Publications des membres du Ceped

2021



  • Cicchelli Vincenzo et Octobre Sylvie, ss la dir. de (2021) Globalisation de la culture, Vol., 226-227, Paris : La découverte, 300 p. (Réseaux (revue). ISBN : 978-2-348-06945-1. https://www.editionsladecouverte.fr/globalisation_de_la_culture-9782348069451.
    Résumé : Il existe depuis une trentaine d’années un grand nombre de livres, d’articles et de numéros spéciaux de revues en langue anglaise consacrés à la globalisation de la culture, dans sa double dynamique de transformation des identités culturelles et de circulation des biens culturels, travaux rassemblés sous la bannière des global studies. Ce numéro double de Réseaux contribue à combler cette lacune, en se focalisant principalement sur la circulation des produits culturels. Sans pouvoir prétendre à une impossible exhaustivité, ce numéro ambitionne à la fois de familiariser le lecteur francophone avec les concepts les plus saillants de ce domaine et de rassembler, pour la première fois, des travaux francophones, menés dans des champs disciplinaires divers. Si l’on ne peut certes pas parler d’effervescence de la recherche francophone sur le sujet, le nombre élevé de propositions reçues par le comité de rédaction (une cinquantaine) témoigne d’une vitalité que ce numéro souhaite encourager à poursuivre. Chacun à leur manière, ces articles mettent en lumière les multiples facettes de la globalisation de la culture, à partir de la circulation des produits culturels, et ouvrent de nouvelles pistes pour des questionnements tant méthodologiques qu’épistémologiques ou théoriques, sur la base d’enquêtes empiriques. Bien sûr, ce numéro n’épuise en rien un sujet dont la période actuelle nous montre l’importance, y compris avec la pandémie de la Covid-19 qui a vu la croissance exponentielle de la circulation des produits culturels sur les plateformes globales, mais il voudrait augurer d’une plus grande focalisation des sciences sociales dans l’espace francophone sur ces thématiques.


  • Cicchelli Vincenzo et Octobre Sylvie (2021) The Sociology of Hallyu Pop Culture: Surfing the Korean Wave, London : Palgrave MacMillan, XXVIII, 356 p. ISBN : 978-3-030-84295-6. https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-030-84296-3.
    Résumé : Combining global, media, and cultural studies, this book analyzes the success of Hallyu, or the "Korean Wave” in the West, both at a macro and micro level, as an alternative pop culture globalization. This research investigates the capitalist ecosystem (formed by producers, institutions and the state), the soft power of Hallyu, and the reception among young people, using France as a case study, and placing it within the broader framework of the 'consumption of difference.' Seen by French fans as a challenge to Western pop culture, Hallyu constitutes a material of choice for understanding the cosmopolitan apprenticeships linked to the consumption of cultural goods, and the use of these resources to build youth’s biographical trajectories. The book will be relevant to researchers, as well as undergraduate and postgraduate students in sociology, cultural studies, global studies, consumption and youth studies.


  • Clavel Nathalie, Badr Janine, Gautier Lara, Lavoie-Tremblay Mélanie et Paquette Jesseca (2021) « Risk Perceptions, Knowledge and Behaviors of General and High-Risk Adult Populations Towards COVID-19: A Systematic Scoping Review », Public Health Reviews, 42, p. 1-22. DOI : 10.3389/phrs.2021.1603979. https://doi.org/10.3389/phrs.2021.1603979.
    Résumé : The COVID-19 pandemic represents a major crisis for governments and populations. The public’s risk perceptions, knowledge, and behaviors are key factors that play a vital role in the transmission of infectious diseases. Our scoping review aims to map the early evidence on risk perceptions, knowledge, and behaviors of general and high-risk adult populations towards COVID-19. A systematic scoping review was conducted of peer-reviewed articles in five databases on studies conducted during the early stages of COVID-19. Thirty-one studies meeting the inclusion criteria were appraised and analyzed.The levels of risk perceptions, knowledge, and behaviors towards COVID-19 were moderate to high in both general and high-risk adult populations. The perceived severity of the disease was slightly higher than the perceived susceptibility of getting COVID-19. Adults were knowledgeable about preventive behaviors. Nevertheless, an important knowledge gap regarding the asymptomatic transmission of COVID-19 was reported in many studies. Our review identified hand-washing and avoiding crowded places as dominant preventive behaviors. Being a female, older, more educated, and living in urban areas was associated with better knowledge of COVID-19 and appropriate preventive behaviors.


  • Coulibaly Pierre, Schantz Clémence, Traoré Brehima, Bagayoko Nanko S., Traoré Abdoulaye, Chabrol Fanny et Guindo Oumar (2021) « In the era of humanitarian crisis, young women continue to die in childbirth in Mali », Conflict and Health, 15 (1). DOI : 10.1186/s13031-020-00334-5. https://link.springer.com/epdf/10.1186/s13031-020-00334-5.
    Résumé : Maternal mortality occurs mostly in contexts of poverty and health system collapse. Mali has a very high maternal mortality rate and this extremely high mortality rate is due in part to longstanding constraints in maternal health services. The central region has been particularly affected by the humanitarian crisis in recent years, and maternal health has been aggravated by the conflict. Sominé Dolo Hospital is located in Mopti, central region. In the last decade, a high number of pregnant or delivering women have died in this hospital. We conducted a retrospective and exhaustive study of maternal deaths occurring in Mopti hospital. Between 2007 and 2019, 420 women died, with an average of 32 deaths per year. The years 2014–2015 and the last 2 years have been particularly deadly, with 40 and 50 deaths in 2018 and 2019, respectively. The main causes were hypertensive disorders/eclampsia and haemorrhage. 80% of these women’s deaths were preventable. Two major explanations result in these maternal deaths in Sominé Dolo’s hospital: first, a lack of accessible and safe blood, and second, the absence of a reference and evacuation referral system, all of which are aggravated by security issues in and around Mopti. Access to quality hospital care is in dire need in the Mopti region. There is an urgent need for a safe blood collection system and free of charge for pregnant women. We also strongly recommend that the referral/evacuation system be reinvigorated, and that universal health coverage be strengthened.


