Publications des membres du Ceped

2020

Article de revue


  • Quet Mathieu et Dahdah Marine Al (2020) « Technologies Without Borders? The Digitization of Society in a Postcolonial World », Science, Technology and Society, 25 (3), p. 363-367. DOI : 10.1177/0971721820912894. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0971721820912894.


  • Raberahona Mihaja, Monge François, Andrianiaina Rijasoa Harivelo, Randria Mamy Jean de Dieu, Ratefiharimanana Andosoa, Rakatoarivelo Rivo Andry, Randrianary Lanto, Randriamilahatra Emma, Rakotobe Liva, Mattern Chiarella, Andriananja Volatiana, Rajaonarison Hobimahanina, Randrianarisoa Mirella, Rakotomanana Elliott, Pourette Dolorès, Andriamahenina Hery Zo, Dezé Charlotte, Boukli Narjis, Baril Laurence et Vallès Xavier (2020) « Is Madagascar at the edge of a generalised HIV epidemic? Situational analysis », Sexually Transmitted Infections (mai 18). DOI : 10.1136/sextrans-2019-054254. https://sti.bmj.com/content/early/2020/05/17/sextrans-2019-054254.
    Résumé : Objectives To describe the epidemiological situation of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and to identify the main drivers for vulnerability in Madagascar. Design Literature review, qualitative research and situational analysis. Data sources Search of electronic bibliographic databases, national repositories of documentation from 1998 to 2018. Search keywords included Madagascar, HIV, sexually transmitted infections, men who have sex with men (MSM), sex workers (SWs), transactional sex (TS), injecting drug users (IDUs), vulnerability and sexual behaviour. Qualitative sources were interviews and focus group discussions. Review methods Studies focused on HIV and/or vulnerability of HIV in Madagascar in general, and key populations (KPs) and HIV/AIDS response were taken into account. National reports from key HIV response actors were included. Results Madagascar is characterised by a low HIV/AIDS epidemic profile in the general population (GP) (0.3%) combined with a high prevalence of HIV among KPs (SWs, MSM and IDUs).An increase in HIV prevalence among KP has been observed during recent years. Hospital-based data suggest an increase in HIV prevalence among the GP. The vulnerability traits are inconsistent use of condoms, multipartner relationships and other contextual factors like widespread TS and gender inequality. A high prevalence/incidence of sexually transmitted infections could indicate a high vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. However, there are no reports of HIV prevalence of >1% in antenatal consultation. Conclusion There is not enough evidence to make a conclusion about the HIV epidemiological situation in Madagascar due to the scarcity of the epidemiological data. However, Madagascar may be closer to a turning point towards a high-prevalence epidemic with severe consequences, particularly when taking into account its socioeconomical fragility and underlying vulnerabilities. More precise epidemiological data and improved HIV/AIDS diagnosis and case management should be a public health priority.
    Mots-clés : Africa, AIDS, HIV.


  • Rajan Dheepa, Koch Kira, Rohrer Katja, Bajnoczki Csongor, Socha Anna, Voss Maike, Nicod Marjolaine, Ridde Valery et Koonin Justin (2020) « Governance of the Covid-19 response: a call for more inclusive and transparent decision-making », BMJ Global Health, 5 (5) (mai), p. e002655. DOI : 10.1136/bmjgh-2020-002655. http://gh.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/bmjgh-2020-002655.
    Résumé : Not all countries make their Covid-19 task force membership list public—the available information varies by country. There is currently a predominance of politicians, virologists and epidemiologists in the Covid-19 response at the country level. Experts on non-Covid-19 health, social and societal consequences of Covid-19 response measures are, for the most part, not included in Covid-19 decision-making bodies. There is little transparency regarding whom decision-making bodies are consulting as their source of advice and information. From the available data on Covid-19 decision-making entities, female representation is particularly paltry. In addition, civil society is hardly involved in national government decision-making nor its response efforts, barring some exceptions. We need to be more inclusive and multidisciplinary: the Covid-19 crisis is not simply a health problem but a societal one—it impacts every single person in society one way or another. Decision makers need to address more systematically the suffering from mental illness exacerbations, domestic violence, child abuse, child development delays, chronic diseases and so on, during lockdown.


  • Ratovoson Rila, Kunkel Amber, Rakotovao Jean Pierre, Pourette Dolores, Mattern Chiarella, Andriamiadana Jocelyne, Harimanana Aina et Piola Patrice (2020) « Frequency, risk factors, and complications of induced abortion in ten districts of Madagascar: results from a cross-sectional household survey », BMC Women's Health, 20 (1) (mai 6). DOI : 10.1186/s12905-020-00962-2. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32375746/.
    Résumé : Madagascar has restrictive abortion laws with no explicit exception to preserve the woman’s life. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of abortion in the country and examine the methods, consequences, and risk factors of these abortions.


  • Ravaoarisoa Lantonirina, Razafimahatratra Mamy Jean Jacques, Rakotondratsara Mamy Andrianirina, Pourette Dolorès, Rakotonirina Julio et Rakotomanga Jean de Dieu Marie (2020) « Appréciation des interventions de lutte contre la malnutrition maternelle par la population à Madagascar », Sante Publique, Vol. 32 (1) (juin 29), p. 113-122. DOI : 10.3917/spub.201.0113. https://www.cairn.info/revue-sante-publique-2020-1-page-113.htm.
    Résumé : Madagascar has adopted strategies to fight against maternal malnutrition, but the evaluation of their implementation is not effective. Purpose of research: The present study aims to describe beneficiary appreciation of interventions to fight maternal malnutrition and to identify their expectations. Method: A qualitative study was conducted in the Amoron'i Mania region, Madagascar. The study included mothers of children under 5, pregnant women, and other family members and community members (fathers, grandmothers, matrons and community workers). Six focus groups and 16 individual interviews were conducted to collect the data. The thematic analysis was used. Results: Food supplementation, improved production of agriculture and livestock, and nutrition education, operated by NGOs, are the best-known interventions. The health centers were not mentioned as interveners and their interventions were ignored. The effectiveness of the intervention is generally judged on the benefits perceived by the beneficiaries. Interveners working on a project basis were assessed as unsustainable. Two main problems were mentioned: first, the insufficiency of agricultural production resulting in the inaccessibility of the ingredients required for the nutrition education, and second the low coverage of the interventions. The improvement of agricultural production is the main suggestion mentioned to fight against maternal undernutrition. Conclusions: Beneficiaries thought that existing interventions in the region are insufficient to address the problem of malnutrition among mothers.


