socio-environmental factors associated with disease spreading, could contribute to being better prepared to prevent and treat more diverse pathologies and to improve overall health outcomes.


  • Touzani Rajae, Schultz Emilien, Holmes Seth M, Vandentorren Stéphanie, Arwidson Pierre, Guillemin Francis, Rey Dominique, Rouquette Alexandra, Bouhnik Anne-Déborah et Mancini Julien (2021) « Early Acceptability of a Mobile App for Contact Tracing During the COVID-19 Pandemic in France: National Web-Based Survey », JMIR mHealth and uHealth, 9 (7) (juillet 19), p. e27768. DOI : 10.2196/27768. https://mhealth.jmir.org/2021/7/e27768.
    Résumé : Background Several countries have implemented mobile apps in an attempt to trace close contacts of patients with COVID-19 and, in turn, reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2. However, the effectiveness of this approach depends on the adherence of a large segment of the population. Objective The aims of this study were to evaluate the acceptability of a COVID-19 contact tracing mobile app among the French population and to investigate the barriers to its use. Methods The Health Literacy Survey 2019 questioned 1003 people in France during the COVID-19 pandemic on the basis of quota sampling. The survey collected sociodemographic characteristics and health literacy data, as well as information on participants’ communication with caregivers, trust in institutions, and COVID-19 knowledge and preventive behaviors. The acceptability of a mobile app for contact tracing was measured by a single question, the responses to which were grouped into three modalities: app-supporting, app-willing, and app-reluctant. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the factors associated with the acceptability of a mobile app during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results Only 19.2% (193/1003) of all participants were app-supporting, whereas half of them (504/1003, 50.3%) were reluctant. The factors associated with willingness or support toward the contact tracing app included lower financial deprivation (app-willing: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.8, 95% CI 0.69-0.93; app-supporting: aOR 0.7, 95% CI 0.58-0.84) and higher perceived usefulness of using a mobile app to send completed health questionnaires to doctors (app-willing: aOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.70-3.26; app-supporting: aOR 3.1, 95% CI 2.04-4.82). Furthermore, the likelihood of supporting the mobile app increased with age over 60 years (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.13-3.22), trust in political representatives (aOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.72-4.23), feeling concerned about the pandemic situation (aOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.47-3.32), and knowledge about the transmission of COVID-19 (aOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.39-2.96). Conclusions The most socioeconomically precarious people, who are at a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, are also the most reluctant to using a contact tracing mobile app. Therefore, optimal adherence can only be effective with a targeted discourse on public health benefits to adopt such an app, which should be combined with a reduction in inequalities by acting on structural determinants.


  • Turcotte-Tremblay Anne-Marie, Gali Gali Idriss Ali et Ridde Valéry (2021) « The unintended consequences of COVID-19 mitigation measures matter: practical guidance for investigating them », BMC Medical Research Methodology, 21 (1) (décembre), p. 28. DOI : 10.1186/s12874-020-01200-x. https://bmcmedresmethodol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12874-020-01200-x.
    Résumé : Background COVID-19 has led to the adoption of unprecedented mitigation measures which could trigger many unintended consequences. These unintended consequences can be far-reaching and just as important as the intended ones. The World Health Organization identified the assessment of unintended consequences of COVID-19 mitigation measures as a top priority. Thus far, however, their systematic assessment has been neglected due to the inattention of researchers as well as the lack of training and practical tools. Main text Over six years our team has gained extensive experience conducting research on the unintended consequences of complex health interventions. Through a reflexive process, we developed insights that can be useful for researchers in this area. Our analysis is based on key literature and lessons learned reflexively in conducting multi-site and multi-method studies on unintended consequences. Here we present practical guidance for researchers wishing to assess the unintended consequences of COVID-19 mitigation measures. To ensure resource allocation, protocols should include research questions regarding unintended consequences at the outset. Social science theories and frameworks are available to help assess unintended consequences. To determine which changes are unintended, researchers must first understand the intervention theory. To facilitate data collection, researchers can begin by forecasting potential unintended consequences through literature reviews and discussions with stakeholders. Including desirable and neutral unintended consequences in the scope of study can help minimize the negative bias reported in the literature. Exploratory methods can be powerful tools to capture data on the unintended consequences that were unforeseen by researchers. We recommend researchers cast a wide net by inquiring about different aspects of the mitigation measures. Some unintended consequences may only be observable in subsequent years, so longitudinal approaches may be useful. An equity lens is necessary to assess how mitigation measures may unintentionally increase disparities. Finally, stakeholders can help validate the classification of consequences as intended or unintended. Conclusion Studying the unintended consequences of COVID-19 mitigation measures is not only possible but also necessary to assess their overall value. The practical guidance presented will help program planners and evaluators gain a more comprehensive understanding of unintended consequences to refine mitigation measures.