  • Cu Anthony, Meister Sofia, Lefebvre Bertrand et Ridde Valéry (2021) « Assessing healthcare access using the Levesque’s conceptual framework– a scoping review », International Journal for Equity in Health, 20 (1) (décembre), p. 116. DOI : 10.1186/s12939-021-01416-3. https://equityhealthj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12939-021-01416-3.
    Résumé : Abstract Introduction Countries are working hard to improve access to healthcare through Universal Healthcare Coverage. To genuinely address the problems of healthcare access, we need to recognize all the dimensions and complexities of healthcare access. Levesque’s Conceptual Framework of Access to Health introduced in 2013 provides an interesting and comprehensive perspective through the five dimensions of access and the five abilities of the population to access healthcare. The objectives of this paper are to identify and analyze all empirical studies that applied Levesque’s conceptual framework for access to healthcare and to explore the experiences and challenges of researchers who used this framework in developing tools for assessing access. Methods A scoping review was conducted by searching through four databases, for studies citing Levesque et al. 2013 to select all empirical studies focusing on healthcare access that applied the framework. An initial 1838 documents underwent title screening, followed by abstract screening, and finally full text screening by two independent reviewers. Authors of studies identified from the scoping review were also interviewed. Results There were 31 studies identified on healthcare access using the Levesque framework either a priori , to develop assessment tool/s (11 studies), or a posteriori , to organize and analyze collected data (20 studies) . From the tools used, 147 unique questions on healthcare access were collected, 91 of these explored dimensions of access while 56 were about abilities to access. Those that were designed from the patient’s perspective were 73%, while 20% were for health providers, and 7% were addressed to both. Interviews from seven out of the 26 authors, showed that while there were some challenges such as instances of categorization difficulty and unequal representation of dimensions and abilities, the overall experience was positive. Conclusion Levesque’s framework has been successfully used in research that explored, assessed, and measured access in various healthcare services and settings. The framework allowed researchers to comprehensively assess the complex and dynamic process of access both in the health systems and the population contexts. There is still potential room for improvement of the framework, particularly the incorporation of time-related elements of access.


  • d'Elbée Marc, Traore Métogara Mohamed, Badiane Kéba, Vautier Anthony, Simo Fotso Arlette, Kabemba Odé Kanku, Rouveau Nicolas, Godfrey-Faussett Peter, Maheu-Giroux Mathieu, Boily Marie-Claude, Medley Graham Francis, Larmarange Joseph, Terris-Prestholt Fern et ATLAS Team (2021) « Costs and Scale-Up Costs of Integrating HIV Self-Testing Into Civil Society Organisation-Led Programmes for Key Populations in Côte d'Ivoire, Senegal, and Mali », Frontiers in Public Health, 9 (mai 24). DOI : 10.3389/fpubh.2021.653612. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpubh.2021.653612/full.
    Résumé : Despite significant progress on the proportion of individuals who know their HIV status in 2020, Côte d’Ivoire (76%), Senegal (78%), and Mali (48%) remain far below, and key populations (KP) including female sex workers (FSW), men who have sex with men (MSM), and people who use injectable drugs (PWuID) are the most vulnerable groups with a HIV prevalence at 5%-30%. HIV self-testing (HIVST), a process where a person collects his/her own specimen, performs an HIV test, and interprets the result, was introduced in 2019 as a new testing modality through the ATLAS project coordinated by the international partner organisation Solthis (IPO). In this paper, we estimate the costs of implementing HIVST through twenty-three civil society organisations (CSO)-led models for KP in Côte d’Ivoire (N=7), Senegal (N=11), and Mali (N=5). We modelled costs for programme transition (2021) and early scale-up (2022-2023). Between July 2019 and September 2020, a total of 51,028, 14,472 and 34,353 HIVST kits were distributed in Côte d’Ivoire, Senegal, and Mali, respectively. Across countries, 64%-80% of HIVST kits were distributed to FSW, 20%-31% to MSM, and 5%-8% to PWuID. Average costs per HIVST kit distributed ranged $12-$15 (FSW), $14-$27 (MSM), and $15-$143 (PWuID), driven by personnel costs at various intervention levels (53%-78% of total costs), and HIVST kits costs (2%-15%). Estimated average costs at scale-up ranged $6-$13 (FSW), $6-$23 (MSM), and $14-$50 (PWuID), and were mainly explained by the spreading of IPO costs over higher HIVST distribution volumes. In all three countries, CSO-led HIVST kit provision to KP showed relatively high costs during the study period related to the progressive integration of the programme to CSO activities and contextual challenges (COVID-19 pandemic, country safety concerns). The analysis of costs at scale suggests that, in the transition to scale-up and further integration of the HIVST programme into CSO existing activities, this model can evolve into an affordable HIV testing strategy. This is particularly relevant as it remains today the most promising strategy for reaching KP of the HIV epidemic, their sexual partners, and FSW clients not accessing HIV testing. Further research will assess the overall cost-effectiveness of this model.
    Mots-clés : Costs and Cost Analysis, Côte d'Ivoire, diagnosis, Female sex workers, HIV self-testing, Key populations, Knowledge of HIV status, Mali, Men who have sex with men, People who use injectable drugs, Scale-up, screening, Senegal, West Africa.

