Publications des membres du Ceped

2020

Article de revue


  • Carillon Séverine, Gosselin Anne, Coulibaly Karna, Ridde Valery et Desgrées du Loû Annabel (2020) « Immigrants facing Covid 19 containment in France : An ordinary hardship of disaffiliation », Journal of Migration and Health, 1-2, p. 100032. DOI : 10.1016/j.jmh.2020.100032. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2666623520300325.
    Résumé : In order to limit the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the majority of governments have introduced population containment. Certain population groups, including immigrants in precarious situations, are experiencing the impact of this measure in a brutal manner. This article is based on accounts of containment experiences collected by telephone within the framework of a pre-existing intervention research carried out among immigrants to France from Sub-Saharan Africa who are in a precarious situation. It highlights certain social effects of containment and the logics at work in the precarious situations. This research shows how this a priori unprecedented situation affects individual capacities to act and generates a ‘disaffiliation process’ causing individuals to shift towards ‘social non-existence’, repeating lived experiences and exacerbating pre-existing logics. The ordeal of containment proves to be an ordinary experience for these individuals.


  • Cavallaro Francesca L, Benova Lenka, Dioukhane El Hadji, Wong Kerry, Sheppard Paula, Faye Adama, Radovich Emma, Dumont Alexandre, Mbengue Abdou Salam, Ronsmans Carine et Martinez-Alvarez Melisa (2020) « What the percentage of births in facilities does not measure: readiness for emergency obstetric care and referral in Senegal », BMJ Global Health, 5 (3) (mars), p. e001915. DOI : 10.1136/bmjgh-2019-001915. http://gh.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/bmjgh-2019-001915.
    Résumé : Introduction L'augmentation des accouchements en établissement en Afrique subsaharienne n'a pas entraîné la baisse attendue de la mortalité maternelle, ce qui suscite des inquiétudes quant à la qualité des soins dispensés dans les établissements. La disponibilité des établissements à différents niveaux du système de santé à fournir à la fois des soins obstétricaux et néonatals d'urgence (REMU) ainsi que des références n'est pas connue. Nous décrivons cette préparation combinée par niveau d'établissement et par région au Sénégal. Méthodes Pour cette étude transversale, nous avons utilisé les données de neuf enquêtes démographiques et de santé entre 1992 et 2017 au Sénégal pour décrire les tendances de la localisation des naissances au fil du temps. Nous avons utilisé les données de l'évaluation de la prestation de services de 2017 pour décrire le REMU et l'état de préparation aux aiguillages d'urgence à tous les niveaux des établissements du système public, où 94% des naissances se produisent. Un recensement des installations du système national de positionnement mondial a été utilisé pour cartographier l'accès des installations de niveau inférieur à l'installation la plus proche pratiquant des césariennes. Résultats Les naissances en établissement sont passées de 47% en 1992 à 80% en 2016, tirées par les naissances dans les postes de santé de niveau inférieur, où la moitié des naissances en établissement se produisent désormais. Les taux de césariennes dans les zones rurales ont plus que doublé, mais seulement à 3,7%, indiquant des améliorations mineures dans l'accès aux EmONC. Seuls 9% des postes de santé étaient pleinement prêts pour les REMU de base, et 62% étaient prêts à être référés (véhicule sur place ou téléphone et accès au véhicule ailleurs). Bien que les établissements publics aient représenté les trois quarts de toutes les naissances en 2016, seulement 16% de ces naissances ont eu lieu dans des établissements capables de fournir une préparation combinée adéquate pour le REMU et l'orientation. Conclusions Nos résultats impliquent que de nombreux établissements publics de niveau inférieur - le lieu de naissance le plus courant au Sénégal - sont incapables de traiter ou d'orienter les femmes souffrant de complications obstétricales, en particulier dans les zones rurales. Compte tenu de l'augmentation des naissances dans les établissements de niveau inférieur au Sénégal et ailleurs, il est urgent d'améliorer le REMU et la préparation à l'orientation pour accélérer la réduction de la mortalité maternelle et périnatale.


  • Chady Shimeen-Khan (2020) « L’influence des représentations diglossiques sur les pratiques d’enfants et d’adolescents mauriciens », Le francais aujourd'hui, 208 (1) (mars 20), p. 31-41. DOI : 10.3917/lfa.208.0031. https://www.cairn.info/revue-le-francais-aujourd-hui-2020-1-page-31.htm.
    Résumé : Cet article vise à montrer les écarts entre discours et pratiques chez des enfants et adolescents mauriciens causés, selon moi, par les injonctions scolaires, familiales et sociales qui entretiennent des représentations diglossiques au sein de la société. Après une première socialisation en Kreol morisien (KM) pour la grande majorité des Mauriciens, l’entrée à l’école les oblige à adopter une nouvelle norme, celle du français. La famille se plie aussi souvent à cette injonction, entrainant, chez les enfants, des contradictions dans leurs comportements face aux langues en présence. On remarque en effet que, malgré les représentations diglossiques persistantes, le KM trouve sa place dans le répertoire langagier de ces enfants qui l’utilisent quand même parfois à l’école. Au secondaire, lorsque les réseaux des jeunes s’élargissent, le KM prend une place plus importante dans les pratiques de ces jeunes et pourrait traduire une opposition face aux injonctions scolaires, familiales et sociales. L’étude se fonde ici sur deux enquêtes menées en 2013 et 2014, peu de temps après l’introduction du kM au primaire, effective depuis 2012.
    Mots-clés : Adolescents, Contact de langues, École, Éducation, Enfants, Jeunes, Maurice, Représentations.


  • Chao Fengqing, Guilmoto Christophe Z., K. C. Samir et Ombao Hernando (2020) « Probabilistic projection of the sex ratio at birth and missing female births by State and Union Territory in India », éd. par William Joe, PLOS ONE, 15 (8) (août 19), p. e0236673. DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0236673. https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0236673.
    Résumé : The sex ratio at birth (SRB) in India has been reported to be imbalanced since the 1970s. Previous studies have shown there is a great variation in the SRB between geographic locations across India till 2016. Considering the enormous population and regional heterogeneity of India, producing probabilistic SRB projections at the state level is crucial for policy planning and population projection. In this paper, we implement a Bayesian hierarchical time series model to project the SRB across India by state. We generate SRB probabilistic projections from 2017 to 2030 for 29 States and Union Territories (UTs) in India, and present results for 21 States/UTs with data available from the Sample Registration System. Our analysis takes into account two state-specific factors that contribute to sex-selective abortion in India, resulting in sex imbalances at birth: the intensity of son preference and fertility squeeze. We project that the highest deficits in female births will occur in Uttar Pradesh, with a cumulative number of missing female births of 2.0 (95% credible interval [1.9; 2.2]) million from 2017 to 2030. The total female birth deficits during 2017-2030 for the whole of India is projected to be 6.8 [6.6; 7.0] million.


  • Chaudat Philippe (2020) « Les usages de l’alcool à Meknès (Maroc) : entre interdits, censure et autocensure », L’Année du Maghreb, 22 (juillet 14), p. 263-274. DOI : 10.4000/anneemaghreb.6596. http://journals.openedition.org/anneemaghreb/6596.
    Résumé : Au Maroc, l’alcool est interdit aux musulmans, et pourtant de nombreux commerces (bars, épiceries…) proposent cette marchandise à des consommateurs qui sont des musulmans. Pour pouvoir vendre de l’alcool, les commerçants organisent, selon des modalités qui leur sont propres, leur espace et leurs pratiques pour les rendre invisibles tandis que les clients, de leur côté, masquent leurs achats et leurs usages. Ainsi, les mécanismes d’autocensure que génère l’alcool consistent, non pas à s’en abstenir, mais à masquer la visibilité de sa circulation et de sa consommation. Dès lors, l’appréhension sociale de la transgression porte moins sur le non-respect de l’interdit que sur le non-respect de cette autocensure.


  • Chaudat Philippe (2020) « The uses of alcohol in Meknes (Morocco): prohibitions, censorship and self-censorship », L'Année du Maghreb, 22 (juillet 14), p. 263-274. DOI : 10.4000/anneemaghreb.6596. http://journals.openedition.org/anneemaghreb/6596.
    Résumé : In Morocco, alcohol is forbidden to Muslims, and yet many shops (bars, grocery stores...) offer these goods to consumers who are Muslims. In order to be able to sell alcohol, shopkeepers organize, on the one hand, according to their own arrangements, their space and practices to make them invisible, while customers, on the other hand, hide their purchases and uses. Thus, the self-censorship mechanisms generated by alcohol do not so much consist in abstaining from its consumption, but in hiding the visibility of its circulation and consumption. Consequently, the social apprehension of transgression is less about not respecting the ban than about not respecting this self-censorship.