  • Ravit Marion, Ravalihasy Andrainolo, Audibert Martine, Ridde Valéry, Bonnet Emmanuel, Raffalli Bertille, Roy Flore-Apolline, N’Landu Anais et Dumont Alexandre (2020) « The impact of the obstetrical risk insurance scheme in Mauritania on maternal healthcare utilization: a propensity score matching analysis », Health Policy and Planning, 35 (4) (janvier 31). DOI : 10.1093/heapol/czz150. https://academic.oup.com/heapol/advance-article/doi/10.1093/heapol/czz150/5718854.
    Résumé : In Mauritania, obstetrical risk insurance (ORI) has been progressively implemented at the health district level since 2002 and was available in 25% of public healthcare facilities in 2015. The ORI scheme is based on pre-payment scheme principles and focuses on increasing the quality of and access to both maternal and perinatal healthcare. Compared with many community-based health insurance schemes, the ORI scheme is original because it is not based on risk pooling. For a pre-payment of 16–18 USD, women are covered during their pregnancy for antenatal care, skilled delivery, emergency obstetrical care [including caesarean section (C-section) and transfer] and a postnatal visit. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of ORI enrolment on maternal and child health services using data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) conducted in 2015. A total of 4172 women who delivered within the last 2 years before the interview were analysed. The effect of ORI enrolment on the outcomes was estimated using a propensity score matching estimation method. Fifty-eight per cent of the studied women were aware of ORI, and among these women, more than two-thirds were enrolled. ORI had a beneficial effect among the enrolled women by increasing the probability of having at least one prenatal visit by 13%, the probability of having four or more visits by 11% and the probability of giving birth at a healthcare facility by 15%. However, we found no effect on postnatal care (PNC), C-section rates or neonatal mortality. This study provides evidence that a voluntary pre-payment scheme focusing on pregnant women improves healthcare services utilization during pregnancy and delivery. However, no effect was found on PNC or neonatal mortality. Some efforts should be exerted to improve communication and accessibility to ORI. Maternal health, neonatal mortality, pre-payment scheme, universal health coverage, Mauritania, Sub-Saharan Africa Topic: pregnancycesarean sectionhealth care facilityinsurancemauritaniamotherspostnatal careobstetricsprenatal careneonatal mortalityhealth care usemalnutrition-inflammation-cachexia syndrome
    Pièce jointe Texte intégral 450.4 ko (source)


  • Rey Matthieu et Ruiz de Elvira Laura (2020) « Luttes de sens, cadrages et grammaire lexicale en contexte révolutionnaire. Le cas de la Syrie (2011-2012) », Cultures & conflits, 117 (juillet 1), p. 11-33. DOI : 10.4000/conflits.21372. http://journals.openedition.org/conflits/21372.
    Résumé : Le combat entre le régime syrien et ses opposants s’est en partie joué sur un plan interprétatif et discursif. Loin d’être anodins, les termes et les expressions employés, ainsi que les cadrages des événements proposés par les différents acteurs de la crise révolutionnaire, sont porteurs de significations sociales et politiques situées. L’objectif de cet article est de les analyser en contextualisant les moments de leur émergence et en évoquant l’imaginaire collectif avec lesquels ils font résonance. Il montre tout d’abord la forte prégnance du local, malgré le travail d’alignement permanent qui cherche à les unifier et les universaliser ; ensuite, leur résonance avec des récits historiques qui facilitent leur diffusion et les inscrivent dans la longue durée ; enfin, leur articulation avec une réalité du terrain changeante. La production langagière des acteurs de la crise participe ainsi à la construction de cette dernière pour en devenir une partie constitutive fondamentale. Mots-clés : luttes de sens, cadrages, grammaire lexicale, crise révolutionnaire, Syrie, 2011-2012 Keywords : giving meaning, framing, lexical grammar, revolutionary crisis, Syria, 2011-2012


  • Ridde Valéry, Aho Joséphine, Ndao Elhadji Malick, Benoit Magalie, Hanley Jill, Lagrange Solène, Fillol Amandine, Raynault Marie-France et Cloos Patrick (2020) « Unmet healthcare needs among migrants without medical insurance in Montreal, Canada », Global Public Health (mai 27), p. 1-14. DOI : 10.1080/17441692.2020.1771396. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17441692.2020.1771396.
    Résumé : While access to healthcare for permanent residents in Canada is well known, this is not the case for migrants without healthcare coverage. This is the first large-scale study that examines the unmet healthcare needs of migrants without healthcare coverage in Montreal. 806 participants were recruited: 436 in the community and 370 at the NGO clinic. Proportions of individuals reporting unmet healthcare needs were similar (68.4% vs. 69.8%).The main reason invoked for these unmet needs was lacking money (80.6%). Situations of not working or studying, not having had enough food in the past 12 months, not having a medical prescription to get medication and having had a workplace injury were all significantly associated with higher odds of having unmet healthcare needs. Unmet healthcare needs were more frequent among migrants without healthcare coverage than among recent immigrants or the citizens with health healthcare coverage (69%, 26%, 16%). Canada must take measures to enable these individuals to have access to healthcare according to their needs in order to reduce the risk of worsening their health status, something that may have an impact on the healthcare system and population health. The Government of Quebec announced that all individuals without any healthcare coverage will have access to COVID-19 related health care. We hope that this right, the application of which is not yet obvious, can continue after the pandemic for all health care.
    Note Note
    <p>doi: 10.1080/17441692.2020.1771396</p>

  • Ridde Valéry, Dabiré Solange et Dagenais Christian (2020) « L’utilisation de la recherche par les ONG : un appel à actions et à réflexions », Alternatives Humanitaires, 13 (mars 18), p. 86-101. http://alternatives-humanitaires.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/AH_N13_5_Innovations_Ridde_VFR.pdf.
    Résumé : Les auteurs rappellent l’importance de tenir compte des résultats de recherche pour les interventions des ONG et montrent les défis techniques et politiques que cela pose. Ils suggèrent plusieurs démarches favorables à la prise en compte des recherches, tout en expliquant que l’on manque encore de connaissances et d’actions à ce propos. Ainsi, ce texte brosse un portrait succinct de l’état de la question pour suggérer la participation en 2021 à un possible dossier d’Alternatives Humanitaires centré sur le transfert des connaissances par les ONG.
    Mots-clés : ⛔ No DOI found.


  • Ridde Valéry, Pérez Dennis et Robert Emilie (2020) « Using implementation science theories and frameworks in global health », BMJ Global Health, 5 (4) (avril), p. e002269. DOI : 10.1136/bmjgh-2019-002269. http://gh.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/bmjgh-2019-002269.
    Résumé : In global health, researchers and decision makers, many of whom have medical, epidemiology or biostatistics background, are increasingly interested in evaluating the implementation of health interventions. Implementation science, particularly for the study of public policies, has existed since at least the 1930s. This science makes compelling use of explicit theories and analytic frameworks that ensure research quality and rigour. Our objective is to inform researchers and decision makers who are not familiar with this research branch about these theories and analytic frameworks. We define four models of causation used in implementation science: intervention theory, frameworks, middle-range theory and grand theory. We then explain how scientists apply these models for three main implementation studies: fidelity assessment, process evaluation and complex evaluation. For each study, we provide concrete examples from research in Cuba and Africa to better understand the implementation of health interventions in global health context. Global health researchers and decision makers with a quantitative background will not become implementation scientists after reading this article. However, we believe they will be more aware of the need for rigorous implementation evaluations of global health interventions, alongside impact evaluations, and in collaboration with social scientists.


  • Rikap Cecilia (2020) « Amazon: A story of accumulation through intellectual rentiership and predation », Competition & Change (juin 17), p. 102452942093241. DOI : 10.1177/1024529420932418. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1024529420932418.
    Résumé : This article elaborates on intellectual monopoly theory as a form of predation and rentiership using Amazon as a case study. By analysing Amazon's financial statements, scientific publications and patents, we show that Amazon's economic power heavily relies on its systematic innovations and capacity to centralize and analyse customized data that orients its business and innovations. We demonstrate how Amazon's innovation activities have evolved over time with growing importance of technologies related to data and machine learning. We also map Amazon's innovation networks with academic institutions and companies. We show how Amazon appropriates intellectual rents from these networks and from technological cooperation with other intellectual monopolies. We argue that Amazon, as other data-driven monopolies, predates value from suppliers and third-party companies participating in its platform. One striking characteristic of Amazon is the low rate of reported profits. The centrality of innovations leads us to suggest an alternative calculation that shows that Amazon's profits are not as low as they appear in Annual Reports. We also argue that lower profits are coherent with Amazon's rentiership and predatory strategy since they contribute to the avoidance of accusations of excessive market power. Finally, the paper offers preliminary observations on: (i) the complementarities between financial and intellectual rentierism and (ii) how data-driven intellectual monopoly expands big corporations' political power. Going beyond the specific case of Amazon, we thus contribute to a better understanding of the role of lead firms and power dynamics within innovation networks.