  • d'Elbée Marc, Traore Métogara Mohamed, Badiane Kéba, Vautier Anthony, Simo Fotso Arlette, Kanku Kabemba Odé, Rouveau Nicolas, Godfrey-Faussett Peter, Maheu-Giroux Mathieu, Boily Marie-Claude, Medley Graham Francis, Larmarange Joseph et Terris-Prestholt Fern (2021) « Costs and costs-at-scale of provision of HIV self-testing kits by civil society organisations to key populations and their sexual partners in Côte d'Ivoire, Senegal and Mali » (poster PED500), présenté à 11th IAS Conference on HIV Science, Berlin. https://theprogramme.ias2021.org/Abstract/Abstract/476.
    Résumé : BACKGROUND: Despite significant progress on the proportion of individuals who know their HIV status in 2020, Côte d'Ivoire (76%), Senegal (78%), and Mali (48%) remain far below the 90-90-90 targets. Key populations including female sex workers (FSW), men who have sex with men (MSM), and people who use drugs (PWUD) are the most vulnerable groups with HIV prevalence at 5%-30%. HIV self-testing (HIVST) was introduced in West Africa in 2019 as a new testing modality through the ATLAS project coordinated by the international partner organisation Solthis (IPO). METHODS: We estimated the costs of implementing HIVST through twenty-three civil society organisations (CSO)-led models in Côte d'Ivoire (N=7), Senegal (N=11), and Mali (N=5). We modelled costs for programme transition (2021) and early scale-up (2022-2023). RESULTS: Between July-2019 and September-2020, a total of 51,028, 14,472 and 34,353 HIVST kits were distributed in Côte d'Ivoire, Senegal, and Mali, respectively. Across countries, 64%-80% of HIVST kits were distributed to FSW, 20%-31% to MSM, and 5%-8% to PWUD. Cost per HIVST kit distributed ranged from $12-$15 (FSW), $14-$27 (MSM), to $15-$143 (PWUD), driven by personnel costs at various intervention levels (53%-78% of total costs), and HIVST kit costs (2%-15%). Predicted costs at scale-up ranged from $5-$13 (FSW), $5-$24 (MSM), to $13-$53 (PWUD), and were mainly explained by the spreading of IPO costs over higher HIVST distribution volumes. CONCLUSIONS: In all countries, CSO-led HIVST kit provision to key populations showed relatively high costs related to the progressive integration of the programme to CSO activities and contextual challenges (e.g. country security issues). In the transition to scale-up and further integration of the HIVST programme into CSO activities, this model can become less costly. This is particularly relevant as it remains today the most promising strategy for reaching key populations and their sexual partners not accessing HIV testing.


  • Dagenais Christian, Proulx Michelle, Mc Sween-Cadieux Esther, Nikiema Aude, Bonnet Emmanuel, Ridde Valéry et Somé Paul-André (2021) « Collaborative research and knowledge translation on road crashes in Burkina Faso: the police perspective 18 months on », Health Research Policy and Systems, 19 (1) (décembre), p. 3. DOI : 10.1186/s12961-020-00654-1. https://health-policy-systems.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12961-020-00654-1.
    Résumé : In this commentary, we present a follow-up of two articles published in 2017 and 2018 about road traffic crashes, which is an important public health issue in Africa and Burkina Faso. The first article reported on a research project, conducted in partnership with local actors involved in road safety, carried out in Ouagadougou in 2015. Its aim was to test the effectiveness, acceptability, and capacity of a surveillance system to assess the number of road traffic crashes and their consequences on the health of crash victims. Several knowledge translation activities were carried out to maximize its impact and were reported in the 2018 article published in HRPS: monthly reports presenting the research data, large-format printed maps distributed to the city’s police stations, and a deliberative workshop held at the end of the research project. The present commentary presents our efforts to deepen our understanding of the impacts of the knowledge translation strategy, based on follow-up interviews, 18 months after the workshop, with the heads of the road traffic crash units in Ouagadougou police stations ( n  = 5). Several benefits were reported by respondents. Their involvement in the process prompted them to broaden their knowledge of other ways of dealing with the issue of road crashes. This led them, sometimes with their colleagues, to intervene differently: more rapid response at collision sites, increased surveillance of dangerous intersections, user awareness-raising on the importance of the highway code, etc. However, sustaining these actions over the longer term has proven difficult. Several lessons were derived from this experience, regarding the importance of producing useful and locally applicable research data, of ensuring the acceptability of the technologies used for data collection, of using collaborative approaches in research and knowledge translation, of ensuring the visibility of actions undertaken by actors in the field, and of involving decision-makers in the research process to maximize its impacts.


  • De Allegri Manuela, Rudasingwa Martin, Yeboah Edmund, Bonnet Emmanuel, Somé Paul André et Ridde Valéry (2021) « Does the implementation of UHC reforms foster greater equality in health spending? Evidence from a benefit incidence analysis in Burkina Faso », BMJ Global Health, 6 (12) (décembre), p. e005810. DOI : 10.1136/bmjgh-2021-005810. https://gh.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/bmjgh-2021-005810.
    Résumé : Introduction Burkina Faso is one among many countries in sub-Saharan Africa having invested in Universal Health Coverage (UHC) policies, with a number of studies have evaluated their impacts and equity impacts. Still, no evidence exists on how the distributional incidence of health spending has changed in relation to their implementation. Our study assesses changes in the distributional incidence of public and overall health spending in Burkina Faso in relation to the implementation of UHC policies. Methods We combined National Health Accounts data and household survey data to conduct a series of Benefit Incidence Analyses. We captured the distribution of public and overall health spending at three time points. We conducted separate analyses for maternal and curative services and estimated the distribution of health spending separately for different care levels. Results Inequalities in the distribution of both public and overall spending decreased significantly over time, following the implementation of UHC policies. Pooling data on curative services across all care levels, the concentration index (CI) for public spending decreased from 0.119 (SE 0.013) in 2009 to −0.024 (SE 0.014) in 2017, while the CI for overall spending decreased from 0.222 (SE 0.032) in 2009 to 0.105 (SE 0.025) in 2017. Pooling data on institutional deliveries across all care levels, the CI for public spending decreased from 0.199 (SE 0.029) in 2003 to 0.013 (SE 0.002) in 2017, while the CI for overall spending decreased from 0.242 (SE 0.032) in 2003 to 0.062 (SE 0.016) in 2017. Persistent inequalities were greater at higher care levels for both curative and institutional delivery services. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the implementation of UHC in Burkina Faso has favoured a more equitable distribution of health spending. Nonetheless, additional action is urgently needed to overcome remaining barriers to access, especially among the very poor, further enhancing equality.