  • Chavez Henry et Gaybor Jacqueline (2020) « COVID-19, tecnología y poder: los peligros del optimismo tecnológico y el surgimiento del omnióptico global », F-ILIA, 1 (2) (octobre). http://ilia.uartes.edu.ec/download/oct2020-mar2021-filia-2-art02/?wpdmdl=13236&masterkey=5f9049e91ba99.
    Résumé : En medio de la crisis de COVID-19, los países enfrentan la necesidad de restringir la movilidad para reducir la propagación del virus. Ante la urgencia, varios gobiernos alrededor del mundo, entre esos el Ecuador, están empezando a implementar nuevos mecanismos de control basados en tecnologías de Big Data e inteligencia artificial. Sin embargo, la rapidez de estas decisiones y la falta de reflexión y debate sobre sus posibles consecuencias a corto y largo plazo puede llevarnos a engendrar una nueva estructura de poder y control, construida sobre la base de nuestros propios rastros digitales. Esta nueva estructura puede transformar radicalmente la relación entre Estados y ciudadanos y dar paso a la instauración de regímenes cada vez más autoritarios alrededor del mundo.
    Mots-clés : ⛔ No DOI found.

  • Cicchelli Vincenzo et Octobre Sylvie (2020) « S’ouvrir au monde par les consommations culturelles globales », Champs culturels, 30 (octobre), p. 79-84. http://education-socioculturelle.ensfea.fr/wp-content/uploads/sites/19/2020/10/WEB-maquetteCC30.pdf.
    Résumé : La globalisation de la culture et l’intensification de la circulation des biens cultu- rels ont favorisé l’internationalisation des répertoires culturels des jeunes : leurs réfé- rences mêlent influences américaines, asiatiques, mais aussi indiennes et latines... et redessinent les contours de leurs savoirs et de leurs imaginaires sur le monde. Au-delà de l’opposition terme à terme entre authenticité et réinvention, les auteurs mettent en évidence la manière dont les consommations de produits étrangers nourrissent avec force la construction d’un rapport médié à l’altérité.
    Mots-clés : ⛔ No DOI found.


  • Cicchelli Vincenzo et Octobre Sylvie (2020) « Cosmopolitan Empowerments and Biographical Trajectories among Young French Fans of Hallyu », Culture and Empathy: International Journal of Sociology, Psychology, and Cultural Studies, 3 (34) (novembre 30), p. 95-118. DOI : 10.32860/26356619/2020/3.34.0004. https://culturenempathy.org/cosmopolitan-empowerments-and-biographical-trajectories-among-young-french-fans-of-hallyu/.
    Résumé : This article explores the passion of young French people for the Hallyu, within the framework of an analysis of the contribution of the “consumption of difference” (Schroeder 2015) to the formation of the self through the figure of the ‘cosmopolitan amateur’ (Cicchelli and Octobre 2018a). We will first look at the reasons for the success of Hallyu in France then discuss the different forms of empowerment stemmed from the consumption of Korean products, among young people (74 in depth-interviews with young fans aged 18-31) with no previous link with Korea, which nurture their biographical trajectories.


  • Cloos Patrick, Ndao Elhadji Malick, Aho Josephine, Benoît Magalie, Fillol Amandine, Munoz-Bertrand Maria, Ouimet Marie-Jo, Hanley Jill et Ridde Valéry (2020) « The negative self-perceived health of migrants with precarious status in Montreal, Canada: A cross-sectional study », éd. par Luisa N. Borrell, PLOS ONE, 15 (4) (avril 9), p. e0231327. DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0231327. https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0231327.
    Résumé : Background Knowledge about the health impacts of the absence of health insurance for migrants with precarious status (MPS) in Canada is scarce. MPS refer to immigrants with authorized but temporary legal status (i.e. temporary foreign workers, visitors, international students) and/or unauthorized status (out of legal status, i.e. undocumented). This is the first large empirical study that examines the social determinants of self-perceived health of MPS who are uninsured and residing in Montreal. Methods and findings Between June 2016 and September 2017, we performed a cross-sectional survey of uninsured migrants in Montreal, Quebec. Migrants without health insurance (18+) were sampled through venue-based recruitment, snowball strategy and media announcements. A questionnaire focusing on sociodemographic, socioeconomic and psychosocial characteristics, social determinants, health needs and access to health care, and health self-perception was administered to 806 individuals: 54.1% were recruited in urban spaces and 45.9% in a health clinic. 53.9% were categorized as having temporary legal status in Canada and 46% were without authorized status. Regions of birth were: Asia (5.2%), Caribbean (13.8%), Europe (7.3%), Latin America (35.8%), Middle East (21%), Sub-Saharan Africa (15.8%) and the United States (1.1%). The median age was 37 years (range:18–87). The proportion of respondents reporting negative (bad/fair) self-perception of health was 44.8%: 36.1% among migrants with authorized legal status and 54.4% among those with unauthorized status (statistically significant difference; p<0.001). Factors associated with negative self-perceived health were assessed using logistic regression. Those who were more likely to perceive their health as negative were those: with no diploma/primary/secondary education (age-adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.49 [95% CI 1.53–4.07, p<0.001] or with a college diploma (AOR: 2.41 [95% CI 1.38–4.20, p = 0.002); whose family income met their needs not at all/a little (AOR: 6.22 [95% CI 1.62–23.85], p = 0.008) or met their needs fairly (AOR: 4.70 [95% CI 1.21–18.27], p = 0.025); with no one whom they could ask for money (AOR: 1.60 [95% CI 1.05–2.46], p = 0.03); with perception of racism (AOR: 1.58 [95% CI 1.01–2.48], p = 0.045); with a feeling of psychological distress (AOR: 2.17 [95% CI 1.36–3.45], p = 0.001); with unmet health care needs (AOR: 3.45 [95% CI 2.05–5.82], p<0.001); or with a health issue in the past 12 months (AOR: 3.44 [95% CI 1.79–6.61], p<0.001). Some variables that are associated with negative self-perceived health varied according to gender: region of birth, lower formal education, having a family income that does not meet needs perfectly /very well, insalubrious housing, not knowing someone who could be asked for money, and having ever received a medical diagnosis. Conclusions In our study, almost half of immigrants without health insurance perceived their health as negative, much higher than reports of negative self-perceived health in previous Canadian studies (8.5% among recent immigrants, 19.8% among long-term immigrants, and 10.6% among Canadian-born). Our study also suggests a high rate of unmet health care needs among migrants with precarious status, a situation that is correlated with poor self-perceived health. There is a need to put social policies in place to secure access to resources, health care and social services for all migrants, with or without authorized status.


  • Collectif « Etrangèr-es et division internationale du travail scientifique » de la coordination des Facs et labos en lutte, Noûs Camille et Kabbanji Lama (2020) « « Bienvenue en France ! ». Entretien réalisé avec les Malvenu-es de l'Université », Tracés. Revue de Sciences humaines, 39 (septembre 15), p. 39-65. DOI : 10.4000/traces.11759. http://journals.openedition.org/traces/11759.
    Résumé : En juillet 2020, la rédaction de Tracés a rencontré sept membres du collectif « Etrangèr-es et division internationale du travail scientifique » de la coordination des Facs et labos en lutte pour un entretien qui a pris la forme d’une discussion à bâtons rompus au cours de laquelle il a, entre autres, été question de revenir sur la genèse du collectif, sur les différentes formes de précarisations des étrangères et des étrangers au sein de l’ESR, sur la difficulté à faire entendre une voix autonome pour les étrangères et les étrangers dans le cadre des mobilisations contre la LPPR et sur les horizons de luttes qui convergeraient enfin. C’est cette discussion libre, qui n’a pas « la tête d’un entretien », que nous reproduisons dans ces pages.


  • Copans Jean (2020) « Subjectivations of/at work », La Nouvelle Revue du Travail, 17 (novembre 1). DOI : 10.4000/nrt.7741. http://journals.openedition.org/nrt/7741.


  • Coulibaly Abdourahmane, Gautier Lara, Zitti Tony et Ridde Valéry (2020) « Implementing performance-based financing in peripheral health centres in Mali: what can we learn from it? », Health Research Policy and Systems, 18 (1). DOI : 10.1186/s12961-020-00566-0. https://health-policy-systems.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12961-020-00566-0.
    Résumé : IntroductionNumerous sub-Saharan African countries have experimented with performance-based financing (PBF) with the goal of improving health system performance. To date, few articles have examined the implementation of this type of complex intervention in Francophone West Africa. This qualitative research aims to understand the process of implementing a PBF pilot project in Mali's Koulikoro region.MethodWe conducted a contrasted multiple case study of performance in 12 community health centres in three districts. We collected 161 semi-structured interviews, 69 informal interviews and 96 non-participant observation sessions. Data collection and analysis were guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research adapted to the research topic and local context.ResultsOur analysis revealed that the internal context of the PBF implementation played a key role in the process. High-performing centres exercised leadership and commitment more strongly than low-performing ones. These two characteristics were associated with taking initiatives to promote PBF implementation and strengthening team spirit. Information regarding the intervention was best appropriated by qualified health professionals. However, the limited duration of the implementation did not allow for the emergence of networks or champions. The enthusiasm initially generated by PBF quickly dissipated, mainly due to delays in the implementation schedule and the payment modalities.ConclusionPBF is a complex intervention in which many actors intervene in diverse contexts. The initial level of performance and the internal and external contexts of primary healthcare facilities influence the implementation of PBF. Future work in this area would benefit from an interdisciplinary approach combining public health and anthropology to better understand such an intervention. The deductive-inductive approach must be the stepping-stone of such a methodological approach.