  • Udechukwu T, Carnapete L, Matin M, Haider S, Clech L et Ridde V (2021) « The Impact of Health Sector Reforms on Health System in Bangladesh: A Scoping Review », European Journal of Public Health, 31 (Supplement_3) (octobre 20), p. ckab165.218. DOI : 10.1093/eurpub/ckab165.218. https://academic.oup.com/eurpub/article/doi/10.1093/eurpub/ckab165.218/6405748.
    Résumé : Abstract Background Climate-induced environmental changes, and their potential impact on population health, are among the most pressing challenges affecting health systems. These health impacts put additional strain on health systems, putting their resilience and capacity to deal with increased shocks and stresses to the test. Implementing reforms to address the vulnerabilities in the health system can help build its capacity to cope with these shocks. We conducted a scoping review to explore the literature on health sector reforms in Bangladesh and understand their impact on health systems. Methods A scoping review was conducted by searching through academic (MEDLINE, SCOPUS, Web of Science and Google Scholar) and grey literature published in English and French between 1991 and 2021 that addressed national health sector reforms impacting the health system and access to care. Results Our search yielded 2688 articles for screening and 22 were included in our scoping review. One of the major health sector reforms was the shift from a project-based approach to a sector-wide approach (SWAp) in health. Studies found that implementing initiatives such as community clinics, a voucher scheme for pregnant women, increase in hospital beds at public facilities improved health care access and delivery of care, especially for rural districts. Despite government efforts, the health system continues to be vulnerable to shocks due to a significant shortage of formally qualified health professionals especially nurses and technologists and relatively low public financing. Conclusions Evidence suggests that health sector reforms implemented as part of SWAp have had a limited improvement on the health system. More emphasis should be placed in the future on implementing reforms to address critical issues such as human resources for health and health financing, which may contribute to building their capacity to cope with emerging threats due to climate change and improving access to care. Key messages Building a resilient health system may involve assessing the system's vulnerabilities, strengths and limitations through the perspective of health sector reforms. Current health sector reforms have had limited impact in addressing the vulnerabilities of the health system.


  • Vampo Charlotte (2021) « Des Nana Benz aux cheffes d’entreprise contemporaines à Lomé, au Togo », Revue internationale des etudes du developpement, 245 (1) (avril 1), p. 145-169. DOI : 10/gn2fd2. https://www.cairn.info/revue-internationale-des-etudes-du-developpement-2021-1-page-145.htm.
    Résumé : Cet article questionne la façon dont des cheffes d’entreprise de l’économie formelle à Lomé se représentent l’entrepreneuriat dit « moderne ». Influencées par la circulation d’un ethos de la performance et de l’efficacité dominant dans l’idéologie néolibérale du développement, elles cherchent à se distinguer de la figure mythique de l’entrepreneuriat au Togo qu’est la « Nana Benz » pour affirmer leur caractère « moderne ». L’article mobilise une enquête ethnologique reposant sur des entretiens, des échanges informels et des observations participantes menées auprès de trente-cinq entrepreneures. Il contribue à analyser l’appropriation locale du modèle de la business woman en vogue dans le développement et nuance l’idée d’une transformation radicale des pratiques entre les générations de femmes.


