Warszawski Josiane, Meyer Laurence, Franck Jeanna-Eve, Rahib Delphine, Lydié Nathalie, Gosselin Anne, Counil Emilie, Kreling Robin, Novelli Sophie, Slama Remy, Raynaud Philippe, Bagein Guillaume, Costemalle Vianney, Sillard Patrick, Fourie Toscane, Lamballerie Xavier de, Bajos Nathalie et Team Epicov (2022) « Trends in social exposure to SARS-Cov-2 in France. Evidence from the national socio-epidemiological cohort–EPICOV », PLOS ONE, 17 (5) (mai 22), p. e0267725. DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0267725. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0267725.
Résumé : Background We aimed to study whether social patterns of exposure to SARS-CoV-2 infection changed in France throughout the year 2020, in light to the easing of social contact restrictions. Methods A population-based cohort of individuals aged 15 years or over was randomly selected from the national tax register to collect socio-economic data, migration history, and living conditions in May and November 2020. Home self-sampling on dried blood was proposed to a 10% random subsample in May and to all in November. A positive anti-SARS-CoV-2 ELISA IgG result against the virus spike protein (ELISA-S) was the primary outcome. The design, including sampling and post-stratification weights, was taken into account in univariate and multivariate analyses. Results Of the 134,391 participants in May, 107,759 completed the second questionnaire in November, and respectively 12,114 and 63,524 were tested. The national ELISA-S seroprevalence was 4.5% [95%CI: 4.0%-5.1%] in May and 6.2% [5.9%-6.6%] in November. It increased markedly in 18-24-year-old population from 4.8% to 10.0%, and among second-generation immigrants from outside Europe from 5.9% to 14.4%. This group remained strongly associated with seropositivity in November, after controlling for any contextual or individual variables, with an adjusted OR of 2.1 [1.7–2.7], compared to the majority population. In both periods, seroprevalence remained higher in healthcare professions than in other occupations. Conclusion The risk of Covid-19 infection increased among young people and second-generation migrants between the first and second epidemic waves, in a context of less strict social restrictions, which seems to have reinforced territorialized socialization among peers.