  • Dagenais Christian et Ridde Valéry (2020) « Le transfert des connaissances scientifiques, « c’est bien, mais c’est pas encore arrivé… » », Revue francophone de recherche sur le transfert et l’utilisation des connaissances (août 12), p. Vol. 4 No 1 (2020). DOI : 10.18166/TUC.2020.4.1.16. https://revue-tuc.ca/index.php/accueil/article/view/16.
    Résumé : Éditorial du numéro 1, volume 4 de la Revue Tuc, Revue francophone de recherche sur le transfert et l’utilisation des connaissances.
    Note Note
    <h2>SeriesInformation</h2> Revue francophone de recherche sur le transfert et l’utilisation des connaissances , Vol. 4 No 1 (2020)


  • DeBeaudrap Pierre, Beninguisse Gervais, Mouté Charles, Temgoua Carolle Dongmo, Kayiro Pierre Claver, Nizigiyimana Vénérand, Pasquier Estelle, Zerbo Aida, Barutwanayo Emery, Niyondiko Dominique et Ndayishimiye Nicolas (2020) « The multidimensional vulnerability of people with disability to HIV infection: Results from the handiSSR study in Bujumbura, Burundi », EClinicalMedicine (août), p. 100477. DOI : 10.1016/j.eclinm.2020.100477. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2589537020302212.
    Résumé : Dans les contextes à ressources limitées, les données disponibles indiquent que les personnes handicapées sont touchées de manière disproportionnée par l'épidémie de VIH. Bien que l'invalidité résultant d'une infection chronique à VIH ait fait l'objet d'une certaine attention, peu d'études épidémiologiques ont examiné la vulnérabilité des personnes handicapées à l'acquisition du VIH. Les objectifs de l'étude étaient les suivants: estimer et comparer la prévalence du VIH parmi les personnes avec et sans handicap vivant à Bujumbura, au Burundi; d'examiner comment l'interaction entre le handicap, le sexe et l'environnement socio-économique façonne la vulnérabilité au VIH; et d'identifier les voies potentielles vers un risque plus élevé de VIH. Méthodes Dans cette étude transversale basée sur la population, 623 personnes handicapées (302 avec un début d'incapacité ≤10 ans [«handicap précoce»]) et 609 personnes sans incapacité appariées pour l'âge, le sexe et le lieu ont été sélectionnées au hasard pour être testées pour le VIH et de participer à une entrevue sur leur histoire de vie, leur environnement social et leurs connaissances en santé sexuelle. Résultats Au total, 68% des hommes et 75% des femmes handicapées étaient touchés par la pauvreté multidimensionnelle contre 54% et 46% de leurs pairs non handicapés ( p <0,0001). Une prévalence plus élevée du VIH a été observée chez les femmes souffrant d'un handicap (12,1% [8,2-16]) que chez ceux sans (3,8% [1,7-6], OU un 3,8, p <0,0001), alors qu'il était similaire chez les hommes souffrant d'un handicap et les sans ( p = 0 · 8). Les femmes handicapées sont également plus à risque de violence sexuelle que celles ne (OU un 2.7, p<0,0001). La vulnérabilité des femmes ayant une incapacité précoce au VIH était plus élevée parmi celles qui étaient socialement isolées (prévalence du VIH dans ce groupe: 19% [12–27]). De plus, le niveau d'éducation et la violence sexuelle ont médié 53% de l'association entre le handicap précoce et le VIH ( p = 0,001). Interprétation Cette étude met en évidence comment l'intersection du handicap, du genre et de l'environnement social façonne la vulnérabilité au VIH. Il montre également que la vulnérabilité au VIH des femmes qui ont grandi avec un handicap est médiée par la violence sexuelle. Le financement Cette recherche a été financée par l'Organisation néerlandaise pour la recherche scientifique (subvention W08.560.005) et l'Initiative VIH-TB-Malaria (nouveau nom de l'organisation). Mots clés : Invalidité, VIH, Violence sexuelle, Le sexe, Intersection, Afrique subsaharienne


  • Desjeux Dominique et Yang Xiaoming (2020) « Une approche anthropologique de la beauté en Chine : La Dynamique de la beauté du corps en Chine à travers l’étude des soins du corps et du maquillage entre 1997 et 2014 », Contemporary French and Francophone Studies, 24 (1) (janvier 1), p. 46-61. DOI : 10.1080/17409292.2020.1754688. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17409292.2020.1754688.
    Résumé : France has long been the standard source of inspiration for traditional criteria of elegance and beauty for the whole world. In this article, a French anthropologist looks at China’s recent emergence in this field. In 1980, the cosmetics market was non-existent in China; in 2019, it became the world’s largest market. Beauty (care of the body, skin, face, hair, neck, hands, and nails) has been used as a marker for changes in that society for fifty years. Conceptions of beauty are used to analyze the variation of aesthetic standards, the place of the collective in relation to the individual, the position of women in Chinese society, the importance of practices marking social class distinction or evolving tensions between generations. The beauty market is both the result of lifestyle changes (especially the rise of divorce, new social stratification, intercultural mixing, life transformations cycle stages) and the establishment of a double logistics system. Public logistics allow the supply and marketing of cosmetics in shopping centers. Private logistics, those of bathrooms and the arrival of running water and electricity in urban housing, make it possible for Chinese women to use makeup and body products. This analysis shows that although beauty has an individual and intimate dimension, it also has a strong political and collective dimension. Beauty combines conformity with transgression. Keywords: Beauty, market changes, consumption, Cultural Revolution, China, social conditions


  • Diallo Alhassane, Diallo Boubacar Djelo, Camara Lansana Mady, Kounoudji Lucrèce Ahouéfa Nadège, Bah Boubacar, N’Zabintawali Fulgence, Carlos-Bolumbu Miguel, Diallo Mamadou Hassimiou et Sow Oumou Younoussa (2020) « Different profiles of body mass index variation among patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: a retrospective cohort study », BMC Infectious Diseases, 20 (1). DOI : 10.1186/s12879-020-05028-0. https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12879-020-05028-0.
    Résumé : Contexte Malgré le rôle prédictif de la variation du poids corporel dans les résultats du traitement dans la tuberculose multirésistante (TB-MR), peu de données corroborantes sont disponibles. Nous avons étudié la variation de poids chez les patients atteints de TB-MR pour identifier les groupes de changement de poids et déterminer les facteurs qui influencent ces changements. Les méthodes Nous avons analysé les patients présentant une résistance à la rifampicine qui ont été traités par un schéma thérapeutique contre la TB-MR entre le 7 juin 2016 et le 22 juin 2018 dans trois grands centres de TB résistants aux médicaments en Guinée. Les patients ont été vus tous les mois jusqu'à la fin du traitement. Le résultat clinique était l'indice de masse corporelle (IMC). Nous avons utilisé un modèle mixte linéaire pour analyser les trajectoires de l'IMC et un modèle mixte de classe latente pour identifier les groupes de trajectoires de l'IMC. Résultats Sur 232 patients traités pour TB-MR au cours de la période d'étude, 165 ont été analysés. Ces patients ont eu un total de 1 387 visites, avec une médiane de 5 visites (intervalle interquartile, 3 à 8 visites). L'IMC mensuel était de 0,24 (SE 0,02) par kg / m 2 . Les facteurs associés à une progression plus rapide de l'IMC étaient le succès du traitement de la TB-MR (0,24 [SE 0,09] par kg / m 2 ; p  = 0,0205) et l'absence de cavités pulmonaires aux rayons X (0,18 [0,06] par kg / m 2 ; p  = 0,0068). Deux groupes de changement d'IMC ont été identifiés: augmentation rapide de l'IMC ( n  = 121; 85%) et augmentation lente de l'IMC ( n = 22; 15%). Les patients du groupe à augmentation lente de l'IMC étaient principalement des femmes (68%) n'avaient aucun antécédent de traitement antituberculeux (41%), avaient une infection par le VIH positive (59%) et avaient une condition clinique plus sévère au départ, caractérisée par une fréquence plus élevée des symptômes, dont la dépression (18%), la dyspnée (68%), une mauvaise observance du traitement contre la TB-MR (64%), une numération plaquettaire plus faible et un SGOT plus élevé. Ces patients ont également eu un temps de conversion de culture plus long (test du log-rank: p  = 0,0218). Conclusion Les données quantitatives de l'IMC sur les patients atteints de TB-MR traités avec un régime court ont permis d'identifier des sous-groupes de patients avec différentes trajectoires d'IMC et ont souligné l'utilité de l'IMC en tant que biomarqueur pour le suivi des résultats du traitement de la TB-MR.


  • Duchesne Véronique (2020) « Un film de recherche : différents publics, différents formats - Various Audiences, Various Formats », Anthropologie et Santé, 21 (novembre 30). DOI : 10.4000/anthropologiesante.7527. http://journals.openedition.org/anthropologiesante/7527.
    Résumé : This text raises the question of the lack of definition of editorial frameworks for the diffusion of films made by anthropologists. To this end, it examines four projection-receptions of the author's film Des racines, une loi, dealing with the institutionalization of traditional medicine in Cote d'Ivoire. The aim is to show how a research film is perceived by different audiences, beyond the anthropological research issues that the anthropologist-video maker has chosen to put into images and sounds. The screenings in front of different audiences thus offer the starting point for an anthropo-filmic reflexive approach by looking at the receptions and even social uses of the film beyond the initial scientific project.