  • Yahiaoui Amira et Manac'h Léopoldine (2021) « L’enfermement des étrangers en France : une clinique du non-lieu ? », Recherches en psychanalyse, 31 (1) (septembre 28), p. 24-43. DOI : 10.3917/rep2.031.0024. https://www.cairn.info/revue-research-in-psychoanalysis-2021-1-page-24.htm.
    Résumé : Cet article propose de penser l’enfermement des personnes étrangères en territoire français à partir de l’analyse de dispositifs dédiés à cet effet. Dans une perspective interdisciplinaire, aux frontières de la psychanalyse et de l’anthropologie, nous souhaitons penser les retentissements de ces confinements sur le psychisme et sur le corps des personnes exilées concernées par ces mesures. À partir d’une approche ethnographique, nous nous concentrerons sur l’analyse de deux dispositifs : les centres de rétention administrative (CRA) et les plateformes d’accueil et d’hébergement des demandeurs d’asile (Prahda). Nous partons du constat qu’un des effets de la globalisation réside dans la nécessité pour les États-Nations de venir re-délimiter leurs territoires respectifs. Ainsi, nous faisons l’hypothèse que la création de centres de rétention administrative et de Prahda, institutions contemporaines récentes, serait un des symptômes du contemporain en proie à une crise de ses limites.

  • Zehnati Ahcène, Bousmah Marwân-al-Qays et Abu-Zaineh Mohammad (2021) « Public-private differentials in health care delivery: the case of cesarean deliveries in Algeria », International Journal of Health Economics and Management (mars 30). DOI : 10.1007/s10754-021-09300-x.
    Résumé : Akin to other developing countries, Algeria has witnessed an increasing role of the private health sector in the past two decades. Our study sheds light on the public-private overlap and the phenomenon of physician dual practice in the provision of health care services using the particular case of cesarean deliveries in Algeria. Existing studies have reported that, compared to the public sector, delivering in a private health facility increases the risk of enduring a cesarean section. While confirming this result for the case of Algeria, our study also reveals the existence of public-private differentials in the effect of medical variables on the probability of cesarean delivery. After controlling for selection in both sectors, we show that cesarean deliveries in the private sector tend to be less medically justified compared with those taking place in the public sector, thus, potentially leading to maternal and neonatal health problems. As elsewhere, the contribution of the private health sector to the unmet need for health care in Algeria hinges on an appropriate legal framework that better coordinates the activities of the two sectors and reinforces their complementarity.
    Mots-clés : Algeria, Cesarean delivery, Physician dual practice, Public–private differentials.


  • Zitti Tony, Fillol Amandine, Lohmann Julia, Coulibaly Abdourahmane et Ridde Valéry (2021) « Does the gap between health workers’ expectations and the realities of implementing a performance-based financing project in Mali create frustration? », Global Health Research and Policy, 6 (1) (février 2), p. 5. DOI : 10.1186/s41256-021-00189-0. https://ghrp.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s41256-021-00189-0.
    Résumé : Background Performance-Based Financing (PBF), an innovative health financing initiative, was recently implemented in Mali. PBF aims to improve quality of care by motivating health workers. The purpose of this research was to identify and understand how health workers’ expectations related to their experiences of the first cycle of payment of PBF subsidies, and how this experience affected their motivation and sentiments towards the intervention. We pose the research question, “how does the process of PBF subsidies impact the motivation of health workers in Mali?” Methods We adopted a qualitative approach using multiple case studies. We chose three district hospitals (DH 1, 2 and 3) in three health districts (district 1, 2 and 3) among the ten in the Koulikoro region. Our cases correspond to the three DHs. We followed the principle of data source triangulation; we used 53 semi-directive interviews conducted with health workers (to follow the principle of saturuation), field notes, and documents relating to the distribution grids of subsidies for each DH. We analyzed data in a mixed deductive and inductive manner. Results The results show that the PBF subsidies led to health workers feeling more motivated to perform their tasks overall. Beyond financial motivation, this was primarily due to PBF allowing them to work more efficiently. However, respondents perceived a discrepancy between the efforts made and the subsidies received. The fact that their expectations were not met led to a sense of frustration and disappointment. Similarly, the way in which the subsidies were distributed and the lack of transparency in the distribution process led to feelings of unfairness among the vast majority of respondents. The results show that frustrations can build up in the early days of the intervention. Conclusion The PBF implementation in Mali left health workers frustrated. The short overall implementation period did not allow actors to adjust their initial expectations and motivational responses, neither positive nor negative. This underlines how short-term interventions might not just lack impact, but instil negative sentiments likely to carry on into the future.