  • Rikap Cecilia et Flacher David (2020) « Who collects intellectual rents from knowledge and innovation hubs? questioning the sustainability of the singapore model », Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 55 (décembre), p. 59-73. DOI : 10.1016/j.strueco.2020.06.004. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0954349X20303763.
    Résumé : While knowledge and innovation are produced in networks involving diverse actors, associated rents are greatly appropriated by global leaders, mostly coming from core countries, that become intellectual monopolies. This raises the question on emerging or peripheral countries companies' capacity to catch-up, innovate and compete for intellectual rents. The article considers the case of Singapore who has pursued a knowledge hub strategy aimed at: 1) creating world class universities inserted in global knowledge networks of defined fields; and 2) capturing intellectual rents through those institutions' research and contributing to local firms' catching up. We show that research universities caught-up. However, we find that foreign companies, particularly multinationals, capture most of Singapore's intellectual rents at the expense of local companies and research institutions. Overall, our findings point to the limitations of Singapore's knowledge hub as a catching-up strategy. The article ends discussing the relevancy of these findings for emerging countries in general.


  • Rikap Cecilia et Lundvall Bengt-Åke (2020) « Big tech, knowledge predation and the implications for development », Innovation and Development (décembre 7), p. 1-28. DOI : 10.1080/2157930X.2020.1855825. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/2157930X.2020.1855825.
    Résumé : This paper focuses on tech giants as active drivers of a phase of globalization characterized by growth in digital services trade combined with a general shift to intangible assets. By analysing how Google, Amazon and Microsoft organize their innovation activities, we show that they continuously monopolize knowledge while outsourcing innovation steps to other firms and research institutions. The paper compares science and technology collaborations with patent co-ownership suggesting knowledge predation from those other organizations. We also highlight that selected tech giants combine the collection of innovation rents with rents from exclusive access to data. We, therefore, refer to tech giants as data-driven intellectual monopolies, each organizing and controlling a global corporate innovation system (CIS). Intellectual monopolies predate knowledge (including data when they are data-driven) from their CIS that they turn into intangible assets. The paper ends with reflections on the implications for innovation and development.


  • Robert Emilie, Rajan Dheepa, Koch Kira, Muggleworth Weaver Alyssa, Porignon Denis et Ridde Valery (2020) « Policy dialogue as a collaborative tool for multistakeholder health governance: a scoping study », BMJ Global Health, 4 (Suppl 7) (avril), p. e002161. DOI : 10.1136/bmjgh-2019-002161. http://gh.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/bmjgh-2019-002161.
    Résumé : Introduction Health system governance is the cornerstone of performant, equitable and sustainable health systems aiming towards universal health coverage. Global health actors have increasingly been using policy dialogue (PD) as a governance tool to engage with both state and non-state stakeholders. Despite attempts to frame PD practices, it remains a catch-all term for both health systems professionals and researchers. Method We conducted a scoping study on PD. We identified 25 articles published in English between 1985 and 2017 and 10 grey literature publications. The analysis was guided by the following questions: (1) How do the authors define PD? (2) What do we learn about PD practices and implementation factors? (3) What are the specificities of PD in low-income and middle-income countries? Results The analysis highlighted three definitions of policy dialogue: a knowledge exchange and translation platform, a mode of governance and an instrument for negotiating international development aid. Success factors include the participants’ continued and sustained engagement throughout all the relevant stages, their ability to make a constructive contribution to the discussions while being truly representative of their organisation and their high interest and stake in the subject. Prerequisites to ensuring that participants remained engaged were a clear process, a shared understanding of the goals at all levels of the PD and a PD approach consistent with the PD objective. In the context of development aid, the main challenges lie in the balance of power between stakeholders, the organisational or technical capacity of recipient country stakeholders to drive or contribute effectively to the PD processes and the increasingly technocratic nature of PD. Conclusion PD requires a high level of collaborative governance expertise and needs constant, although not necessarily high, financial support. These conditions are crucial to make it a real driver of health system reform in countries’ paths towards universal health coverage.


  • Ruiz de Elvira Laura (2020) « Les associations chrétiennes de Damas.: La fidélité discrète, la “joie” et une “vie qui continue” malgré la guerre », Les Cahiers d’EMAM, 32 (mai 4). DOI : 10.4000/emam.2727. http://journals.openedition.org/emam/2727.
    Résumé : À partir de l’étude à distance des pages Facebook et des réseaux sociaux de trois associations chrétiennes de Damas, l’objectif de cet article est de mettre en lumière les réponses et les stratégies qu’une partie des associations syriennes et des communautés chrétiennes du pays ont adopté face à la « crise révolutionnaire » et au conflit. Il fait l’hypothèse que face aux structures et réseaux qui ont choisi la voie de la dissidence [voice] et ont par la suite été fermées ou noyautées par les services de renseignements et le ministère des Affaires sociales et du Travail, ou face à celles qui ont ouvertement soutenu le régime et l’armée régulière dans leur entreprise d’écrasement du mouvement révolutionnaire, les associations chrétiennes ont pour la plupart adopté la voie d’une fidélité discrète et tenté de s’adapter pour continuer à vivre « comme si de rien n’était », dans la « joie » et l’« amour ». This paper seeks to study the responses and the strategies that some of the Syrian associations and Christian communities have adopted since 2011 in order to face the “revolutionary crisis” and the conflict. In order to do so, it explores the Facebook accounts and the social networks of three Christian associations working in Damascus. It shows that contrary to the structures and networks that have chosen voice over silence and have therefore been closed or infiltrated by the intelligence services and the Ministry of Social Affairs and Labour, and contrary to those who have openly supported the regime in its attempts to crush the revolutionary movement, most of the Christian associations have adopted a discreet form of loyalty and tried to adapt themselves in order to go on as if nothing happened, with joy and love.


  • Samb Oumar Mallé, Essombe Christiane et Ridde Valery (2020) « Meeting the challenges posed by per diem in development projects in southern countries: a scoping review », Globalization and Health, 16 (1). DOI : 10.1186/s12992-020-00571-6. https://globalizationandhealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12992-020-00571-6.
    Résumé : This study presents the results of a review whose goal is to generate knowledge on the possible levers of action concerning per diem practices in southern countries in order to propose reforms to the existing schemes. Methodology A synthesis of available knowledge was performed using scoping review methodology: a literature search was conducted using several databases (Medline, Cinahl, Embase, PubMed, Google Scholar, ProQuest) and grey literature. A total of 26 documents were included in the review. Furthermore, interviews were conducted with the authors of the selected articles to determine whether the proposed recommendations had been implemented and to identify any outcomes. Results For the most part, the results of this review are recommendations supporting per diem reform. In terms of strategy, the recommendations call for a redefinition of per diems by limiting their appeal. Issued recommendations include reducing daily allowance rates, paying per diem only in exchange for actual work, increasing control mechanisms or harmonizing rates across organizations. In terms of operations, the recommendations call for the implementation of concrete actions to reduce instances of abuse, including not paying advances or introducing reasonable flat-rate per diem. That said, the authors contacted stated that few per diem reforms had been implemented as a result of the issued recommendations. Conclusion The results of the study clearly identify possible levers of action. Such levers could make up the groundwork for further reflection on context and country-specific reforms that are carried out using a dynamic, participatory and consensual approach.