  • Dumont Alexandre, Betrán Ana Pilar, Kaboré Charles, Loenzien Myriam de, Lumbiganon Pisake, Bohren Meghan A., Mac Quoc Nhu Hung, Opiyo Newton, Carroli Guillermo, Annerstedt Kristi Sidney, Ridde Valery, Escuriet Ramón, Robson Michael, Hanson Claudia et The QUALI-DEC research group (2020) « Implementation and evaluation of nonclinical interventions for appropriate use of cesarean section in low- and middle-income countries: protocol for a multisite hybrid effectiveness-implementation type III trial », Implementation Science, 15 (1) (décembre). DOI : 10.1186/s13012-020-01029-4. https://implementationscience.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13012-020-01029-4.
    Résumé : Background While cesarean sections (CSs) are a life-saving intervention, an increasing number are performed without medical reasons in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Unnecessary CS diverts scarce resources and thereby reduces access to healthcare for women in need. Argentina, Burkina Faso, Thailand, and Vietnam are committed to reducing unnecessary CS, but many individual and organizational factors in healthcare facilities obstruct this aim. Nonclinical interventions can overcome these barriers by helping providers improve their practices and supporting women’s decision-making regarding childbirth. Existing evidence has shown only a modest effect of single interventions on reducing CS rates, arguably because of the failure to design multifaceted interventions effectively tailored to the context. The aim of this study is to design, adapt, and test a multifaceted intervention for the appropriate use of CS in Argentina, Burkina Faso, Thailand, and Vietnam. Methods We designed an intervention (QUALIty DECision-making—QUALI-DEC) with four components: (1) opinion leaders at heathcare facilities to improve adherence to best practices among clinicians, (2) CS audits and feedback to help providers identify potentially avoidable CS, (3) a decision analysis tool to help women make an informed decision on the mode of birth, and (4) companionship to support women during labor. QUALI-DEC will be implemented and evaluated in 32 hospitals (8 sites per country) using a pragmatic hybrid effectiveness-implementation design to test our implementation strategy, and information regarding its impact on relevant maternal and perinatal outcomes will be gathered. The implementation strategy will involve the participation of women, healthcare professionals, and organizations and account for the local environment, needs, resources, and social factors in each country. Discussion There is urgent need for interventions and implementation strategies to optimize the use of CS while improving health outcomes and satisfaction in LMICs. This can only be achieved by engaging all stakeholders involved in the decision-making process surrounding birth and addressing their needs and concerns. The study will generate robust evidence about the effectiveness and the impact of this multifaceted intervention. It will also assess the acceptability and scalability of the intervention and the capacity for empowerment among women and providers alike.
  • Dumont Alexandre et Guilmoto Christophe Z. (2020) « Trop et pas assez à la fois Le double fardeau de la césarienne », Population & Sociétés, INED, 581 (septembre).
    Résumé : Le taux de césarienne varie de 1 % à 58 % dans le monde. Il est particulièrement bas, en deçà de 5 %, dans des pays peu développés d’Afrique subsaharienne comme le Mali (2 %), le Nigéria (3 %) et le Congo (5 %). À l’opposé, il dépasse les 30 % dans des pays européens comme Chypre (57 %), la Géorgie (41 %), la Roumanie (40 %) ou l’Italie (35 %). Il est très élevé aussi en Amérique latine qui a une longue histoire d’accouchements par césarienne. La République dominicaine arrive en tête avec 58 %, suivie notamment par le Brésil (55 %), le Chili (50 %) et l’Équateur (49 %).
    Mots-clés : ⛔ No DOI found.

  • El Abid Ghislaine et Meyer Jean-Baptiste (2020) « Maroc : la bi-citoyenneté à l’épreuve du confinement », Politique Africaine (septembre 11), p. 5p. (Le Carnet de la revue). https://polaf.hypotheses.org/6907.


  • Etard Jean-François, Vanhems Philippe, Atlani-Duault Laëtitia et Ecochard René (2020) « Potential lethal outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) among the elderly in retirement homes and long-term facilities, France, March 2020 », Eurosurveillance, 25 (15) (avril), p. 2000448. DOI : 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.15.2000448. https://www.eurosurveillance.org/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.15.2000448#figuresntables.
    Résumé : Reports from the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak in China identified older age as a predictor of severity and mortality [1]. A retrospective analysis of individual case data from China and elsewhere showed a very strong age gradient in the infection fatality ratio (IFR) and case fatality ratio (CFR) [2]. In France, as at 15 March 2020, people older than 75 years accounted for 20% of the confirmed cases but 79% of the deaths [3]. Cardiovascular diseases, hypertension and diabetes mellitus were the comorbidities most frequently associated with COVID-19, and many patients died of their original comorbidities [4,5]. All these comorbidities are highly common among dependent elderly people housed in institutions. Using simple calculation, we present here the impact of several worst-case scenarios in French institutions.


  • Fauconnier Arnaud, Provot Johan, Le Creff Isabelle, Boulkedid Rym, Vendittelli Françoise, Doret-Dion Muriel, Sroussi Jérémy, Giraudet Géraldine, Jacobs Romain, Bourret Antoine, Bauville Estelle, Carvalho Solenn, Tourette Claire, Koskas Martin, Akladios Chérif, Nisolle Michelle, Lejeune Christophe, Huchon Cyrille, Alberti Corinne, Dumont Alexandre et Bouvier-Colle Marie-Hélène (2020) « A Framework Proposal for Quality and Safety Measurement in Gynecologic Emergency Care », Obstetrics & Gynecology, 136 (5), p. 912-921. DOI : 10.1097/AOG.0000000000004132. https://journals.lww.com/10.1097/AOG.0000000000004132.
    Résumé : OBJECTIVE: To define and assess the prevalence of potentially life-threatening gynecologic emergencies among women presenting for acute pelvic pain for the purpose of developing measures to audit quality of care in emergency departments. METHODS: We conducted a mixed-methods multicenter study at gynecologic emergency departments in France and Belgium. A modified Delphi procedure was first conducted in 2014 among health care professionals to define relevant combinations of potentially life-threatening conditions and near misses in the field of gynecologic emergency care. A prospective case-cohort study in the spring of 2015 then assessed the prevalence of these potentially life-threatening emergencies and near misses among women of reproductive age presenting for acute pelvic pain. Women in the case group were identified at 21 participating centers. The control group consisted of a sample of women hospitalized for acute pelvic pain not caused by a potentially life-threatening condition and a 10% random sample of outpatients. RESULTS: Eight gynecologic emergencies and 17 criteria for near misses were identified using the Delphi procedure. Among the 3,825 women who presented for acute pelvic pain, 130 (3%) were considered to have a potentially life-threatening condition. The most common diagnoses were ectopic pregnancies with severe bleeding (n=54; 42%), complex pelvic inflammatory disease (n=30; 23%), adnexal torsion (n=20; 15%), hemorrhagic miscarriage (n=15; 12%), and severe appendicitis (n=6; 5%). The control group comprised 225 hospitalized women and 381 outpatients. Diagnostic errors occurred more frequently among women with potentially life-threatening emergencies than among either hospitalized (odds ratio [OR] 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.7) or outpatient (OR 14.7, 95% CI 8.1-26.8) women in the control group. Of the women with potentially life-threatening conditions, 26 met near-miss criteria compared with six with not potentially life-threatening conditions (OR 25.6, 95% CI 10.9-70.7). CONCLUSIONS: Potentially life-threatening gynecologic emergencies are high-risk conditions that may serve as a useful framework to improve quality and safety in emergency care.
    Pièce jointe Texte intégral 384.6 ko (source)


  • Fillol Amandine, Kadio Kadidiatou et Gautier Lara (2020) « L’utilisation des connaissances pour informer des politiques publiques : d’une prescription technocratique internationale à la réalité politique des terrains », Revue francaise des affaires sociales, 4, p. 103-127. DOI : 10.3917/rfas.204.0103. https://www.cairn.info/revue-francaise-des-affaires-sociales-2020-4-page-103.htm.
    Résumé : Le fait d’utiliser des connaissances explicites pour informer les décisions politiques est de plus en plus encouragé au niveau international, notamment par le mouvement d’information des politiques par les données probantes (evidence-informed policy making). Si la valeur sous-jacente à ce mouvement est de rationaliser le processus politique, les recherches en sciences sociales ont depuis longtemps permis d’observer que les connaissances sont des objets sociaux, dépendants des contextes politiques et économiques. L’objectif de notre analyse est de décrire à partir de trois études de cas (les politiques de protection sociale au Burkina Faso, une stratégie de transfert de connaissances sur les politiques de gratuité au Niger et la diffusion du financement basé sur la performance au Mali), comment ces connaissances, peuvent orienter la formulation des politiques publiques. Ces trois études de cas nous permettent d’observer que nous sommes loin des connaissances explicites comme vectrices de neutralité, de transparence et de reddition des comptes. Alors que la santé et la protection sociale sont des sujets prenant de plus en plus d’importance sur la scène globale, nous observons que l’utilisation des connaissances scientifiques ou de l’expertise est sensible aux intérêts, orientée par les institutions, et influencée par la mondialisation.


  • Fillol Amandine et Ridde Valéry (2020) « Gouvernance globale et utilisation des connaissances pour l’action: », Revue francophone de recherche sur le transfert et l’utilisation des connaissances, 4 (2) (décembre 1). DOI : 10.18166/tuc.2020.4.2.15. https://revue-tuc.ca/index.php/accueil/article/view/15.
    Mots-clés : action collective, connaissances explicites, gouvernance globale, Interdisciplinarité.