  • Zombré David, De Allegri Manuela, Ridde Valéry et Zinszer Kate (2021) « User fees removal and community-based management of undernutrition in Burkina Faso: what effects on children’s nutritional status? », Public Health Nutrition (février 17), p. 1-26. DOI : 10.1017/S1368980021000732. https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S1368980021000732/type/journal_article.
    Résumé : Objective: To examine the effect of an intervention combining user fees removal with community-based management of undernutrition on the nutrition status in children under-five in Burkina Faso. Design: The study was a non-equivalent control group post-test-only design based on household survey data collected four years after the intervention onset in the intervention and comparison districts. Additionally, we used propensity score weighting to achieve balance on covariates between the two districts, followed by logistic multilevel modeling. Setting: Two health districts in the Sahel region. Participants: 1,116 children under five residing in 41 intervention communities and 1,305 from 51 control communities. Results: When comparing children living in the intervention district to children living in a non-intervention district, we determined no differences in terms of stunting [OR=1.13; 95% CI 0.83 −1.54] and wasting [OR=1.21; 95% CI 0.90 − 1.64], nor in severely wasted [OR=1.27; 95% CI 0.79 − 2.04] and severely stunted [OR=0.99; 95% CI 0.76 −1.26]. However, we determined that 3% of the variance of wasting [95% CI 1.25 − 10.42] and 9.4% of the variance of stunting [95% CI 6.45 − 13.38] were due to systematic differences between communities of residence. The presence of the intervention in the communities explained 2% of the community-level variance of stunting and 3% of the community-level variance of wasting. Conclusions: With the scaling-up of the national free health policy in Africa, we stress the need for rigorous evaluations and the means to measure expected changes in order to better inform health interventions.
Chapitre de livre


  • Lange Marie-France (2021) « The evolution and forms of education privatisation within francophone countries », in Realizing the Abidjan Principles on the Right to Education, par Frank Adamson, Sylvain Aubry, Mireille de Koning, et Delphine Dorsi, Edward Elgar Publishing, p. 220-243. ISBN : 978-1-83910-603-3. https://www.elgaronline.com/view/edcoll/9781839106026/9781839106026.00019.xml.

  • Tsibolane Pitso, Albornoz B. María Belén, Arriagada Arturo, Putri Trevi, Van Belle Jean-Paul, Chavez Henry, Heeks Richard, Howson Kelle, Bonhomme Macarena, Leyton Jorge, Ibañez Francisco, Bezuidenhout Louise et Graham Mark (2021) « Fairwork in the platform economy: a global south perspective », in Cracking the future of work. Automation and Labor Platforms in the Global South, éd. par Ramiro Albrieu, Buenos Aires : FOWIGS; CIPPEC; IDRC, p. 188-230. https://fowigs.net/publication/cracking-the-future-of-work-automation-and-labor-platforms-in-the-global-south/.


  • Alexandre Laurice (2021) « Entrepreneurship », in The Palgrave Encyclopedia of the Possible, Cham : Springer International Publishing, p. 1-9. ISBN : 978-3-319-98390-5. https://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-319-98390-5_201-1.
    Résumé : Entrepreneurship is a French word which describes the action of undertaking a venture. However, the concept of entrepreneurship is being expressed in other words such as small business. The concept is part of a multidisciplinary approach: economy, management, psychology, sociology, geography, gender, and education. While the entrepreneur of the sixteenth or eighteenth century was considered as an industrial, an innovator, or a manager, today the entrepreneur should play a large social and economic role and most of all create jobs. This is in light with Drucker’s (1985) definition “entrepreneurship is the act that endows resources with a new capacity to create wealth.” Research on entrepreneurship have started with Insudtrials, Economics, and Researchers but gained a lot of interest in Management from the 1970s. Many topics have been addressed such as: the psychological profile, the opportunity concept, the entrepreneurial intention, internationalization, education, business model, intrapreneurship, social and responsible entrepreneurship, gender, and so on.