  • Delahais Thomas, Devaux-Spatarakis Agathe, Revillard Anne et Ridde Valéry, ss la dir. de (2021) Évaluation. Fondements, controverses, perspectives, ESBC, Éditions science et bien commun, Québec, Canada. ISBN : 978-2-925128-14-4.
    Résumé : Nombre d'institutions publiques locales, nationales ou internationales mobilisent des pratiques d’évaluation pour dresser le bilan de leurs interventions et nourrir la décision publique. L’évaluation reste toutefois relativement mal connue dans ses fondements théoriques et dans la diversité de ses pratiques. À quoi sert-elle? Qui évalue et comment? En fonction de quelles valeurs évalue-t-on? L’évaluation est-elle une science, et sur quels paradigmes repose-t-elle? Telles sont les grandes questions explorées par cet ouvrage. Sans défendre une "école" particulière, nous rendons compte de la diversité des approches à partir de la traduction en français de textes fondateurs et contemporains du champ international de l’évaluation. Ciblant un lectorat divers (au sein des universités, des administrations, du secteur privé ou associatif), cet ouvrage en accès ouvert entend ainsi favoriser les échanges et contribuer à la consolidation d’un socle de références communes en évaluation. Licence: Creative Commons Attribution –


  • Detemple Marie, Aboubacar Salou, Aboubacar Adam Elhadj, Moha Mahaman, Alkassoum Ibrahim et Chabrol Fanny (2021) « Innovations et gestion des déchets médicaux : le cas du nouvel hôpital de référence de Niamey, Niger », Sante Publique, 33 (5), p. 729-739. DOI : 10.3917/spub.215.0729. https://www.cairn.info/revue-sante-publique-2021-5-page-729.htm.

  • Diagne Ibra, Petit Véronique et Boiro Djibril (2021) « Accidental Trihexyphenidyl Intoxication in a Seven-Year Old Child: A Case Report from Senegal », Journal of Psychiatry & Mental Disorders, 6 (3), p. 1045. https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03320988.
    Résumé : Trihexyphenidyl or Artane® /Parkinane® is an anti-cholinergic drug belonging to the antimuscarinic class. It is used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and widely in psychiatry for the management of extrapyramidal side effects of neuroleptics. Its overdose leads to a central and peripheral anti-cholinergic syndrome. We report here the case of a seven-year-old Senegalese boy who developed signs of intoxication due to accidental ingestion of a high dose of trihexyphenidyl and recovered completely after administration of parenteral antipyretic, gastric lavage and supportive care in a paediatric setting.
    Mots-clés : ⛔ No DOI found.


  • Diagne Ibra, Petit Véronique, Seck Khadim, Ba El Hadj Makhtar, Ndiaye Ndongo Ndeye Diale, Sylla Aida et Thiam Mamadou Habib (2021) « Caractéristiques de la population carcérale suivie en ambulatoire au service de psychiatrie du Centre Hospitalier National Universitaire de Fann, Sénégal », Pan African Medical Journal, 39 (221) (juillet 29). DOI : 10.11604/pamj.2021.39.221.23700. https://www.panafrican-med-journal.com/content/article/39/221/full.
    Résumé : Introduction: les troubles psychiatriques affectent une grande proportion de la population carcérale. En effet, depuis plusieurs années, les conditions de détention dans les prisons sénégalaises sont décriées en évoquant notamment la surpopulation. Ces conditions jouent probablement un rôle déterminant dans la survenue des troubles psychiques dans cette population. Ce travail décrit les caractéristiques sociodémographiques et cliniques chez ces détenus suivis en ambulatoire au service de psychiatrie du Centre Hospitalier National Universitaire Universitaire (CHNU) de Fann. Méthodes: l´étude était de type rétrospectif et descriptif. Les auteurs avaient colligé tous les détenus ayant consulté à l´Unité de la Consultation Externe du service de Psychiatrie du CHNU de Fann entre le 1er janvier 2005 et le 31 décembre 2010, soit sur une période de six ans. Résultats: notre population d´étude était constituée de 62 détenus répartis en 92% d´hommes et 8% de femmes. L´âge moyen était de 32 ans, près de trois quarts des individus (72,6%) étaient célibataires. Leur situation professionnelle était précaire dans la majorité des cas et 69,3% d´entre eux n´avaient pas atteint le niveau d´étude secondaire. L´insomnie était le motif de consultation le plus important (29%) suivis des cas d´hallucinations acousticoverbales (22,6%). L´agressivité physique et/ou les menaces envers les codétenus étaient observées dans 17,7% des cas. Les principales catégories diagnostiques constatées étaient les troubles schizophréniques (32,3%) et les troubles dépressifs (27,4%). Entre 2005 et 2010, le nombre de consultations des détenus a été multiplié par trois/an passants de 7 à 19. Conclusion: il ressort de cette étude, que la population carcérale, suivie en ambulatoire en psychiatrie, est caractérisée par un âge jeune, majoritairement masculin et célibataire, de bas niveau d´instruction, de statut professionnel désavantagé. Un profil semblable a été dégagé dans la littérature internationale sur le même sujet. En l´état actuel du développement socio-économique et sanitaire du Sénégal, nous remarquons, que bien que le nombre de consultations des détenus augmente au fil des années, que seuls les individus avec des troubles mentaux sévères parviennent dans les services sanitaires spécialisés. Compte tenu de l´effectif de la population carcérale, des parcours biographiques des détenus, des conditions de détention et de l´absence de certaines pathologies, une enquête conduite dans les prisons s´avère nécessaire afin d´évaluer les besoins de soins de santé mentale des populations carcérales et les problématiques spécifiques qui pourraient les affecter.
    Mots-clés : ⚠️ Invalid DOI.


  • Diallo Alhassane, Carlos-Bolumbu Miguel, Cervantes-Gonzalez Minerva, Wozniak Veronika, Diallo Mamadou Hassimiou, Diallo Boubacar Djelo, Delamou Alexandre et Galtier Florence (2021) « Immunogenicity and safety of Ebola virus vaccines in healthy adults: a systematic review and network meta-analysis », Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics (juillet 16), p. 1-13. DOI : 10.1080/21645515.2021.1932214. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/21645515.2021.1932214.