  • Schantz Clémence (2020) « Accouchement normal : accompagnement de la physiologie et interventions médicales. Recommandations de la Haute Autorité de Santé (HAS) avec la collaboration du Collège National des Gynécologues Obstétriciens Français (CNGOF) et du Collège National des Sages-Femmes de France (CNSF) – Accueil, suivi et prise en charge non médicamenteuse de la douleur de la femme pendant le travail », Gynécologie Obstétrique Fertilité & Sénologie, 48 (12) (décembre), p. 883-890. DOI : 10.1016/j.gofs.2020.09.014. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2468718920302713.


  • Schantz Clémence (2020) « Modeler son sexe au Cambodge pour garder son mari à la maison », Droits et Culture, 79 (1), p. 185-205. DOI : 10.4000/droitcultures.6241. http://journals.openedition.org/droitcultures/6241.
    Résumé : La technique biomédicale de la périnéorraphie au Cambodge se pratique chez des femmes jeunes et en bonne santé afin de resserrer leur vagin et augmenter leur capital érotique en cherchant à accroître le plaisir sexuel masculin. Cet article décrit la pratique et sa particularité au Cambodge, et montre que cette technique est détournée de son objectif médical afin de répondre à une demande sociale. À travers une observation participante de onze mois dans des maternités de Phnom Penh et l’analyse des discours collectés entre 2013 et 2016 au Cambodge, il apparaît que cette pratique mutilante émerge dans un contexte de mutation du modèle conjugal et familial où les femmes souhaitent limiter le recours de leur mari à la prostitution.


  • Schantz Clémence, Aboubakar Moufalilou, Traoré Abou Bakary, Ravit Marion, Loenzien Myriam de et Dumont Alexandre (2020) « Caesarean section in Benin and Mali: increased recourse to technology due to suffering and under-resourced facilities », Reproductive Biomedicine & Society Online, 10 (juin), p. 10-18. DOI : 10.1016/j.rbms.2019.12.001. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2405661820300010.
  • Schantz Clemence, Lhotte Marie et Pantelias Anne-Charlotte (2020) « Moving beyond the ethical tension of caesarean section on maternal request », Sante Publique, 32 (5-6) (septembre), p. 497-505.
    Résumé : Introduction: In a legal context focused on the right and autonomy of the patient, some women wish to be able to choose their mode of childbirth. As midwives are primary care-givers for pregnant women with a physiological pregnancy, we wanted to find out whether it was ethically acceptable for them to accompany a woman in her decision to have a caesarean section. Purpose of research: This survey is an ancillary study of the CESARIA research program validated by the Comite de Protection des Personnes Sud Mediterranee IV and declared to the CNIL. Thirty-seven semi-directive interviews were conducted with midwives and women. Results: The majority of women and midwives share a vision of childbirth as "natural" and consider the request for caesarean section as a pathology. When formulated, this request places midwives in a situation of ethical tension. On the one hand, midwives wish to refer women to vaginal birth as the norm, and this choice embodies the ethical principles of beneficence and non-maleficence. On the other hand, midwives express a desire to respect patient choice and freedom, illustrating the ethical principle of respect for autonomy. Conclusions: The ethical issue of caesarean section on demand lies not so much in the decision to accept or not to accept a caesarean section but rather in listening to the request. Taking into consideration a medical indication more broadly than the simple obstetrical indication makes it possible to ethically support these requests while respecting the pregnant woman's autonomy.
    Mots-clés : ⛔ No DOI found.

  • Seppey Mathieu, Ridde Valéry et Somé Paul-André (2020) « Scaling-Up Performance-Based Financing in Burkina Faso: From PBF to User Fees Exemption Strategic Purchasing », Int J Health Policy Manag, p. 1-13. DOI : 10.34172/ijhpm.2020.209.


  • Sha Sohan et Quet Mathieu (2020) « From Expression to Expulsion: Digital Public Spaces as Theatres of Operations in Nepal », Science, Technology and Society (avril 22), p. 097172182091289. DOI : 10.1177/0971721820912896. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0971721820912896.
    Résumé : On 2 May 2016, Robert Penner, Canadian national residing in Nepal with a working visa, was arrested and then deported to Canada and his visa being cancelled. Based upon an analysis of the documentation related to his arrest and expulsion, this article analyses the articulation of different operations of control. A chain of public interventions and governmental actions makes the substance of the management of digital expression in Nepal and this has to be analysed with tools from media studies and science and technology studies. We present different operative regimes: Twitter accounts and discussions, police action and arrests, and court petitions. We analyse how operational levels are connected and how their interconnections lead to the criminalisation of one individual, most notably through the reformulations of the accusations by different groups of people via different devices. This in turn shows how specific technical interventions determine the control of the public space. These analyses then add to the debate upon the 'digital public sphere' by offering a critique of its spatial metaphor from a view focused on its performative stakes-public spaces not as sites of discussion, but as theatres of operations.


  • Sia D., Dondbzanga B.D.G., Carabali M., Bonnet Emmanuel, Enok Bonong P.R. et Ridde Valery (2020) « Effect of a free healthcare policy on health services utilization for non‐malarial febrile illness by children under five years in Burkina Faso: an interrupted time series analysis », Tropical Medicine & International Health (juillet 19), p. tmi.13468. DOI : 10.1111/tmi.13468. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/tmi.13468.
    Résumé : Objective To assess the effect of a free healthcare policy for children under five years old implemented in Burkina Faso since April 2016, on the use of healthcare of non‐malarial febrile illnesses (NMFI). Methods To assess the immediate and long‐term effect of the free healthcare policy in place, we conducted an interrupted time series analysis of routinely collected data on febrile illnesses from three urban primary health centers of Ouagadougou between January 1, 2015 and December 31, 2016. Results Of the 39,046 febrile cases reported in the study period, 17,017 NMFI were included in the study. Compared to the period before the intervention, we observed an immediate, non‐statistically significant increase of 7% in the number of NMFI (IRR=1.07; 95% CI= 0.75, 1.51). Compared to the trend that would have been expected in absence of the intervention, the results showed a small but sustained increase of 6% in the trend of monthly number of NMFI during the intervention period (IRR= 1.06; 95%CI= 1.01, 1.12). Conclusion Our study highlighted an increase in the uptake of health care services, specifically for NMFI by children under five years of age, after the implementation of a free care policy. This analysis contributes to informing decision‐makers on the need to strengthen the capacities of health care centers and to anticipate the challenges of the sustainability of this policy.