  • For The New Antiretroviral and Monitoring Strategies in HIV-infected Adults in Low-Income Countries (NAMSAL) ANRS 12313 Study Group, Bousmah Marwân-al-Qays, Nishimwe Marie Libérée, Tovar-Sanchez Tamara, Lantche Wandji Martial, Mpoudi-Etame Mireille, Maradan Gwenaëlle, Omgba Bassega Pierrette, Varloteaux Marie, Montoyo Alice, Kouanfack Charles, Delaporte Eric et Boyer Sylvie (2020) « Cost-Utility Analysis of a Dolutegravir-Based Versus Low-Dose Efavirenz-Based Regimen for the Initial Treatment of HIV-Infected Patients in Cameroon (NAMSAL ANRS 12313 Trial) », PharmacoEconomics (décembre 23). DOI : 10.1007/s40273-020-00987-3. http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s40273-020-00987-3.

  • Fresneau Jérôme et Gautier Lara (2020) « À la croisée des chemins : le jeune chercheur entre désir d’interdisciplinarité et ancrage monodisciplinaire », Encyclo. Revue de l'école doctorale Science des sociétés (ED 624), 11 (juillet 22), p. 9-15. https://hal-univ-paris.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02900683.


  • Gautier Lara, Casseus Thierry, Blanc Judite et Cloos Patrick (2020) « What links can be made from narratives of migration and self-perceived health? A qualitative study with Haitian migrants settling in Quebec after the 2010 Haiti earthquake », Journal of Migration and Health, 1-2 (décembre 15), p. 100017. DOI : 10.1016/j.jmh.2020.100017. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2666623520300179.
    Résumé : In January 2010, Haiti was hit by a terrible earthquake that pushed thousands of people to migrate. Many of them chose to settle in Quebec, Canada. Years after the earthquake, many Haitians continue to migrate to the Quebec province. Several studies however have shown that this population's socioeconomic status is lower than the provincial average. Given the potential multiple stressors that affect Haitian migrants in Quebec, there are concerns about their health status. Located at the intersection of international migration studies and global public health, this paper offers an in-depth qualitative investigation of Haitian migrants’ representations of both their situation and self-perceived health in Montreal, Quebec. Our perspective on migrant health was inspired by the World Health Organisation's framework on the social determinants of health and recent studies in the field of migrant health. We collected and analysed qualitative data from 23 key informants (i.e., 12 women and 11 men, aged 21–76 years old) from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds. The analysis of the data from these people's narratives revealed the importance of structural determinants such as social position, and intermediate determinants such as living and working conditions. Our analysis also highlighted several interrelations between those determinants. Specifically, participants reported coping with issues related to migration status, income, occupation, language, challenging living and working conditions, and chronic stress. This study also shows that racism and social support each relate to both the structural and intermediate levels of the social determinants of health. The importance of social support brought by relatives, friends, as well as community-based organisations and religious practice, was underscored. Our findings were coherent with available literature looking at the determinants of health of racialized and migrant minorities in other high-income regions of the world. Our conclusive remarks featured reflections on three cross-cutting issues and their practical implications for policy and practices.
    Mots-clés : Canada, Earthquake, Haiti, Migrant health, Montreal, Qualitative research, Quebec, Racism, Social determinants of health.


  • Gautier Lara, De Allegri Manuela et Ridde Valéry (2020) « Transnational Networks’ Contribution to Health Policy Diffusion: A Mixed Method Study of the PerformanceBased Financing Community of Practice in Africa », International Journal of Health Policy and Management (avril 27). DOI : 10.34172/ijhpm.2020.57. https://www.ijhpm.com/article_3796.html.
    Résumé : Background: Transnational networks such as Communities of Practice (CoPs) are flourishing, yet their role in diffusing health systems reforms has been seldom investigated. Over the past decade, performance-based financing (PBF) has rapidly spread in Africa. This study explores how, through the PBF Community of Practice’s attributes, structure, and strategies, PBF diffusion was fostered in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Methods: Informed by the diffusion entrepreneurs’ (DEs) framework dimensions, we used a mixed methods convergent design to investigate how the attributes, structure, and strategies of this community fostered the diffusion of PBF. The quantitative strand of work included firstly a semantic discourse analysis of textual data extracted from CoP’s online discussion forum (n=1346 posts). Secondly, the relational data extracted from these 1346 forum posts was examined using social network analysis (SNA). We confronted these quantitative results with a thematic analysis of qualitative interviews (n=40) and data extracted from the CoP’s key documentation (n=17). Results: CoP members’ attributes included: representation systems anchored in clinical and economic sciences, strong expectations that the CoP would boost professional visibility and career, and significant health systems knowledge and social resources. The CoP’s core group, dominated by high-income country (HIC) members, critically matched PBF principles to major health systems issues in Africa. The broad consensus in online PBF thematic discussions created a strong sense of community, a breeding ground for emulation among CoP members. The CoP also sought to produce and promote experiential knowledge exchanges about PBF amongst African practitioners. Findings from network analyses showed that the promoted Africa-driven community was led by HIC members, although their prominence tended to decrease with time. Conclusion: This empirical research highlighted some of the constituting features, structure, and strategies of policy networks in influencing health policy diffusion. Despite good intentions to disrupt the established governance landscape, influential actors coming from HICs continued to drive the framing, and shaped health systems policy experimentation, emulation, and learning in African countries. Beyond mere knowledge exchange platforms, CoP can act as meaningful transnational policy networks pursuing the diffusion of health systems reforms, such as PBF. Keywords: Transnational Policy Networks, Communities of Practice, Social Network Analysis, Semantic Analysis, Performance-Based Financing, Sub-Saharan Africa


  • Gautier Lara, Karambé Youssouf, Dossou Jean-Paul et Samb Oumar Mallé (2020) « Rethinking development interventions through the lens of decoloniality in sub-Saharan Africa: The case of global health », Global Public Health (décembre 8), p. 1-14. DOI : 10.1080/17441692.2020.1858134. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17441692.2020.1858134.
    Résumé : There has been much talk about decolonizing global health lately. The movement, which has arisen in various communities around the world, suggests an interesting critique of the Western dominant model of representations. Building upon the ‘decolonial thinking’ movement from the perspective of Francophone African philosophers, we comment on its potential for inspiring the field of global healthinterventions. Using existing literature and personal reflections, we reflect on two widely known illustrations of global health interventions implemented in sub-Saharan Africa – distribution of contraceptives and dissemination of Ebola virus prevention and treatment devices – featuring different temporal backdrops. We show how these solutions have most often targeted the superficial dimensions of global health problems, sidestepping the structures and mental models that shape the actions and reactions of African populations. Lastly, we question the ways through which the decolonial approach might indeed offer a credible positioning for rethinking global health interventions.
    Mots-clés : decoloniality, development interventions, Global health, sub-Saharan Africa.


  • Gautier Lara et Quesnel-Vallée A. (2020) « Health and social needs of unprotected unaccompanied minors in Paris in the context of COVID-19 », European Journal of Public Health, 30 (Supplement_5) (septembre 1). DOI : 10.1093/eurpub/ckaa166.296. https://academic.oup.com/eurpub/article/doi/10.1093/eurpub/ckaa166.296/5915121.
    Résumé : Background Unaccompanied minors (UMs) are children under 18 settling in foreign countries without the care of a guardian. Host countries' governments are responsible for the care of UMs. In France, UMs theoretically receive child protection. However, assessment systems frequently deny their protection because of minority status rejection. As a result, they navigate through social precarity and have limited access to healthcare services. In Paris, the non-governmental organisation Médecins du Monde (MdM) offers them medico-psycho-social care. In March 2020, lockdown measures to contain COVID-19 further reduced unprotected UMs' access to social and healthcare services. This critical situation prompted MdM to adapt their care provision to the pandemic. In this research, we sought answers to the following research question: what were unprotected UMs' social and healthcare needs during lockdown and what was MdM's response? Methods First, we estimate the evolution of social and healthcare needs of a cohort of 58 unprotected UMs during the eight-week lockdown using secondary data. Second, using interview data with MdM volunteers and staff (n = 15) we further explore UMs' needs and document the experience of phone consultations with this cohort of UMs. Preliminary Results Time series show a constant increase of UMs' needs through time. MdM's new form of care provision may have contributed to alleviate their feeling of isolation. It also had unintended consequences. Conclusions In light of the alarming healthcare status of unprotected UMs, we recommend that France implements the public health authorities' recommendation to provide appropriate shelter to UMs regardless of their status, at least during health crises.