  • Domingos Tanguy, Simonella (2021) « Adoption internationale et (re)définition du rapport aux origines : la mise en œuvre de la Convention de La Haye sur la protection des enfants et la coopération en matière d’adoption internationale (CLH93) au Bénin », Enfances Familles Générations [En ligne], 37 (mai). DOI : 10/gnm4s8. http://journals.openedition.org/efg/11575.
    Résumé : Cadre de la recherche : Le Bénin, pays d’origine peu investi jusque-là dans l’adoption, a ratifié en 2018 la CLH93 qui entraine une évolution de son système de protection de l’enfance et de la perception locale de l’adoption. Objectifs : Dans le cadre de ce numéro qui interroge les « origines » sous différents angles, cette contribution explore les transformations occasionnées par cette convention dans un contexte social à l’ancrage traditionnel fort. Méthodologie : Les analyses s’appuient sur les données collectées dans les pays d’accueil et au Bénin, et s’inscrivent dans mon parcours doctoral portant sur une étude comparative des politiques et pratiques d’adoption internationale en France et en Allemagne. Résultats : Il en ressort que l’origine est une notion centrale dans la culture béninoise et qu’elle est étroitement reliée à l’identité de l’individu. L’adoption est une pratique méconnue dans ce contexte où se perpétuent les usages traditionnels de confiage d’enfants. L’adoption internationale et la rupture qu’elle provoque dans l’identité de l’enfant imposent une nouvelle conceptualisation de l’origine, au-delà de la définition essentialiste qui y prévaut. La mise en œuvre adéquate de la CLH93 requiert des changements à plusieurs niveaux, et crée de nouvelles attentes institutionnelles qui pourraient se révéler trop lourdes. Conclusions : L’origine est au cœur des débats sur l’adoption. Saisir l’origine dans ce cadre revient notamment à s’interroger sur les représentations qui y sont associées localement, et à prendre en compte les attentes spécifiques des familles biologiques, sans pénaliser les adoptés. Contribution : Cet article est une contribution à une meilleure connaissance des pays d’origine, peu étudiés et souvent enfermés dans une « uniformité de fait ». Il met en évidence la force des usages traditionnels et les freins possibles à une mise en œuvre adéquate de la CLH93 dans le contexte béninois.
  • Duchesne Véronique (2021) « Un passeur entre les mondes », in Jean-Marie Adiaffi Adé. Entre éclairs et foudres, coordonné par Serge Grah, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire : Valesse, p. 67-71.


  • Duchesne Véronique (2021) « Mobile phones, non-human agents at the service of assisted reproduction: monitoring and gendered dual allegiance », Horizontes Antropológicos, 27 (61) (décembre), p. 143-162. DOI : 10/gnqsdh. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-71832021000300143&tlng=en.
    Résumé : Abstract For sub-Saharan women enrolled in a protocol for assisted reproductive technology (ART), the use of mobile phones entails dual allegiance: toward the services of reproductive medicine and toward their transnational family. Indispensable for medically monitoring women’s reproductive bodies, the mobile phone enters the process for producing female gametes and contributes to the gender asymmetry typical of biomedicalized procreation. It is also used to maintain contacts with transnational family members who, from a distance, obtrude in the woman’s reproductive life. The use of mobile phones extends biomedical power over the woman’s body into her everyday life and the normative power of her transnational family into reproduction. Paradoxically, the mobile telephone allows collateral relatives to support the woman seeking reproduction assistance while also “hypermedicalizing” the woman’s daily life. Also paradoxically, this everyday companion is conductive to individual autonomy while also being used for new forms of surveillance and control. The data come from fieldwork conducted in the greater Paris area between 2011 and 2013 within a network of ART professionals and their patients. , Resumo Para as mulheres subsaarianas inscritas em um protocolo de tecnologia reprodutiva assistida (TRA), o uso de telefones celulares implica dupla fidelidade: para com os serviços da medicina reprodutiva e para com sua família transnacional. Indispensável para o monitoramento médico dos corpos reprodutivos das mulheres, o telefone celular entra no processo de produção de gametas femininos e contribui para a assimetria de gênero típica da procriação biomedicalizada. Também é utilizado para manter contatos com membros da família transnacional que, à distância, intrometem-se na vida reprodutiva da mulher. O uso de telefones celulares estende o poder biomédico sobre o corpo da mulher em sua vida cotidiana e o poder normativo de sua família transnacional para a reprodução. Paradoxalmente, o telefone celular permite que parentes colaterais apoiem a mulher em busca de assistência reprodutiva ao mesmo tempo que “hipermedicaliza” a vida diária da mulher. Também paradoxalmente, esse companheiro cotidiano é condutivo à autonomia individual ao mesmo tempo que é utilizado para novas formas de vigilância e controle. Os dados vêm do trabalho de campo realizado na região da Grande Paris entre 2011 e 2013 dentro de uma rede de profissionais de TRA e seus pacientes.