  • Sieleunou Isidore, De Allegri Manuela, Roland Enok Bonong Pascal, Ouédraogo Samiratou et Ridde Valéry (2020) « Does performance-based financing curb stock-outs of essential medicines? Results from a randomised controlled trial in Cameroon », Tropical Medicine & International Health (mai 23). DOI : 10.1111/tmi.13447. http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/tmi.13447.
    Résumé : Objectif En 2011, le gouvernement du Cameroun a lancé son programme de financement basé sur la performance (FBP). Notre étude a examiné les effets de l'intervention PBF sur la disponibilité des médicaments essentiels (EM). Les méthodes Essai de contrôle randomisé par lequel le PBF et trois groupes de comparaison distincts ont été randomisés dans un total de 205 établissements de santé dans trois régions. Les données de base ont été collectées entre mars et mai 2012 et les données finales 36 mois plus tard. Nous avons défini la disponibilité de plusieurs groupes EM en évaluant les ruptures de stock pendant au moins un jour au cours des 30 jours précédant la date de l'enquête et en estimant les changements attribuables au FBP à l'aide d'une série de modèles de régression de différence en différence, ajustés pour le niveau de l'établissement concerné co-varie. Les données ont été analysées stratifiées par région et zone pour évaluer l'hétérogénéité de l'effet. Résultats Nos estimations suggèrent que l'intervention PBF n'a eu aucun effet sur les ruptures de stock de médicaments de soins prénatals (p = 0,160), les vaccins (p = 0,396), la gestion intégrée des médicaments contre les maladies infantiles (p = 0,681) et les médicaments du travail et d'accouchement (p = 0,589). Cependant, l'intervention a été associée à une réduction significative de 34% des ruptures de stock de médicaments de planification familiale (p = 0,028). Nous avons observé une hétérogénéité des effets entre les régions et les zones, avec des diminutions significatives des ruptures de stock de produits de planification familiale dans la région du Nord-Ouest (p = 0,065) et dans les zones rurales (p = 0,043). Conclusions L'intervention du PBF au Cameroun a eu des effets limités sur la réduction des ruptures de stock des EM. Ces mauvais résultats étaient probablement la conséquence d'un échec partiel de la mise en œuvre, allant de l'interruption et de l'arrêt des services à l'autonomie limitée des installations dans la gestion de la prise de décision et au retard considérable dans le paiement de la performance.


  • Sombié Issa, Degroote Stéphanie, Somé Paul André et Ridde Valéry (2020) « Analysis of the implementation of a community-based intervention to control dengue fever in Burkina Faso », Implementation Science, 15 (1) (mai 14), p. 32. DOI : 10.1186/s13012-020-00989-x. https://implementationscience.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13012-020-00989-x.
    Résumé : Background A community-based dengue fever intervention was implemented in Burkina Faso in 2017. The results achieved vary from one area to another. The objective of this article is to analyze the implementation of this intervention, to better understand the process, and to explain the contextual elements of performance variations in implementation. Methodology The research was conducted in the former sector 22 of the city of Ouagadougou. We adapted the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) to take into account the realities of the context and the intervention. The data collected from the participants directly involved in the implementation using three techniques: document consultation, individual interview, and focus group. Results Two dimensions of CFIR emerge from the results as having had a positive influence on the implementation: (i) the characteristics of the intervention and (ii) the processes of the intervention implementation. The majority of the CFIR constructions were considered to have had a positive effect on implementation. The quality and strength of the evidence received the highest score. The dimension of the external context had a negative influence on the implementation of the intervention. Conclusion The objective of the study was to analyze the influence of contextual elements on the implementation process of a community-based dengue fever intervention. We used the CFIR framework already used by many studies for implementation analysis. Although it was not possible to test this framework in its entirety, it is useful for the analysis of the implementation. Its use is simple and does not require any special skills from users. Usability is indeed an essential criterion for the relevance of using an analytical framework in implementation science.

  • Spagnolo Jessica, Gautier Lara, Champagne François, Leduc Nicole, Melki Wahid, N’Guessan Konan et Charfi Fatma (2020) « Reflecting on knowledge translation strategies from global health research projects in Tunisia and the Republic of Côte d’Ivoire », International Journal of Public Health (octobre 17). DOI : 10.1007/s00038-020-01502-3.
    Résumé : We describe the knowledge translation strategies in two projects and share lessons learned about knowledge sharing and uptake.


  • Spagnolo Jessica, Gautier Lara, Seppey Mathieu et D’souza Nicole Anne (2020) « Re-thinking global and public health projects during the COVID-19 pandemic context: Considerations and recommendations for early- and not-so-early-career researchers », Social Sciences & Humanities Open, 2 (1), p. 100075. DOI : 10.1016/j.ssaho.2020.100075. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2590291120300644.
    Résumé : This commentary aims to provide a glimpse into some of the early and continuing impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on our global and public health projects: research in low-resourced settings; research with vulnerable populations, such as asylum seekers, Indigenous communities, children, and mental health service users; and research with healthcare professionals, frontline workers, and health planners. In the early context of restrictions caused by COVID-19, this commentary highlights our research setbacks and challenges, and the ways in which we are adapting research methodologies, while considering ethical implications related to the pandemic and their impacts on conducting global and public health research. As we learn to become increasingly aware of some of our limitations in the face of the pandemic, some positives are also worth highlighting: we are mobilizing our training and research skills to participate in COVID-19 projects and to disseminate knowledge on COVID-19, including through papers such as this one. However, we do acknowledge that these opportunities have not been equitable. Each thematic section of this commentary concludes with key recommendations related to research in the early and continuing context of the COVID-19 pandemic that we believe to be applicable to early- and not-so-early-career researchers working in the global and public health fields. Previous article in issueNext article in issue Keywords COVID-19ResearchersGlobal healthPublic health


  • Tafuro Sara (2020) « An Economic Framework for Persisting Son Preference: Rethinking the Role of Intergenerational Support », Population Research and Policy Review (juillet 10). DOI : 10.1007/s11113-020-09594-8. http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11113-020-09594-8.
    Résumé : Son preference drives pre- and post-natal discrimination of daughters in many countries. It surprisingly survives in societies undergoing rapid transformation, and its correlates are not fully understood, particularly in the socio-economic sphere. This paper reviews the old-age security motive for son preference and proposes a new framework for this rationale. We argue that in patrilocal contexts, son preference survives where informal economic institutions (community and especially the family) persist as primary safety nets against various instances of income uncertainty, making up for the inefficiencies of state and market (formal institutions). This hypothesis is tested through a cross-country statistical analysis of ecological correlates of pre- and post-natal discrimination. Results confirm that, while son preference expresses through daughters' neglect in more traditional societies, it endures through prenatal selection in contexts of improving living standards and, at the same time, strong reliance on network solidarity and informal insurance strategies. In support of these findings, we briefly review the main country-cases of sex selection, namely South Korea, China, Vietnam, India and the South Caucasian region.


  • Tafuro Sara et Guilmoto Christophe Z. (2020) « Skewed sex ratios at birth: A review of global trends », Early Human Development, 141 (février), p. 104868. DOI : 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2019.104868. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0378378219305225.
    Résumé : Several cultures in the world traditionally favor the birth of sons over that of daughters. This preference drives various forms of discrimination against female births ultimately reflected in demographic imbalances. Over the last decades, modern reproductive technology has made prenatal diagnosis widely accessible to parents. In certain Asian and Eastern European countries, this has led to skewed sex ratio at birth (SRB) as a result of sex-selective abortions. After reviewing motivations and circumstances associated to prenatal sex selection, our paper analyzes global trends in sex imbalances at birth as well as their parity, regional and socio-economic differentials. We focus our attention on the experience of Azerbaijan, India, and South Korea as instances of three distinct SRB trajectories. Finally, we discuss scenarios concerning the future of these sex imbalances and the implications of a consistent number of "missing women" for affected societies.