  • Baxerres Carine et Pourraz Jessica (2021) « Clashes between subsidized and private ACT markets When administrative, Global Health, and marketing regulations collide », in Understanding Drugs Markets An Analysis of Medicines, Regulations and Pharmaceutical Systems in the Global South, London : Routledge, p. 320. (Routledge Studies in the Sociology of Health and Illness). ISBN : 978-0-367-35067-3.


  • Bernard-Maugiron Nathalie (2021) « Religious references in the constitutions of the Arab World », in Constitutional Review in the Middle East and North Africa, Nahoststudien. Middle Eastern Studies, 4: p. 273-289. ISBN : 978-3-8487-7151-6. https://www.nomos-elibrary.de/10.5771/9783748912019-271/religious-references-in-the-constitutions-of-the-arab-world-islamization-of-the-constitution-or-constitutionalization-of-religion.


  • Bernard-Maugiron Nathalie (2021) « La garde et l’intérêt de l’enfant devant les tribunaux égyptiens », in Les parentalités en Afrique musulmane. Repenser la famille à partir de l’intérêt de l’enfant et des transformations sociales, éd. par Yazid Ben Hounet et Catherine Therrien, Rabat : Centre Jacques-Berque, p. 59-75. (Description du Maghreb). ISBN : 979-10-92046-42-7. https://books.openedition.org/cjb/1787.
    Résumé : En 2008, la loi égyptienne sur l’enfant a été amendée pour exiger que l’intérêt supérieur de l’enfant (maslaha al-tifl al-fadla) prévale « dans toutes les décisions et mesures relatives à l’enfance, quelle que soit la partie qui en est à l’origine ou qui les applique ». Cet amendement, destiné à mettre en œuvre la Convention des Nations unies sur les droits de l’enfant1 ratifiée par l’Égypte en 1990, a été salué comme une avancée fondamentale vers la protection des droits de l’enfant.
  • Boulay Sébastien, Casciarri Barbara et Lecestre-Rollier Béatrice (2021) « Introduction », in L’eau en Mauritanie et dans l’Ouest saharien: représentations, usages et gouvernance d’une ressource en partage, sous la dir.de de Sébastien Boulay, Barbara Casciarri et Béatrice Lecestre-Rollier, Paris : L'Harmattan, 13-14: p. 15-27. (L'Ouest saharien).

  • Chavez Henry (2021) « Le projet postnéolibéral du développement technoscientifique en Équateur : de l’illusion à la dystopie », in Gouvernements progressistes en Amérique Latine (1998-2008): la fin d’un « âge d’or », éd. par Thomas Posado et Franck Gaudichaud, Rennes : PUR, p. 26. ISBN : 978-2-7535-8048-0.


  • Duchesne Véronique (2021) « L’argilo-thérapie dans un hôpital ivoirien : collaboration thérapeutique et co-construction d’un savoir alternatif », in (Ré) Appropriations des savoirs, éd. par Marie Chosson, Marie-Albane de Suremain, et Anne Viguier, Presses de l’Inalco, p. 427-448. ISBN : 978-2-85831-386-0 978-2-85831-387-7. http://books.openedition.org/pressesinalco/43927.
    Résumé : La situation de collaboration entre un médecin généraliste et un tradipraticien de santé, au sein de l’unité de médecine traditionnelle d’un hôpital ivoirien, a engendré une pratique et un savoir sur l’argilo‑thérapie, co‑construits par chacun. Cependant, étant donné leurs formations et leurs identités professionnelles différentes, des ajustements dans la pratique thérapeutique ont été nécessaires. Ce cas d’étude permet d’interroger la pertinence de la catégorie de « Médecine traditionnelle » pour qualifier des pratiques et des savoirs qui n’ont cessé de se transformer et de s’ouvrir sur l’extérieur. Cette catégorie, désormais obsolète, peut masquer des innovations thérapeutiques en cours. Enfin, le rôle de l’hôpital, en Afrique comme ailleurs, est aussi questionné : il pourrait être le lieu requis de recherches et d’expériences ouvertes à des thérapies alternatives, avec comme objectif de reconnaître la complémentarité entre les médecines, en prenant soin d’identifier les limites de chacune.
  • Duchesne Véronique (2021) « Un passeur entre les mondes », in Jean-Marie Adiaffi Adé. Entre éclairs et foudres, coordonné par Serge Grah, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire : Valesse, p. 67-71.