  • Eboko Fred (2021) Public policy lessons from the AIDS response in Africa, Abingdon, Oxon ; New York, NY : Routledge, 1 p. (Routledge studies in African development). ISBN : 978-1-00-300213-0.
    Résumé : "Public Policy Lessons from the AIDS Response in Africa examines how the interplay between national state dynamics in Africa and the global political arena has shaped the global AIDS response, and in this context develops a framework for analysing public policy action more broadly in contemporary Africa. By applying comparative political sociology to AIDS public action, this book identifies four political models that are applicable to public initiatives. Fred Eboko goes on to test these in other domains - namely, the malaria and tuberculosis health subsectors, and the education and environment sectors. By articulating global and national connections and contributing a critical perspective grounded in African scholarship and French political science, the author builds a bold and ambitious framework with the potential to enable coherent and effective public policy action in Africa. This book will be of interest to scholars and students of public health, global health, political science, and development studies, as well as policy-level practitioners in the areas of global health and development"--
    Mots-clés : Africa, AIDS (Disease), Government policy, International cooperation, Medical policy.
    Note Note
    Updated and revised version of the original French publication, Repenser l'action publique en Afrique: Du sida à la l'analyse de la globalisation des politiques publiques (Paris, Editions Karthala, 2015)
    Note Note
    Introduction: From Intimacy to Politics: AIDS in Africa as A Moving Object -- The International Policy Response to AIDS in Africa (1986-1996). Empirical Bases, Theoretical Tools -- AIDS and Governance in Africa. Instruments and Instrumentalisation of an International Policy -- International Comparison in Africa. Socio-political Determinants of Access to AIDS Drugs -- Socio-political Determinants of Access to AIDS Drugs in Africa. A Paradigm Shift -- From Policies to Politics. Policy before the Onslaught of Politics -- Towards a Matrix of Public Action in Africa. Norms, Interests and Cross-Sectoral Approach -- Conclusion. Towards a Return of the African State?

  • El Abid Ghislaine (2021) « Promotion de la culture artistique marocaine par des travailleurs immigrés en France. Le parcours de Monsieur Mustapha Idbihi, ancien travailleur de l’usine Renault Billancourt », Hommes & Migrations, 1332 (janvier). (Dossier : Diaspora africaine et créativité). https://www.histoire-immigration.fr/hommes-migrations/article/promotion-de-la-culture-artistique-marocaine-par-des-travailleurs-immigres.
    Résumé : Ouvrier spécialisé au sein de l’usine Renault Billancourt devenu producteur artistique dans les années 1970-1980, Mustapha Idbihi demeure un indéfectible passeur de cultures. En organisant des concerts et autres événements culturels à l’attention des travailleurs et de leurs familles, il a contribué à la diffusion de nombreux talents venus du Maghreb. Par son parcours singulier, cet immigré marocain OS en France a su faire de la culture un élément de mixité et un facteur de mobilité sociale.

  • Erlich Valérie, Gérard Étienne et Mazzella Sylvie (2021) « La triple torsion des mobilités étudiantes. Financiarisation de l’enseignement supérieur, concurrence sur le marché mondial et différenciations sociales accrues des parcours », Agora débats/jeunesses, 88 (2), p. 53-69. https://www.cairn.info/revue-agora-debats-jeunesses-2021-2-page-53.htm.
    Résumé : Venus en France pour y poursuivre leurs études supérieures, les étudiants en migration internationale sont censés retourner dans leur pays après l’obtention de leur diplôme. S’il en va ainsi pour une grande part d’entre eux, une autre part, non négligeable, tend à prolonger son séjour puis à rester sur place, parfois définitivement : pour quelles raisons ? La question du « pourquoi » mérite d’être posée mais également celle du « comment ». Si les raisons de s’installer en France sont multiples, nous verrons, en lisant ce dossier, comment, au fil de leur séjour, nombre d’étudiants et d’étudiantes s’habituent à vivre en France alors que leurs liens avec leur pays d’origine se distendent…


  • Fillol Amandine, Gautier Lara et Ridde Valéry (2021) « L’avènement de la couverture sanitaire universelle dans la gouvernance globale: », Revue internationale des études du développement, 247 (3) (novembre 10), p. 139-172. DOI : 10.3917/ried.247.0139. https://www.cairn.info/revue-internationale-des-etudes-du-developpement-2021-3-page-139.htm?ref=doi.


  • Fillol Amandine, Ridde Valéry, Dumont Alexandre et Martin-Prevel Yves (2021) « Créer une communauté de pratique sur la recherche interventionnelle en santé mondiale: », Santé Publique, Vol. 33 (1) (juin 24), p. 127-136. DOI : 10.3917/spub.211.0127. https://www.cairn.info/revue-sante-publique-2021-1-page-127.htm?ref=doi.
    Résumé : Introduction : Dans le milieu francophone, mais surtout en France, la recherche interventionnelle en santé mondiale est encore peu développée de façon institutionnelle. L’institut de recherche pour le développement (IRD) est l’un des principaux acteurs publics en recherche en santé mondiale en France. Au sein de cet institut, les chercheurs publient et communiquent peu sur la recherche interventionnelle malgré le fait qu’ils en font au quotidien. C’est pourquoi, depuis quelques années, le département Santé et Sociétés de l’IRD cherche à institutionnaliser un réseau des acteurs de l’IRD en recherche interventionnelle en santé des populations. Objectif : L’objectif de cet article est d’analyser les besoins des acteurs de santé mondiale et les éléments qui permettraient de construire une communauté de pratique pour ainsi amorcer un ancrage institutionnel de la recherche interventionnelle en santé mondiale à travers la mobilisation des acteurs à l’IRD. Méthode : Une recherche qualitative a été réalisée en 2017 avec notamment la réalisation d’entretiens individuels et collectifs. Les résultats permettent d’observer : i) une définition de la RISP qui se différencie selon les participants, ii) une nécessité d’augmenter les interactions formelles et informelles pour répondre au besoin de se former et de développer le partage d’expérience, de renforcer les opportunités de rencontres et de liens interpersonnels, d’augmenter la communication et la visibilité des actions mises en œuvre), iii) une volonté des participants de progresser ensemble pour pallier certains défis inhérents à la santé mondiale tels que l’interdisciplinarité, les partenariats Nord-Sud, ou la communication avec les différents publics. Conclusion : Faire de la recherche interventionnelle en santé des populations nécessite une certaine remise en question des manières de faire de la recherche et implique donc des changements importants dans le quotidien des chercheurs. Il est indispensable d’avoir un support institutionnel pour les développer, telle que la communauté de pratique. Toutefois, l’inexistence de cette communauté de pratique trois ans après montre les défis d’opérationnalisation et de mise en œuvre d’une telle initiative.