  • Gautier Lara, Spagnolo Jessica et Quesnel-Vallée Amélie (2020) « Comment favoriser la communication thérapeutique avec une population vulnérable ?: Des approches et des outils pour les professionnels prenant en charge les mineurs non accompagnés », Migrations Société, N°181 (3), p. 121. DOI : 10.3917/migra.181.0121. http://www.cairn.info/revue-migrations-societe-2020-3-page-121.htm?ref=doi.
    Résumé : En France, les mineurs non accompagnés (mna) rencontrent de multiples obstacles qui peuvent avoir des effets négatifs sur leur santé mentale. Les professionnels de la santé et du social qui participent à leur prise en charge doivent développer et mettre en œuvre des approches et outils adaptés aux réalités des mna et qui leur offrent un espace d’interactions le plus ouvert possible. À partir d’une revue de littérature, nous proposons dans cet article de dresser un état des lieux de la santé mentale des mna et d’identifier les approches ainsi que les outils développés et mis en œuvre par les professionnels qui visent à favoriser la communication et l’expression des mna (notamment l’approche interculturelle, le travail en interdisciplinarité, l’art-thérapie). Nous formulons en conclusion plusieurs pistes de réflexion à l’endroit des professionnels et des pouvoirs publics qui travaillent avec ce jeune public migrant.


  • Gosselin Anne, Coulibaly Karna, Ravalihasy Andrainolo, Carillon Séverine, Ridde Valéry, Derche Nicolas, Mbiribindi Romain et Desgrees du Loû Annabel (2020) « Finding the missing link: when community-based outreach in public space is key to engage migrants in health prevention programmes in Paris, France », J Epidemiol Community Health (avril 28). DOI : 10.1136/jech-2019-213394. https://jech.bmj.com/content/early/2020/04/29/jech-2019-213394.
    Résumé : Background One of the classic challenges for prevention programmes is reaching the populations they serve. In France, a substantial number of African migrants living with HIV acquired their infection after migrating. The aim of this paper is to better understand the characteristics of the population reached by a community-based outreach approach. Methods We compared sociodemographic characteristics across three different groups in the Paris greater area: (1) the general African migrant population (Population census), (2) the African migrant population using either the regular healthcare system or the system for vulnerable populations (PARCOURS Survey) and (3) the African migrant population reached through a community-based mobile unit (Afrique Avenir). Comparisons were conducted according to sex, age, region of origin, duration of residence and occupational and legal statuses using χ2 tests. Results The migrants reached by the mobile unit were mostly men (69%), 52% of whom were younger than 35 years old. They more often lived in precarious situations than did the general sub-Saharan population (49% vs 35% were unemployed, respectively, p<0.001) and the ones accessing the regular healthcare system. Fewer of them lived in precarious situations than did migrants seeking healthcare consultations for vulnerable populations (42% in the mobile unit vs 54% in healthcare consultations were undocumented, p<0.028). Conclusion Our study shows that the outreach approach can constitute a missing link in the prevention chain among sub-Saharan African migrants, reaching a group that differs from the general migrant population and from the migrant population in healthcare services—not only the newly arrived migrants who live in more precarious situations but also those who have been in France for several years and are still affected by social hardship.
    Mots-clés : community-based organisations, HIV/aids, migrants, outreach, prevention.


  • Gosselin Anne, Daly Alison, El Zaemey Sonia, Fritschi Lin, Glass Deborah, Perez Elena Ronda et Reid Alison (2020) « Does exposure to workplace hazards cluster by occupational or sociodemographic characteristics? An analysis of foreign‐born workers in Australia », American Journal of Industrial Medicine (juin 23). DOI : 10.1002/ajim.23146. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ajim.23146.
    Résumé : Background Disparities in exposure to occupational hazards may be linked to social position as well as the type of job a person holds. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of exposure to workplace hazards among three migrant worker groups and to assess whether social disparities in exposure for these groups remain after adjusting for occupational characteristics. Methods Data were collected in 2017/2018 from 1630 Australian workers born in New Zealand, India, and the Philippines. Weighted estimated prevalence of exposure to 10 carcinogens and four psychosocial hazards (discrimination, job strain, vulnerability, and insecurity) was calculated for sociodemographics and occupation. Regression estimated the likelihood of exposure by sociodemographics after adjustment for occupational characteristics. Results Exposure to workplace hazards ranged from 11.7% (discrimination) to 61.2% (exposed to at least one carcinogen). Compared with workers born in India, New Zealand born workers were over twice as likely to be exposed to diesel engine exhaust (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.60) and 60% more likely to be exposed to at least one carcinogen (aOR = 1.60) but less likely to be exposed to any psychosocial hazard. Social disparities by country of birth, sex, age, education, and number of years in Australia, as well as company size, employment type, and hours, worked remained associated with greater likelihood of reporting one or more workplace hazards after adjusting for occupational characteristics.


  • Goudet Jean-Marc (2020) « La circulation des enfants au sein du champ médico-scolaire local dans un quartier populaire en France », Lien social et Politiques, 85, p. 192-210. DOI : 10/gngph7. https://www.erudit.org/fr/revues/lsp/2020-n85-lsp05691/1073748ar/.
    Résumé : Comment expliquer les hétérogénéités de trajectoires médico-scolaires d’enfants scolarisés au sein d’un quartier populaire de métropole dans la France contemporaine ? La régulation des populations enfantines ne se ferait plus uniquement par le contrôle des familles, mais par la prise en compte des critères biomédicaux individuels qui a pour corollaire une production de nouvelles catégories enfantines et le développement d’un marché paramédical libéral. Cela concorde avec l’émergence des « troubles des apprentissages », qui explosent depuis les années 2000 en écho aux lois relatives au handicap et à l’inclusion scolaire. À partir d’une enquête ethnographique menée de 2017 à 2019 dans les institutions médico-scolaires d’un quartier de métropole, cet article montre l’articulation des paradigmes neuroscientifiques et du déterminisme parental chez les professionnels, les parents, ainsi que leurs effets sur les trajectoires enfantines. Les stratégies parentales, enfantines et professionnelles sont analysées à partir d’études de cas d’enfants, et en croisant des matériaux issus des données d’observation en cabinet d’orthophonie et dans un centre de médecine scolaire avec des entretiens réalisés auprès des mères. Cet article met en évidence deux principaux résultats, d’une part l’extension du paradigme neuroscientifique au champ de l’enfance et de la scolarité avec la création d’un « champ médico-scolaire local », et d’autre part l’émergence d’une « nouvelle hygiène scolaire » construite à partir des normes biomédicales et des critères scolaires. Cette circulation de populations enfantines témoigne du processus de tri lié à la production de nouvelles catégories médico-scolaires qui influencent de manière inédite les trajectoires médico-scolaires dans un contexte d’injonction à la réussite scolaire.
    Mots-clés : déterminisme parental, hygiène scolaire, learning disabilities, neuroscientific paradigm, orthophonie, paradigme neuroscientifique, parental determinism, school hygiene, speech therapy, troubles des apprentissages.


  • Grysole Amélie et Bonnet Doris, ss la dir. de (2020) « Introduction au thème. Observer les mobilités sociales : l’investissement migratoire des familles », Politique africaine, 159 (3), 7 p. DOI : 10.3917/polaf.159.0007. http://www.cairn.info/revue-politique-africaine-2020-3-page-7.htm?ref=doi.
    Résumé : La construction de ce dossier qui porte sur les mobilités spatiales et sociales des familles a été nourrie par le renouveau de l’approche par les classes sociales dans la sociologie générale  et la place qu’a (re)prise ce paradigme dans les études africaines, notamment autour du débat sur « l’émergence » des classes moyennes en Afrique·

  • Guidi Pierre (2020) « Autobiographies and the writing of women's history : the example of Hiwot Teffera's Tower in the Sky », Annales d'Éthiopie, 33 (Special Issue “Work in Ethiopia”), p. 217-231. https://cfee.hypotheses.org/7709.
    Résumé : As archives, autobiographies allow analysis of the reciprocal relations between individuals, broader social groups, social structures, and contexts. For decades they have served as valuable sources for feminist historians. They uncover voices often silenced or distorted in institutional archives and historical works. Moreover, autobiographies make it possible to study how gendered structures work and how power relations are experienced and possibly manipulated by women. The several autobiographies recently published by former activists of the Ethiopian revolution are essential sources for historians' understanding of the mechanisms of participation in the revolutionary movement. Drawing on selected themes from Hiwot Teffera's famous work, Tower in the Sky, this article questions the intensity of the student generation of the 1970s' revolutionary commitment and the gendered dimensions of activism. To do so, it focuses on social relations such as love and the ways of belonging to a group, on the rational and emotional drivers of engagement, and on the gendered division of activist work. Lastly, it defends the relevance of autobiography as a multilayered archive that is particularly suitable for the analysis of intricate processes.
    Mots-clés : ⛔ No DOI found.


  • Guidi Pierre (2020) « Enseigner l’histoire à l’heure de l’ébranlement colonial. Soudan, Égypte et empire britannique (1943–1960): by Iris Seri-Hersch, Paris, IISMM/Karthala, 2018, 384 pp., €29 (paperback), ISBN: 978-2-8111-1970-6. », Paedagogica Historica (avril 22), p. 1-2. DOI : 10.1080/00309230.2020.1742746. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00309230.2020.1742746.

  • Guiheux Gilles, Guo Ye, Hou Renyou, Laurent Manon, Li Jun et Ruinet Anne-Valerie (2020) « Working in China in the Covid-19 Era », Books & ideas (mai 25). https://booksandideas.net/Working-in-China-in-the-Covid-19-Era.html.
    Résumé : China managed to maintain a certain amount of economic activity during the lockdown, but at what cost and under what conditions? This article highlights the regime's use of the media alongside the political and market logics specific to China. China shut down its factories, offices, shops and transport systems in late January 2020 in order to stop the spread of Covid-19, as result of which its population was strictly confined to their homes for weeks on end. In China, however, as has been (...)
    Mots-clés : ⛔ No DOI found.