  • Gautier Lara (2021) « From development brokers to diffusion entrepreneurs: a review of concepts designating influential policy actors in global governance », in POLICY DIFFUSION: NEW CONSTRAINTS, NEW REALITIES. Proceedings of the II International Conference on Policy Diffusion and Development Cooperation, par Osmany Porto de Oliveira, Sao Paulo : Balão Editorial, p. 81-102. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/356541171_From_development_brokers_to_diffusion_entrepreneurs_a_review_of_concepts_designating_influential_policy_actors_in_global_governance.
    Résumé : Policy ideas travel through space and time thanks to people and communities who give them meaning. Public policy analysts, development anthropologists and others, have conceived a wide array of terminologies to designate those influential policy actors who actively participate in the ‘traveling’ of those policy ideas. In this chapter, we adopt the ideational perspective of policy analysis to review the public policy and social science literatures. We offer a comprehensive overview of the terminologies used and applied in the context of global policymaking. We review each concept through a critical eye, highlighting some of their strengths and limitations, particularly in the constantly evolving context of ‘multi-centric’ governance. We draw on the limitations of each reviewed concept to suggest another concept, that would incorporate the multi-centric nature of contemporary global governance - that of 'diffusion entrepreneurs'. Questions can be raised as to the opportunity and relevance of adding yet another concept to describe policy actors in global governance. We attempt to answer these questions in the second part of the chapter. We close this conceptual review by sharing reflections on the future of applying the global policy entrepreneurs/ agents/ translators/ brokers terminologies from a decolonial angle.

  • Joxe Ludovic (2021) « Des espaces de contrôle aux espaces d'intimité. La notion de hors-travail chez Médecins Sans Frontières », in Dé-libérer le travail. Démocratie et temporalités au cœur des enjeux de santé au travail, par Claire Edey Gamassou et Arnaud Mias, Buenos Aires : Teseo Press, p. 99-125. https://www.teseopress.com/delibererletravail/chapter/des-espaces-de-controle-aux-espaces-dintimite-la/.
    Résumé : Quel sens revêt la notion de hors-travail lorsque des salariés, comme ceux de l’organisation Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), restent contraints par leur univers de travail sans interruption pendant des mois ? Me basant sur une observation participante lors d’une dizaine de missions avec MSF et sur la définition d’un hors-travail entendu comme un temps de préservation de l’intime, je défends l’idée que la notion de hors-travail est floutée chez MSF d’une part par le partage du logement entre collègues, par la flexibilité des horaires de travail, par la présence de règles de sécurité 24 heures sur 24 ou par la délégation de la santé des salariés pendant toute la durée de leur mission à l’organisation, mais d’autre part par un motif sous-jacent à tous les autres : l’enjeu autour de la signification du mot travail, entre activité contraignante et activité épanouissante.