  • Touré Laurence et Ridde Valery (2020) « The emergence of the national medical assistance scheme for the poorest in Mali », Global Public Health. DOI : 10.1080/17441692.2020.1855459.
    Résumé : Background : Universal health coverage (UHC) is now high up the international agenda. There are still major needs to be met in West Africa, particularly in Mali, where providing health care for the poorest remains a big challenge. The majority of the region’s countries are currently seeking to define the content of their compulsory, contribution-based medical insurance system. However, very few countries apart from Mali have decided to, in parallel, develop a solution for poorest that is not based on contributions. Methods : This qualitative research article examines the historical process that has permitted the emergence of this ground-breaking public policy. Results : The research shows that the process has been very long, chaotic and sometimes suspended for long periods. One of the biggest challenges has been that of intersectoriality and the social construction of the groups to be targeted by this public policy (the poorest), as institutional tensions have evolved in accordance with the political issues linked to social protection. Eventually, the medical assistance scheme for the poorest (RAMED) saw the light of day in 2011, funded entirely by the government. Conclusions : RAMED emergence would appear to be attributable not so much to any new concern for the poorest in society but rather to a desire to give the social protection policy engaged in a guarantee of universality. The RAMED nonetheless remains an innovation within French-speaking West Africa.
    Note Note
    <p>doi: 10.1080/17441692.2020.1855459</p>


  • Valente Pablo K., Morin Céline, Roy Melissa, Mercier Arnaud et Atlani-Duault Laetitia (2020) « Sexual transmission of Zika virus on Twitter: A depoliticised epidemic », Global Public Health (mai 21), p. 1-13. DOI : 10.1080/17441692.2020.1768275. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17441692.2020.1768275.
    Résumé : During global health crises, different narratives regarding infectious disease epidemics circulate in traditional media (e.g. news agencies, television channels) and social media. Our study investigated the narratives related to sexual transmission of Zika virus that circulated on Twitter during a public health emergency and analyzed the relationship between information on Twitter and on traditional media. We examined 10,748 tweets posted during the peaks of Twitter activity between January and March 2016. Posts in English, Spanish, French, and Portuguese and websites linked to tweets were manually reviewed and analyzed thematically. During the study period, there were three peaks of Twitter activity related to the sexual transmission of Zika. Most tweets in the first peak (n = 412) had humorous/sarcastic content (55%). Most tweets in the second and third peaks (n = 5,154 and n = 5,182, respectively) disseminated information (>93%). Across languages, textual and visual content on the websites were predominantly placed online by traditional media and highlighted epidemiological narratives published by public health agencies, with little or no mention of the concerns or experiences of individuals most affected by Zika. Prioritising epidemiological/clinical aspects of epidemics may have a depoliticising effect and contribute to overlooking socio-economic determinants of the Zika epidemic and issues related to reproductive justice.


  • Velasco-Pufleau Luis et Atlani-Duault Laëtitia (2020) « Sounds of survival, weaponization of sounds », Violence: An International Journal (special issue), 1 (2) (décembre), p. 265-272. DOI : 10.1177/2633002420976479. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2633002420976479.
    Résumé : In this article, we argue that sonic experiences in contexts of organized violence can be understood as sonic lieux de mémoire (sonic sites of memory). Exploring how these sonic sites are indissociable from the individual and collective experience of places, we show how they form networks of relationships within which the memory of silences and sounds is constructed and actualized. We also argue that these sonic lieux de mémoire can be seen from two perspectives, representing the dark and bright sides of the same phenomenon. On one hand, sound, music, and silence are used as weapons in organized violence, for example, in detention facilities or during wars or political conflicts. On the other hand, they constitute symbolic resources, positive tools that contribute to the (re)construction of subjectivities and thus can serve as tools for survival and resistance. In both cases, sound and musical practices are essential facets of what makes us human.


  • Velasco-Pufleau Luis et Atlani-Duault Laëtitia (2020) « Sounds of survival, weaponization of sounds: Exploring sonic - lieux de mémoire », Violence: An International Journal, 1 (2) (octobre), p. 265-272. DOI : 10/gh58pb. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2633002420976479.
    Résumé : In this article, we argue that sonic experiences in contexts of organized violence can be understood as sonic lieux de mémoire (sonic sites of memory). Exploring how these sonic sites are indissociable from the individual and collective experience of places, we show how they form networks of relationships within which the memory of silences and sounds is constructed and actualized. We also argue that these sonic lieux de mémoire can be seen from two perspectives, representing the dark and bright sides of the same phenomenon. On one hand, sound, music, and silence are used as weapons in organized violence, for example, in detention facilities or during wars or political conflicts. On the other hand, they constitute symbolic resources, positive tools that contribute to the (re)construction of subjectivities and thus can serve as tools for survival and resistance. In both cases, sound and musical practices are essential facets of what makes us human.


  • Willcox Merlin L, Price Jessica, Scott Sophie, Nicholson Brian D, Stuart Beth, Roberts Nia W, Allott Helen, Mubangizi Vincent, Dumont Alexandre et Harnden Anthony (2020) « Death audits and reviews for reducing maternal, perinatal and child mortality », éd. par Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (mars 25). DOI : 10.1002/14651858.CD012982.pub2. http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/14651858.CD012982.pub2.
    Résumé : Background The United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) include reducing the global maternal mortality rate to less than 70 per 100,000 live births and ending preventable deaths of newborns and children under five years of age, in every country, by 2030. Maternal and perinatal death audit and review is widely recommended as an intervention to reduce maternal and perinatal mortality, and to improve quality of care, and could be key to attaining the SDGs. However, there is uncertainty over the most cost-effective way of auditing and reviewing deaths: community-based audit (verbal and social autopsy), facility-based audits (significant event analysis (SEA)) or a combination of both (confidential enquiry). Objectives To assess the impact and cost-effectiveness of different types of death audits and reviews in reducing maternal, perinatal and child mortality. Search methods We searched the following from inception to 16 January 2019: CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase OvidSP, and five other databases. We identified ongoing studies using ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and searched reference lists of included articles. Selection criteria Cluster-randomised trials, cluster non-randomised trials, controlled before-and-after studies and interrupted time series studies of any form of death audit or review that involved reviewing individual cases of maternal, perinatal or child deaths, identifying avoidable factors, and making recommendations. To be included in the review, a study needed to report at least one of the following outcomes: perinatal mortality rate; stillbirth rate; neonatal mortality rate; mortality rate in children under five years of age or maternal mortality rate. Data collection and analysis We used standard Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) group methodological procedures. Two review authors independently extracted data, assessed risk of bias and assessed the certainty of the evidence using GRADE. We planned to perform a meta-analysis using a random-effects model but included studies were not homogeneous enough to make pooling their results meaningful. Main results We included two cluster-randomised trials. Both introduced death review and audit as part of a multicomponent intervention, and compared this to current care. The QUARITE study (QUAlity of care, RIsk management, and TEchnology) concerned maternal death reviews in hospitals in West Africa, which had very high maternal and perinatal mortality rates. In contrast, the OPERA trial studied perinatal morbidity/mortality conferences (MMCs) in maternity units in France, which already had very low perinatal mortality rates at baseline. The OPERA intervention in France started with an outreach visit to brief obstetricians, midwives and anaesthetists on the national guidelines on morbidity/mortality case management, and was followed by a series of perinatal MMCs. Half of the intervention units were randomised to receive additional support from a clinical psychologist during these meetings. The OPERA intervention may make little or no difference to overall perinatal mortality (low certainty evidence), however we are uncertain about the effect of the intervention on perinatal mortality related to suboptimal care (very low certainty evidence).The intervention probably reduces perinatal morbidity related to suboptimal care (unadjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.40 to 0.95; 165,353 births; moderate-certainty evidence). The effect of the intervention on stillbirth rate, neonatal mortality, mortality rate in children under five years of age, maternal mortality or adverse effects was not reported. The QUARITE intervention in West Africa focused on training leaders of hospital obstetric teams using the ALARM (Advances in Labour And Risk Management) course, which included one day of training about conducting maternal death reviews. The leaders returned to their hospitals, established a multidisciplinary committee and started auditing maternal deaths, with the support of external facilitators. The intervention probably reduces inpatient maternal deaths (adjusted OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.98; 191,167 deliveries; moderate certainty evidence) and probably also reduces inpatient neonatal mortality within 24 hours following birth (adjusted OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.90; moderate certainty evidence). However, QUARITE probably makes little or no difference to the inpatient stillbirth rate (moderate certainty evidence) and may make little or no difference to the inpatient neonatal mortality rate after 24 hours, although the 95% confidence interval includes both benefit and harm (low certainty evidence). The QUARITE intervention probably increases the percent of women receiving high quality of care (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.35 - 2.57, moderate-certainty evidence). The effect of the intervention on perinatal mortality, mortality rate in children under five years of age, or adverse effects was not reported. We did not find any studies that evaluated child death audit and review or community-based death reviews or costs. Authors' conclusions A complex intervention including maternal death audit and review, as well as development of local leadership and training, probably reduces inpatient maternal mortality in low-income country district hospitals, and probably slightly improves quality of care. Perinatal death audit and review, as part of a complex intervention with training, probably improves quality of care, as measured by perinatal morbidity related to suboptimal care, in a high-income setting where mortality was already very low. The WHO recommends that maternal and perinatal death reviews should be conducted in all hospitals globally. However, conducting death reviews in isolation may not be sufficient to achieve the reductions in mortality observed in the QUARITE trial. This review suggests that maternal death audit and review may need to be implemented as part of an intervention package which also includes elements such as training of a leading doctor and midwife in each hospital, annual recertification, and quarterly outreach visits by external facilitators to provide supervision and mentorship. The same may also apply to perinatal and child death reviews. More operational research is needed on the most cost-effective ways of implementing maternal, perinatal and paediatric death reviews in low- and middle-income countries