  • Guiheux Gilles, Guo Ye, Hou Renyou, Laurent Manon, Li Jun et Ruinet Anne-Valerie (2020) « Travailler en Chine au temps du Covid-19 », La Vie des idées (mai 11). https://laviedesidees.fr/Travailler-en-Chine-au-temps-du-Covid-19.html.
    Résumé : À quel prix et dans quelles conditions une partie de l'activité économique a-t-elle été maintenue lors du confinement en Chine ? Cet article met en lumière la mobilisation des médias par le régime, coexistant avec des logiques politiques et marchandes spécifiques de la Chine. À partir de la fin janvier 2020, pour stopper la diffusion du Covid-19, la Chine met à l'arrêt ses usines, ses bureaux, ses commerces et ses transports ; la population reste strictement cloîtrée chez elle pendant de longues (...)
    Mots-clés : ⛔ No DOI found.


  • Guilmoto Christophe Z., Chao Fengqing et Kulkarni Purushottam M. (2020) « On the estimation of female births missing due to prenatal sex selection », Population Studies, 74 (2) (mai 3), p. 283-289. DOI : 10.1080/00324728.2020.1762912. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00324728.2020.1762912.
    Résumé : Cette note de recherche est inspirée par un article de Kashyap (La sélection prénatale du sexe est-elle associée à une mortalité infantile plus faible? Population Studies 73 (1): 57–78). L'article de Kashyap, qui fournit 40 estimations originales des naissances féminines manquantes, repose sur une autre définition des naissances féminines manquantes, conduisant à des estimations d'environ la moitié de l'ampleur des autres estimations. Il apparaît donc un réel besoin de faire le point sur le concept des naissances féminines manquantes largement utilisé par les statisticiens du monde entier pour évaluer les conséquences démographiques de la sélection prénatale du sexe. Cette note de recherche commence par un bref examen de l'histoire du concept et de la différence entre la méthode originale d'Amartya Sen et la méthode alternative trouvée ailleurs pour calculer les naissances féminines manquantes. Mots clés: sexe , naissances manquantes , estimation , Amartya Sen , sélection prénatale du sexe
  • Guilmoto Christophe Z. et Licart Thomas (2020) « India and coronavirus: lack of access to handwashing facilities among poor makes fight even harder », The Conversation (avril 1).
    Résumé : 'Inde a instauré un verrouillage national le 24 mars dans l'espoir de freiner la propagation de la pandémie de coronavirus. Au début du mois d'avril 2020, le pays a enregistré plus de 1500 cas de COVID-19, la maladie associée au nouveau coronavirus, selon les dernières données disponibles . Ces chiffres se traduisent par des taux de prévalence étonnamment faibles par rapport au reste du monde en raison de l'arrivée tardive du virus. Mais il est possible que le scénario s'aggrave bien , alors que les experts avertissent que l'Inde est gravement menacée, notamment en raison de la vulnérabilité de son système de santé .
    Mots-clés : ⛔ No DOI found.


  • Havlir Diane, Lockman Shahin, Ayles Helen, Larmarange Joseph, Chamie Gabriel, Gaolathe Tendani, Iwuji Collins, Fidler Sarah, Kamya Moses, Floyd Sian, Moore Janet, Hayes Richard, Petersen Maya, Dabis Francois et on behalf of the (Universal Test, Treat Trials) UT3 Consortium (2020) « What do the Universal Test and Treat trials tell us about the path to HIV epidemic control? », Journal of the International AIDS Society, 23 (2). DOI : 10.1002/jia2.25455. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/jia2.25455.
    Résumé : Introduction Achieving HIV epidemic control globally will require new strategies to accelerate reductions in HIV incidence and mortality. Universal test and treat (UTT) was evaluated in four randomized population-based trials (BCPP/Ya Tsie, HPTN 071/PopART, SEARCH, ANRS 12249/TasP) conducted in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) during expanded antiretroviral treatment (ART) eligibility by World Health Organization guidelines and the UNAIDS 90-90-90 campaign. Discussion These three-year studies were conducted in Botswana, Zambia, Uganda, Kenya and South Africa in settings with baseline HIV prevalence from 4% to 30%. Key observations across studies were: (1) Universal testing (implemented via a variety of home and community-based testing approaches) achieved >90% coverage in all studies. (2) When coupled with robust linkage to HIV care, rapid ART start and patient-centred care, UTT achieved among the highest reported population levels of viral suppression in SSA. Significant gains in population-level viral suppression were made in regions with both low and high baseline population viral load; however, viral suppression gains were not uniform across all sub-populations and were lower among youth. (3) UTT resulted in marked reductions in community HIV incidence when universal testing and robust linkage were present. However, HIV elimination targets were not reached. In BCPP and HPTN 071, annualized HIV incidence was approximately 20% to 30% lower in the intervention (which included universal testing) compared to control arms (no universal testing). In SEARCH (where both arms had universal testing), incidence declined 32% over three years. (4) UTT reduced HIV associated mortality by 23% in the intervention versus control communities in SEARCH, a study in which mortality was comprehensively measured. Conclusions These trials provide strong evidence that UTT inclusive of universal testing increases population-level viral suppression and decreases HIV incidence and mortality faster than the status quo in SSA and should be adapted at a sub-country level as a public health strategy. However, more is needed, including integration of new prevention interventions into UTT, in order to reach UNAIDS HIV elimination targets.
    Pièce jointe Texte intégral 917.3 ko (source)


  • Hébert Catherine, Dagenais Christian, Mc Sween-Cadieux Esther et Ridde Valéry (2020) « Video as a public health knowledge transfer tool in Burkina Faso: A mixed evaluation comparing three narrative genres », éd. par Mary Hayden, PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 14 (6) (juin 10), p. e0008305. DOI : 10.1371/journal.pntd.0008305. https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008305.
    Résumé : Background The dengue virus is endemic in many low- and middle-income countries. In Burkina Faso, the proportion of fevers that could be due to dengue is growing. In 2013, a dengue epidemic spread there, followed by other seasonal outbreaks. Dengue is often confused with malaria, and health workers are not trained to distinguish between them. Three training videos using different narrative genres were tested with nursing students from two institutions in Ouagadougou: journalistic, dramatic and animated video. The study aimed to determine if video is an effective knowledge transfer tool, if narrative genre plays a role in knowledge acquisition, and which narrative elements are the most appreciated. Methodology A mixed method research design was used. The relative effectiveness of the videos was verified through a quasi-experimental quantitative component with a comparison group and post-test measurements. A qualitative component identified participants’ perceptions regarding the three videos. Data were drawn from a knowledge test (n = 482), three focus groups with health professionals’ students (n = 46), and individual interviews with health professionals (n = 10). Descriptive statistics and single-factor variance analysis were produced. A thematic analysis was used to analyse qualitative data. Principal findings Results showed that all three videos led to significant rates of knowledge improvement when compared with the comparison group (p <0.05): 12.31% for the journalistic video, 20.58% for the dramatic video, and 18.91% for the animated video. The dramatic and animated videos produced a significantly higher increase in knowledge than did the journalistic video (with respectively 8.27% (p = 0.003) and 6.59% (p = 0.029) and can be considered equivalent with a difference of 1.68% (p = 0.895). Thematic analysis also revealed that these two videos were considered to be better knowledge transfer tools. Four key aspects are important to consider for a video to be effective: 1) transmitting information in a narrative form, 2) choosing good communicators, 3) creating a visual instrument that reinforces the message and 4) adapting the message to the local context. Conclusions Video has proven to be an effective and appreciated knowledge transfer and training tool for health professionals, but the narrative genre of the videos can influence knowledge acquisition. The production of other videos should be considered for training or updating health professionals and their narrative genre taken into consideration. The actual context of constant circulation of new diseases, such as COVID-19, reaffirms the need to train health professionals.


  • Howson Kelle, Ustek-Spilda Funda, Grohmann Rafael, Salem Nancy, Carelli Rodrigo, Abs Daniel, Salvagni Julice, Graham Mark, Albornoz Belén, Chavez Henry, Arriagada Arturo et Bonhomme Macarena (2020) « 'Just Because You Don’t See Your Boss, Doesn’t Mean You Don’t Have A Boss’: Covid-19 And Gig Worker Strikes Across Latin America », International Union Rights, 27 (3), p. 3-5. DOI : 10/gkd2wr. https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.14213/inteuniorigh.27.3.0020.