  • Kabbanji Lama (2021) « Rethinking migration and development as a hegemonic project », in Handbook on the Governance and Politics of Migration, Emma Carmel, Katharina Lenner and Regine Paul, USA : Edward Elgar, p. 73-85. ISBN : 978 1 78811 722 7. https://www.elgaronline.com/view/edcoll/9781788117227/9781788117227.00012.xml.
    Résumé : This chapter uncovers power dynamics that shape the politics of migration and development using Gramsci’s concepts of hegemony and integral state. It shows how a political agenda has been elaborated by several state and non-state actors for at least three decades, to disseminate a hegemonic neoliberal narrative on migration and development. This narrative, which is rooted in the migration ‘management’ tool kit, seems to have three main objectives: share the costs of migration control with migrant sending countries; regulate competition among industrialized countries for highly skilled workers; and impose economic restructuring and particular forms of governance in the countries of the ‘Global South’. To do so, various political and financial mechanisms have been implemented in order to constrain or obtain the consent of ‘Global South’ private and public actors. Similar mechanisms have been used more recently to design a new approach for managing displacement.

  • Lange Marie-France (2021) « La privatisation de l’éducation en Afrique de l’Ouest francophone », in Jeunesse d’ici et d'ailleurs. Récits, mobilisation, éducation et socialisation, Hommage à Suzie Guth, professeure émérite à l’Université de Strasbourg (ed. Simantoto Mafuta Apollinaire-Sam), Paris : L’Harmattan, p. 171-191. (Logiques Sociales). ISBN : 978-2-343-22276-9.
  • Manac'h Léopoldine (2021) « “Pouvons-nous être amis ?” Nommer la relation entre bénévoles et exilés dans un Prahda », in Les camps de Babel, Inalco, Paris.

  • Manac'h Léopoldine et Huët Romain (2021) « Les dispositifs d’écoute et la dépolitisation de la souffrance », in De si violentes fatigues. Les devenirs politiques de l’épuisement politique, Paris : PUF. ISBN : 978-2-13-082892-1.

  • Mick Carola et Garatea Grau Carlos (2021) « Cultura institucional y diálogo intercultural: la consulta previa en Perú », in Perspectivas antropológicas de la consulta indígena, éd. par Alejandro Diez Hurtado, Lima, Pérou : PUCP, p. 79-108. ISBN : 978-612-4355-09-7.


  • Mick Carola (2021) « Regímenes naturales-culturales de contacto: dinámicas discursivas en el contacto de lenguas en el Perú », in Traspasando lo lingüístico: factores esenciales en el contacto de lenguas, éd. par Sara Gómez Seibane, María Sánchez Paraíso, et Azucena Palacios Alcaine, Madrid Frankfurt am Main : Iberoamericana Vervuert, p. 187-205. (Lengua y sociedad en el mundo hispánico). ISBN : 978-84-9192-228-5 978-3-96869-234-0. https://www.iberoamericana-vervuert.es/FichaLibro.aspx?P1=197911.

  • Mick Carola (2021) « Ñuqanchik – ñoqaykuna – ñukanchikuna – nosotros: posicionarse como “quechua” en el Perú », in Dinámicas lingüísticas de las situaciones de contacto., éd. par Azucena Palacios et María Sánchez Paraíso, Berlin/Boston : De Gruyter, 1: p. 195‑229. (Lingüística Latinoamericana). ISBN : 978-3-11-070125-8.