  • Zinszer Kate, Caprara Andrea, Lima Antonio, Degroote Stéphanie, Zahreddine Monica, Abreu Kellyanne, Carabali Mabel, Charland Katia, Dantas Mayana Azevedo, Wellington José, Parra Beatriz, Fournet Florence, Bonnet Emmanuel, Pérez Denis, Robert Emilie, Dagenais Christian, Benmarhnia Tarik, Andersson Neil et Ridde Valéry (2020) « Sustainable, healthy cities: protocol of a mixed methods evaluation of a cluster randomized controlled trial for Aedes control in Brazil using a community mobilization approach », Trials, 21 (1) (décembre). DOI : 10.21203/rs.2.9928/v3. https://trialsjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13063-019-3714-8.
    Résumé : BACKGROUND: Dengue is increasing in its global presence with an estimated 4 billion people at-risk of infection in at least 128 countries. Despite the promising results of EcoHealth and community mobilization approaches to Aedes reduction, more evidence of their efficacy on reducing dengue risk is needed. The principal research question is to determine if interventions based upon community mobilization reduce the risk of dengue virus infection among children 3 to 9 years old compared to usual dengue control practice in Fortaleza, Brazil. METHODS: The present study will follow a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial (cRCT) design with randomization at the census tract level with equal allocation to the two arms. In each arm, there will be 34 clusters of 86 children between 3 to 9 years old for an expected total of 5848 children enrolled in the study, assuming a risk reduction of 29.5% based upon findings from a previous multi-site cRCT. The primary outcomes are rates of anti-dengue Immunoglobulin G (IgG) seroconversion and adult female Aedes density. The intervention is based upon a participatory health research approach, Socializing Evidence for Participatory Action (SEPA), where the research evidence is used to foster community engagement and ownership of the health issue and solution. Following allocation, intervention communities will develop and implement their own solutions that will likely include a wide variety of collective events and media approaches. Data collection activities over a period of 3 years include household visits for blood collection, household surveys, and entomological surveys; and qualitative activities including focus groups, in-depth interviews, and document analysis to evaluate the process, acceptability, fidelity, and sustainability of the intervention. Study participants will be aware of their assignment and all research staff will be blinded although the intervention assignment will likely be revealed to field staff through interaction with participants. DISCUSSION: The results of our study will provide evidence on community mobilization as an intervention for dengue control. We anticipate that if community mobilization is effective in Fortaleza, the results of this study will help develop evidence-based vector control programs in Brazil, and also in other countries struggling with Aedes-transmitted diseases. KEYWORDS: Aedes mosquitos; Brazil; Cluster randomized controlled trial; Community empowerment; Community-based intervention; Dengue; Mixed methods; Vector control


  • Zombré David, Allegri Manuela De et Ridde Valéry (2020) « No effects of pilot performance-based intervention implementation and withdrawal on the coverage of maternal and child health services in the Koulikoro region, Mali: an interrupted time series analysis », Health Policy and Planning, 35 (4) (janvier 31), p. 379-387. DOI : 10.1093/heapol/czaa001. https://academic.oup.com/heapol/advance-article/doi/10.1093/heapol/czaa001/5718845.
    Résumé : Performance-based financing (PBF) has been promoted and increasingly implemented across low- and middle-income countries to increase the utilization and quality of primary health care. However, the evidence of the impact of PBF is mixed and varies substantially across settings. Thus, further rigorous investigation is needed to be able to draw broader conclusions about the effects of this health financing reform. We examined the effects of the implementation and subsequent withdrawal of the PBF pilot programme in the Koulikoro region of Mali on a range of relevant maternal and child health indicators targeted by the programme. We relied on a control interrupted time series design to examine the trend in maternal and child health service utilization rates prior to the PBF intervention, during its implementation and after its withdrawal in 26 intervention health centres. The results for these 26 intervention centres were compared with those for 95 control health centres, with an observation window that covered 27 quarters. Using a mixed-effects negative binomial model combined with a linear spline regression model and covariates adjustment, we found that neither the introduction nor the withdrawal of the pilot PBF programme bore a significant impact in the trend of maternal and child health service use indicators in the Koulikoro region of Mali. The absence of significant effects in the health facilities could be explained by the context, by the weaknesses in the intervention design and by the causal hypothesis and implementation. Further inquiry is required in order to provide policymakers and practitioners with vital information about the lack of effects detected by our quantitative analysis. © The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com. KEYWORDS: Mali; Performance-based financing; health services coverage; interrupted time series; policy evaluation
Chapitre de livre

  • Arvanitis Rigas (2020) « Préface », in Entrepreunariat et développement: réalités et perspectives, par Sonia Ben Slimane et Hatem M'Henni, ISTE, Londres, p. 1-7. (Série Smart innovation). ISBN : 978-1-78405-688-9.
  • Aumond Florian (2020) « Aux confins du territoire de la République, aux frontières de la catégorisation juridique. La condition juridique de l’étranger dans les Terres australes et antarctiques françaises », in Droit, protection, proximité. Mélanges en l'honneur du Professeur Hervé Rihal, Collection de la Faculté de Droit et des Sciences sociales de Poitiers, Poitiers, p. 35-51.
  • Aumond Florian (2020) « Les personnes en situation de handicap dans le contexte de l’asile », in Regards croisés sur le handicap dans le contexte de la francophonie, UCA - Handicap et citoyenneté, Clermont-Ferrand, p. 475-493.
  • Aumond Florian (2020) « La protection internationale des mineurs non accompagnés ou séparés en situation d’afflux massif de personnes », in Le droit d’asile en situation d’afflux massif, Pedone, Paris.