  • Inghels Maxime, Carillon Séverine, Desgrées du Loû Annabel et Larmarange Joseph (2020) « Effect of organizational models of provider-initiated testing and counseling (PITC) in health facilities on adult HIV testing coverage in sub-Saharan Africa », AIDS Care, 32 (2) (février 1), p. 163-169. DOI : 10.1080/09540121.2019.1626339. https://doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2019.1626339.
    Résumé : The purpose of this paper is to identify which Provider-Initiated HIV Testing and Counseling (PITC) organizational models are the most efficient to maximize testing coverage. We conducted a systematic literature review to identify published articles that evaluated routine PITC programs implemented in adult health facilities in Sub-Saharan Africa. We considered only articles measuring PITC offer, PITC acceptability and PITC coverage. Adjusted meta-regression models were performed to measure the association between PITC offer, acceptability and coverage with PITC organizational model. A total of 30 articles were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, 85.4% [95%CI: 77.2–93.5] of patients were offered a test, and 87.1% [82.4–91.7] accepted the test resulting in a PITC coverage of 74.3% [66–82.6]. Four types of PITC organizational models were identified: PITC initiated and performed during the consultation (model A), PITC initiated before consultation (model B), PITC referred on-site (model C) and PITC referred off-site (model D). Compared to model A, model B had a similar coverage (aOR: 1.02 [0.82–1.26]). However, coverage was lower for model C (aOR: 0.81 [0.68–0.97]) and model D (aOR: 0.58 [0.44–0.77]). Initiating the testing process before or during medical consultation is recommended for maximizing testing coverage among patients.
    Mots-clés : HIV testing, organizational models, Provider initiated testing and counseling, Sub-Saharan Africa, testing cover.


  • Inghels Maxime, Kouassi Arsène Kra, Niangoran Serge, Bekelynck Anne, Carillon Séverine, Sika Lazare, Danel Christine, Kone Mariatou, Desgrées du Loû Annabel et Larmarange Joseph (2020) « Cascade of Provider-Initiated Human Immunodeficiency Virus Testing and Counselling at Specific Life Events (Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Infections, Marriage) in Côte dʼIvoire: », Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 47 (1) (janvier), p. 54-61. DOI : 10.1097/OLQ.0000000000001084. http://Insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00007435-202001000-00012.
    Résumé : BACKGROUND: Despite the implementation of Provider Initiated Testing and Counselling (PITC) in 2009, PITC coverage remains low in Cote d'Ivoire. The purpose of this study is to determine whether an human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) test was offered and performed at specific life events where PITC is recommended by national guidelines. METHODS: In 2017, a cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted among a representative sample of 3,867 adults from the general population in Côte d'Ivoire. The occurrences of the following events over the past 5 years were documented: pregnancy (event A) or partner's pregnancy (event B) of the last child, sexually transmitted infection (event C) and marriage (event D). For each of these events, participants were asked (i) if they consulted a health care professional, (ii) if they were offered an HIV test during that consultation and (iii) if they accepted it. RESULTS: Consulting a health care provider was reported by 94.9%, 58.3%, 70.3% and 19.1% of those who reported events A, B, C and D respectively. In case of medical consultations following events A, B, C and D, respectively 70.1%, 33.1%, 28.1%, and 78.8% of individuals were offered an HIV test. The testing acceptance was high regardless of the event. Overall, testing coverage was 63.7%, 16.9%, 13.4% and 14.5% for events A, B, C and D respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing HIV testing coverage in Côte d'Ivoire requires (i) facilitating attendance to health services in case of sexually transmitted infections, marriage and pregnancy-for men-and (ii) strengthening routine testing offer on these occasions.


  • Inghels Maxime, Kouassi Arsène Kra, Niangoran Serge, Bekelynck Anne, Carillon Séverine, Sika Lazare, Danel Christine, Koné Mariatou, Desgrées du Loû Annabel, Larmarange Joseph et ANRS 12323 DOD-CI Study Group (2020) « Pratiques et facteurs associés au dépistage récent du VIH en population générale, Côte d’Ivoire. Résultats de l’étude ANRS 12323 DOD-CI », Bulletin De La Societe De Pathologie Exotique (1990), 113 (5) (décembre 28), p. 268-277. DOI : 10.3166/bspe-2021-0154. https://bspe.revuesonline.com/article.jsp?articleId=42002.
    Résumé : With 2.9% of HIV prevalence in the general population, Côte d'Ivoire is one of the countries most affected by the HIV epidemic in West Africa. In this country, only 63% of people infected with HIV are aware of their status. A cross-sectional phone survey was conducted with a representative sample of 3,867 individuals to describe the practices and factors associated with a recent HIV testing (≤ 1 year) in Côte d'Ivoire. Data relative to the last done HIV test as well as the socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behavior, access to information, perceptions, capacities and autonomy as well as social and geographical environment of the participants were collected. Logistical regression models were used to identify the associated factors with a recent HIV test (≤ 1 year). Lack of information is one of the main barriers to HIV testing (only 60% of individuals know a place to get tested). For men, despite the fact that HIV testing is free of charge, poor economic conditions seem to be a barrier to testing. The social environment, including peer influence, also appears to have an effect on testing among men. For women, testing is associated with their perceptions of HIV exposure. There is a need to rethink the current HIV testing communication in Côte d'Ivoire and to identify economic or social incentives to remove access barriers to HIV testing.
    Mots-clés : Africa, Western, Afrique subsaharienne, Cote d'Ivoire, Côte d’Ivoire, Cross-Sectional Studies, Dépistage, Enquête téléphonique, Female, HIV Infections, HIV Testing, Humans, Male, Population générale, Sexual Behavior, VIH.


  • Inghels Maxime, Kouassi Arsène Kra, Niangoran Serge, Bekelynck Anne, Carillon Séverine, Sika Lazare, Danel Christine, Kone Mariatou, Desgrees du Lou Annabel, Larmarange Joseph et for the ANRS 12323 DOD-CI Study Group (2020) « Practices and Obstacles to Provider-Initiated HIV Testing and Counseling (PITC) Among Healthcare Providers in Côte d’Ivoire », AIDS and Behavior (mai 24). DOI : 10.1007/s10461-020-02923-0. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-020-02923-0.
    Résumé : Practices of Provider-Initiated HIV Testing and Counseling (PITC) remains suboptimal in Côte d’Ivoire. The aim of this survey was to identify the practices and obstacles to PITC among healthcare professionals in Côte d'Ivoire. A nationally representative cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2018 by telephone among three separate samples of midwives, nurses and physicians practicing in Côte d'Ivoire. The number of HIV tests proposed during consultation in the month preceding the survey was collected for each professional. Factors associated with the number of proposed tests were identified through ordinal logistic regression models. A total of 298 midwives, 308 nurses and 289 physicians were interviewed. Midwives proposed the test more frequently, followed by nurses and physicians. Among midwives, a higher number of proposed tests was associated with the perception that HIV testing does not require specific consent compared to other diseases (aOR 4.00 [95% CI 1.37–14.29]). Among nurses, having received HIV training and the presence of community HIV counselors were associated with a higher number of proposed tests (aOR 2.01 [1.31–3.09] and aOR 1.75 [1.14–2.70], respectively). For physicians, the presence of a voluntary testing center was associated with a higher number of proposed tests (aOR 1.69 [1.01–2.86]). PITC practices and barriers differed across professions. Beyond improving environmental opportunities such as dedicated staff or services, strengthening the motivations and capabilities of healthcare professionals to propose testing could improve PITC coverage.


  • Iwuji Collins, Chimukuche Rujeko Samanthia, Zuma Thembelihle, Plazy Melanie, Larmarange Joseph, Orne-Gliemann Joanna, Siedner Mark, Shahmanesh Maryam et Seeley Janet (2020) « Test but not treat: Community members’ experiences with barriers and facilitators to universal antiretroviral therapy uptake in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa », PLOS ONE, 15 (9) (septembre 24), p. e0239513. DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0239513. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0239513.
    Résumé : Introduction Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has revolutionised the care of HIV-positive individuals resulting in marked decreases in morbidity and mortality, and markedly reduced transmission to sexual partners. However, these benefits can only be realised if individuals are aware of their HIV-positive status, initiated and retained on suppressive lifelong ART. Framed using the socio-ecological model, the present study explores factors contributing to poor ART uptake among community members despite high acceptance of HIV-testing within a Treatment as Prevention (TasP) trial. In this paper we identify barriers and facilitators to treatment across different levels of the socio-ecological framework covering individual, community and health system components. Methods This research was embedded within a cluster-randomised trial (ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01509508) of HIV treatment as Prevention in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Data were collected between January 2013 and July 2014 from resident community members. Ten participants contributed to repeat in-depth interviews whilst 42 participants took part in repeat focus group discussions. Data from individual interviews and focus group discussions were triangulated using community walks to give insights into community members’ perception of the barriers and facilitators of ART uptake. We used thematic analysis guided by a socio-ecological framework to analyse participants’ narratives from both individual interviews and focus group discussions. Results Barriers and facilitators operating at the individual, community and health system levels influence ART uptake. Stigma was an over-arching barrier, across all three levels and expressed variably as fear of HIV disclosure, concerns about segregated HIV clinical services and negative community religious perceptions. Other barriers were individual (substance misuse, fear of ART side effects), community (alternative health beliefs). Facilitators cited by participants included individual (expectations of improved health and longer life expectancy following ART, single tablet regimens), community (availability of ART in the community through mobile trial facilities) and health system factors (fast and efficient service provided by friendly staff). Discussion We identified multiple barriers to achieving universal ART uptake. To enhance uptake in HIV care services, and achieve the full benefits of ART requires interventions that tackle persistent HIV stigma, and offer people with HIV respectful, convenient and efficient services. These interventions require evaluation in appropriately designed studies.
    Mots-clés : Antiretroviral therapy, Health care facilities, HIV, HIV diagnosis and management, HIV prevention, Religion, South Africa, Virus testing.
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