  • Fiorentino Marion, Nishimwe Marie, Protopopescu Camelia, Iwuji Collins, Okesola Nonhlanhla, Spire Bruno, Orne-Gliemann Joanna, McGrath Nuala, Pillay Deenan, Dabis François, Larmarange Joseph, Boyer Sylvie et for the ANRS 12249 TaSP Study Group (2021) « Early ART Initiation Improves HIV Status Disclosure and Social Support in People Living with HIV, Linked to Care Within a Universal Test and Treat Program in Rural South Africa (ANRS 12249 TasP Trial) », AIDS and Behavior, 25 (4) (avril), p. 1306-1322. DOI : 10.1007/s10461-020-03101-y. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-020-03101-y.
    Résumé : We investigated the effect of early antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation on HIV status disclosure and social support in a cluster-randomized, treatment-as-prevention (TasP) trial in rural South Africa. Individuals identified HIV-positive after home-based testing were referred to trial clinics where they were invited to initiate ART immediately irrespective of CD4 count (intervention arm) or following national guidelines (control arm). We used Poisson mixed effects models to assess the independent effects of (a) time since baseline clinical visit, (b) trial arm, and (c) ART initiation on HIV disclosure (n = 182) and social support (n = 152) among participants with a CD4 count > 500 cells/mm3 at baseline. Disclosure and social support significantly improved over follow-up in both arms. Disclosure was higher (incidence rate ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.24 [1.04; 1.48]), and social support increased faster (1.22 [1.02; 1.46]) in the intervention arm than in the control arm. ART initiation improved both disclosure and social support (1.50 [1.28; 1.75] and 1.34 [1.12; 1.61], respectively), a stronger effect being seen in the intervention arm for social support (1.50 [1.12; 2.01]). Besides clinical benefits, early ART initiation may also improve psychosocial outcomes. This should further encourage countries to implement universal test-and-treat strategies.


  • Gabarro Céline, Knobé Sandrine et Schultz Emilien (2021) « Le paysage associatif du cancer : quelles spécificités pour les associations de parents ? », Anthropologie et Santé, 23 (novembre 23). DOI : 10/gn6phn. http://journals.openedition.org/anthropologiesante/9749.
    Résumé : Cet article part du constat d’un engagement associatif important dans le domaine de l’oncologie pédiatrique, qui se différencie de l’oncologie adulte, où il est réputé moindre. À partir d’une comparaison de l’engagement associatif dans le domaine de l’oncologie pédiatrique et dans celui de l’oncologie adulte, l’article montre la spécificité des associations de parents. Bien que l’expérience de la maladie constitue un moteur commun de l’engagement, l’analyse met en évidence deux formes particulières d’associations de parents, peu visibles chez les patients adultes. Il s’agit d’une part des associations rattachées à un service hospitalier, et de l’autre des associations « personnalisées ». Au-delà des différences en termes d’organisation ou d’action entre ces deux types d’associations, c’est surtout l’incidence de l’expérience de la maladie sur l’identité parentale, et son issue (décès de l’enfant ou rémission) qui donnent du sens à l’engagement des parents. En documentant l’engagement associatif dans le domaine des cancers pédiatriques, cet article invite ainsi à s’intéresser davantage aux conséquences des recompositions des identités parentales dans les dynamiques associatives en lien avec la maladie.

  • Gautier Lara (2021) « From development brokers to diffusion entrepreneurs: a review of concepts designating influential policy actors in global governance », in POLICY DIFFUSION: NEW CONSTRAINTS, NEW REALITIES. Proceedings of the II International Conference on Policy Diffusion and Development Cooperation, par Osmany Porto de Oliveira, Sao Paulo : Balão Editorial, p. 81-102. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/356541171_From_development_brokers_to_diffusion_entrepreneurs_a_review_of_concepts_designating_influential_policy_actors_in_global_governance.
    Résumé : Policy ideas travel through space and time thanks to people and communities who give them meaning. Public policy analysts, development anthropologists and others, have conceived a wide array of terminologies to designate those influential policy actors who actively participate in the ‘traveling’ of those policy ideas. In this chapter, we adopt the ideational perspective of policy analysis to review the public policy and social science literatures. We offer a comprehensive overview of the terminologies used and applied in the context of global policymaking. We review each concept through a critical eye, highlighting some of their strengths and limitations, particularly in the constantly evolving context of ‘multi-centric’ governance. We draw on the limitations of each reviewed concept to suggest another concept, that would incorporate the multi-centric nature of contemporary global governance - that of 'diffusion entrepreneurs'. Questions can be raised as to the opportunity and relevance of adding yet another concept to describe policy actors in global governance. We attempt to answer these questions in the second part of the chapter. We close this conceptual review by sharing reflections on the future of applying the global policy entrepreneurs/ agents/ translators/ brokers terminologies from a decolonial angle.


  • Gautier Lara, Poveda Juan-Diego, Nguengang Wakap Stéphanie, Bouchon Magali et Quesnel-Vallée Amélie (2021) « Adapting care provision and advocating for unprotected unaccompanied minors in Paris in the context of COVID-19 », Global Health Promotion (janvier 13), p. 175797592098419. DOI : 10.1177/1757975920984193. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1757975920984193.
    Résumé : Unaccompanied minors (UMs) are children under 18 who arrive on the territory of a foreign country without the care of a guardian. In many countries their access to social and health care services depends on their legal recognition as minors. For instance, in France, high rejection rates of minor status place unprotected UMs in social precarity, such that in Paris, civil society organizations (CSOs) have stepped in to offer social, medical, and psychological care to unprotected UMs. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic however, CSOs had to adapt their care provision. We review promising CSO-led initiatives to ensure continuity of care for this population. In doing so, we highlight how, by promoting UMs’ healthy behaviors in the context of the pandemic, continued social interactions between CSO members and unprotected UMs may have contributed to disease prevention among UMs. In addition, CSOs have continued to advocate for sheltering unprotected UMs, calling on public authorities to take action.