  • Bernard-Maugiron Nathalie (2020) « La charia dans le droit contemporain des pays arabes », in Pouvoirs et autorités en Islam, Marseille : Diacritiques Éditions, p. 87-96. (Les conférences de l’IISMM). ISBN : 979-10-97093-14-3 - 9791097093150.


  • Bernard-Maugiron Nathalie (2020) « Egypte : quelle justice pour quelle transition ? », in Justice et réconciliation dans le Maghreb post-révoltes arabes, par Eric Gobe, IRMC-Karthala. ISBN : 978-2-8111-2695-7. http://www.karthala.com/hommes-et-societes-sciences-economiques-et-politiques/3336-justice-et-reconciliation-dans-le-maghreb-post-revoltes-arabes-9782811126957.html.


  • Bernard-Maugiron Nathalie et Omar Menna (2020) « The Long Decline of the Legal Profession in Egypt », in Lawyers in 21st-Century Societies, par Richard L. Abel et al, Bloomsbury Publishing, vol. 1 National Reports: p. 565-580. ISBN : 978-1-5099-1514-9. https://www.bloomsburyprofessional.com/uk/lawyers-in-21st-century-societies-9781509915149/.
    Résumé : The world's legal professions have undergone dramatic changes in the 30 years since publication of the landmark three-volume Lawyers in Society, which launched


  • BOULAY Sébastien (2020) « Nation, contestation et création dans l’Ouest saharien postcolonial. Mobilisation des artistes et des nouveaux médias dans les turbulences de la vie politique régionale », in L’anthropologie en partage. Autour de l’œuvre de Pierre Bonte, Paris : Karthala, p. 399-428. ISBN : 978-2-8111-2733-6. https://www.karthala.com/hommes-et-societes-anthropologie/3359-l-anthropologie-en-partage-autour-de-l-oeuvre-de-pierre-bonte-9782811127336.html.


  • Boulay Sebastien et Dahmi Mohamed (2020) « Humor, Mockery and Defamation in Western Sahara: How do Sahrawi Artists use New Media to Perform Political Criticism? », in Creative Resistance: Political Humor in the Arab Uprisings, Sabine Damir-Geilsdorf & Stephan Milich (eds.), S.l. : TRANSCRIPT, p. 79-101. ISBN : 978-3-8376-4069-4. https://www.transcript-verlag.de/978-3-8376-4069-4/creative-resistance/.
    Résumé : Looking at humor in a context of conflict, tragedy and suffering can seem surprising and even morally inappropriate. However, when one begins to examine the artistic production which circulates on the Web in Western Sahara and in the Saharawi society, one realizes quite quickly that humor and derision occupy a significant place there; these registers make it possible to convey and accept by the public (s) sensitive subjects which would not be raised publicly in any other way. The emergence of new media, which rely heavily on images, has probably pushed artists to introduce certain innovations in their performances, to reach new audiences with laughter. In order to better understand the role, the forms but also the constraints of humorous performance in contemporary Saharawi political life, the text examines three works (poem-operetta, One Man Show and video clip), which seem particularly new regarding the classical Sahrawi artistic production.
  • Melgar Lucía, Lerner Susana et Guillaume Agnès (2020) « Aborto legal y derecho a la salud », in Interrupción del embarazo desde la experiencia de las mujeres: aportaciones interdisciplinarias, éd. par Lurel Cedeño Peña et Olivia Tena Guerrero, Mexico : CEIICH-UNAM, p. 27-48. (Diversidad feminista).

  • Charbit Yves (2020) « The Prostitute as an Urban Savage, Paris 1830-1914 French Nineteenth-Century Premises of the Anthropological Demography of Health », in The Anthropological Demography of Health, éd. par Véronique Petit, Kaveri Qureshi, Yves Charbit, et Philip Kreager, Oxford : Oxford University Press, p. 103-126. ISBN : 978-0-19-886243-7.
    Résumé : This chapter explores the nineteenth-century premises of the anthropological demography of health, especially the category of ‘urban savages’, which is proposed as a proxy to the reality of prostitution as perceived by the dominant social groups of the time. The chapter first delineates the concept of urban savages and discusses to what extent period writings on the prostitute as an archetypal figure anticipate later anthropological demography. It then turns to the issue of sexuality and public health. At the beginning of the period under study, prostitutes were blamed for propagating venereal epidemics. Later on, when the ‘venereal peril’ reached alarming proportions, public health specialists developed a different argument. It is argued that throughout the nineteenth century, the perception of the urban savage as a radically distinct out-group did not remain static, reflecting changes in social, economic, political, and ideological contexts. Moreover, as the sexual behaviour of the in-group evolved, barriers weakened and boundaries between in- and out-groups became porous. Present theoretical themes often seen as directly relevant to prostitution, notably Foucault’s notion of bio-power, prove inadequate. Finally, ideology and anthropology converged, with the body of the prostitute being the locus of intertwined threats to nineteenth-century French patriarchal bourgeois society.

  • Charbit Yves, Petit Véronique, Qureshi Kaveri et Kreager Philip (2020) « Afterword », in The Anthropological Demography of Health, éd. par Véronique Petit, Kaveri Qureshi, Yves Charbit, et Philip Kreager, Oxford : Oxford University Press, p. 516-540. ISBN : 978-0-19-886243-7.
    Résumé : The extent to which health interventions actually improve people’s lives, and the extent to which interventions may become objects of widespread fear and mistrust, are issues that have recurred many times throughout modern history. A dynamic arises at the conjunction of three formidable forces—local experience, institutional interventions, and scientific research—that is a compound of the fit, both good and bad, between them. Understanding this dynamism requires us not to privilege science, nor intervention programmes, nor local cultures—whether as the source of strengths, or weaknesses, in the collective effort to improve health. The Afterword reviews this dynamic, in two steps. First, it steps back from the conceptual and methodological detail of chapters in this book, giving a general view of the obstacles and challenges that remain. Historical prejudices, continuing limitations of data systems in monitoring migration and the spread of disease, the challenges posed for conventional demographics by climate change, and the longstanding demographic tendency to predefine implications of elementary fertility measurement, provide examples. Second, in the concluding sections, the chapter draws on the many case studies in the book to propose a preliminary typology of blockages that have arisen where there is a mismatch between research methods and the societies and cultures to which methods have been addressed. The anthropological demography of health, in the five-part structure of this book, provides an integrative framework which co-ordinates demography, epidemiology, history, linguistics, and other disciplines within a bottom-up, combined qualitative and quantitative approach to societies and their variation.


  • Cicchelli Vincenzo (2020) « The Cosmopolitan Individual in Tension », in Cosmopolitanism in Hard Times. In Cicchelli Vincenzo et Mesure Sylvie (Eds), BRILL, p. 289-302. ISBN : 978-90-04-43801-9 978-90-04-43802-6. https://brill.com/view/title/58224.


  • Cicchelli Vincenzo et Mesure Sylvie (2020) « Introduction », in Cosmopolitanism in Hard Times. In Cicchelli Vincenzo et Mesure Sylvie (Eds), BRILL, p. 1-24. ISBN : 978-90-04-43801-9 978-90-04-43802-6. https://brill.com/view/title/58224.
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