  • Mick Carola (2021) « Los usos de pronombres átonos de actores de la Consulta Previa en el Perú », in Prácticas lingüísticas heterogéneas. Nuevas perspectivas para el estudio del español en contacto con lenguas amerindias., éd. par Santiago Sánchez Moreano et Elodie Blestel, Berlin : language science press, p. 229-266. (Contact and Multilingualism). ISBN : 978-3-96110-332-4. https://langsci-press.org/catalog/book/236.
    Résumé : Con la implementación de la Ley de Consulta Previa de los pueblos indígenas y originarios en el año 2011 en el Perú, ya no son solo migrantes internos los que promueven el contacto entre diferentes variedades del español, sino que se dinamiza el contacto de una forma potencialmente más global, simétrica y recíproca. El presente artículo analiza estas dinámicas concentrándose en los sistemas de pronombres clíticos átonos de 3a persona en el español de actores de la Consulta Previa. Estudios anteriores reconstruyeron sistemas diferentes para el español de hablantes provenientes de zonas bilingües quechua-español y hablantes monolingües de la capital, pero demuestran que, con más movilidad rural-capitalina, los hablantes andinos tienden a converger hacia el sistema capitalino monolingüe. Aquí se toman en consideración actores andinos y limeños de la Consulta Previa con diferentes grados de movilidad: comuneros locales, representantes indígenas a nivel regional y nacional, y actores limeños con vínculos más o menos intensos con hablantes provenientes de zonas bilingües quechua-hablantes. El análisis demuestra un acercamiento de los sistemas de pronombres clíticos en algunos aspectos – pero no todos – conforme aumente y se intensifique la movilidad rural-capitalina de los hablantes de ambas procedencias; en cuanto a la movilidad social, sin embargo, parece que mientras más la construcción de identidad de los hablantes andinos se apoya en la categoría institucionalmente protegida del “indígena”, más enfatizan su particularidad lingüística. Por consiguiente, el artículo argumenta que existe un uso estratégico – no necesariamente consciente – de las características lingüísticas según el contexto de comunicación. El presente estudio confirma que las prácticas lingüísticas “en el sur global” (Léglise 2017) no son homogéneas, sino que llevan las huellas de dinámicas socioculturales heteróclitas; el análisis de los pronombres clíticos en el español de contacto permite acercarse al entendimiento de las transformaciones que conlleva la implementación de la Ley de la Consulta Previa en el Perú.

  • Pourraz Jessica, Haxaire Claudie et Arhinful Daniel Kojo (2021) « Strengthening national pharmaceutical regulation through local production », in Understanding Drugs Markets An Analysis of Medicines, Regulations and Pharmaceutical Systems in the Global South, London : Routledge, p. 321. (Routledge Studies in the Sociology of Health and Illness). ISBN : 978-0-367-35067-3.
  • Ridde Valéry (2021) « From malaria-dengue to an intervention in Burkina Faso », in Sonar-Global team. SPECIAL SOC EPIDEMICS: Training social scientists on the social dimensions of epidemics, par A Billaud, Alice Desclaux, et K. Sow, Dakar : CRCF.


  • Ruiz de Elvira Laura (2021) « « Associations de bienfaisance et prise en charge du social en Syrie. De l’étatisme à la "décharge" », in Les mondes de la bien-faisance. Les pratiques du bien au prisme des sciences sociales, Paris : CNRS Editions, p. 355-377. (CNRS Alpha). ISBN : 978-2-271-13205-5. https://www.cnrseditions.fr/catalogue/sciences-politiques-et-sociologie/les-mondes-de-la-bien-faisance/.


  • Ruiz de Elvira Laura et Saeidnia Sahar Aurore (2021) « Introduction. Les mondes de la bien-faisance. Pour une nouvelle analyse des pratiques du « bien » », in Les mondes de la bien-faisance. Les pratiques du bien au prisme des sciences sociales, Paris : CNRS Editions, p. 15-37. (CNRS Alpha). ISBN : 978-2-271-13205-5. https://www.cnrseditions.fr/catalogue/sciences-politiques-et-sociologie/les-mondes-de-la-bien-faisance/.


  • Ruiz de Elvira Laura et Saeidnia Sahara Aurore (2021) « Beneficence and Welfare: Notes for the Comparative Study of “Doing Good” Practices (‘amal khayr) in the Islamic World », in Social Policy in the Islamic World (Editors: Tajmazinani, Ali Akbar), Palgrave MacMillan, p. 63-82. ISBN : 978-3-030-57753-7. https://www.palgrave.com/gp/book/9783030577520.
Article de colloque

  • Andrianantoandro, Tantely, Rakotoarimanana, Feno, Pourette, Dolorès, Razakamanana, Marilys, Rakotomalala, Olivier et Ramiaramanana, Jeannot (2021) « Une méthode mixte pour explorer les facteurs de recours et de non-recours aux soins de santé maternelle dans la région de Vakinankaratra, Madagascar (étude RESOFEN) » (Poster), présenté à 1er Colloque Virtuel de la Communauté Méthodes Mixtes Francophonies (MMF). Théories et pratiques en méthodes mixtes. http://methodesmixtesfrancophonie.pbworks.com.
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