  • Gosselin Anne, Malroux Inès, Desprat Diane, Devetter François-Xavier, Memmi Sarah, Pannetier Julie, Valat Emmanuel et Melchior Maria (2021) « Prevalence of psychosocial risks among immigrants in France and associations with mental health: findings from the national French Working Conditions Survey », International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health (septembre 30). DOI : 10.1007/s00420-021-01763-2. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00420-021-01763-2.
    Résumé : Few studies examined psychosocial risks among immigrants and explored their association with mental health. Our study aims to 1) describe the prevalence of job strain and iso-strain according to migratory status and model the probability of exposure, 2) verify whether the association between job strain, iso strain and anxiety holds for all immigrant groups.


  • Gosselin Anne, Melchior Maria, Carillon Séverine, Gubert Flore, Ridde Valéry, Kohou Veroska, Zoumenou Iris, Senne Jean-Noël et Desgrées du Loû Annabel (2021) « Deterioration of mental health and insufficient Covid-19 information among disadvantaged immigrants in the greater Paris area », Journal of Psychosomatic Research (avril 30), p. 110504. DOI : 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2021.110504. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022399921001495.
    Résumé : Objectives The aim of this study is to provide information on changes in mental health among disadvantaged immigrants from Sub-Saharan Africa in the Greater Paris area and their level of information about Covid-19. Methods Prior to the Covid-19 epidemic, the Makasi community-based cohort followed 850 immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa in the Greater Paris area. Between the 1st of April and the 7th of June 2020, all participants scheduled for a follow-up survey were systematically included into an additional COVID-19-related wave of data collection (N = 100). We compared participants' type of housing, level of food insecurity, work and mental health (PHQ9) before and during the first COVID-19-related lockdown, using paired-Mc Nemar chi-2 tests. We next described their level of information on Covid-19 and policy measures, broken down by sex. Results Among the 100 participants, 68% had no legal residence permit. Food insecurity was more often reported during lockdown than before (62% vs 52%). 9% of participants had a score indicative of severe depression (PHQ9) before lockdown and 17% afterwards (p = 0.17). Only 51% knew about the possibility of asymptomatic transmission of the COVID-19 virus. Conclusions This study brings original information on a hard-to-reach population group. Our results suggest that the lockdown had a detrimental impact on various economic and mental health aspects among disadvantaged migrants residing in the Greater Paris area.
    Mots-clés : Covid-19, Immigrants, Lockdown/containment, Mental health, Social epidemiology.


  • Gosselin Anne, Melchior Maria, Desprat Diane, Devetter François-Xavier, Pannetier Julie, Valat Emmanuel et Memmi Sarah (2021) « Were immigrants on the frontline during the lockdown? Evidence from France », European Journal of Public Health (août 14), p. ckab094. DOI : 10.1093/eurpub/ckab094. https://academic.oup.com/eurpub/advance-article/doi/10.1093/eurpub/ckab094/6352235.
    Résumé : Abstract In France, immigrants’ excess of mortality was higher than natives’ during the Spring 2020 lockdown. Were immigrants in frontline jobs and more exposed to Covid-19? Based on a nationally representative survey, we model the probability to work in a frontline job according to migratory status, taking sociodemographic and occupational characteristics into account. Compared to natives (Metropolitan France), being an African immigrant was associated to higher probability to work in a frontline job [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.82 (1.23–2.71)], as well as being born in French Overseas Departments [aOR = 1.64 (1.23–2.18)], reflecting racial division of work and higher Sars-Cov-2 exposure of immigrant and minority populations.


  • Guidi Pierre (2021) « Éduquer les femmes de la nation éthiopienne : discours d’émancipation et assignations sexuées (1941-1991): », Autrepart, 87 (3) (mai 21), p. 53-68. DOI : 10/gpgjb4. https://www.cairn.info/revue-autrepart-2018-3-page-53.htm?ref=doi.
    Résumé : De 1941 à 1991, la scolarisation des Éthiopiennes s’est inscrite dans les projets de centralisation et de « modernisation » mis en œuvre sous l’autocratie « progressiste » de Hailé Sélassié (1941-1974), puis le marxisme-léninisme du Derg (1974-1991). Malgré des visions distinctes de l’avenir de la nation, la politique d’éducation des femmes a constamment été conçue en tension entre émancipation et assignations sexuées. Il convient alors de se pencher sur les manières dont ces discours et leurs inflexions se sont traduits dans les savoirs et les pratiques scolaires, puis de comprendre comment les femmes scolarisées se sont approprié et ont transmis les modèles de féminités enseignés. Il s’agira, en définitive, de comprendre comment les Éthiopiennes scolarisées ont questionné leurs rôles sociaux et leurs positions dans la société pour agir sur les rapports sociaux de sexe.


  • Guidi Pierre (2021) « Carole REYNAUD-PALIGOT, L’École aux colonies. Entre mission civilisatrice et racialisation (1816-1940) », Revue d'histoire du XIXe siècle. Société d'histoire de la révolution de 1848 et des révolutions du XIXe siècle, 63 (décembre 1), p. 239-240. DOI : 10.4000/rh19.8053. https://journals.openedition.org/rh19/8053.
    Résumé : Le dernier ouvrage de Carole Reynaud-Paligot, historienne spécialiste de l’histoire du racisme en France et en Europe, constitue un important travail de synthèse sur les politiques scolaires dans l’empire colonial français. La fonction politique et économique de l’école, chargée d’assurer la pérennité du projet colonial en formant une main-d’œuvre et des auxiliaires de l’administration coloniale, ainsi que son rôle idéologique de conquête des esprits, fournit le soubassement de la démonstrati...


  • Guidi Pierre et Rillon Ophélie (2021) « Penser les violences politiques au prisme de l’intime: », Presses de Sciences Po, N° 151 (3) (décembre 22), p. 3-19. (20 & 21. Revue d'histoire). DOI : 10.3917/vin.151.0003. https://www.cairn.info/revue-vingt-et-vingt-et-un-revue-d-histoire-2021-3-page-3.htm?ref=doi.
    Résumé : « Avec l’intimité, nous perdions l’humanité […]. Chacun d’entre nous entrait en lui-même, cherchait en lui un coin obscur, un point solide où il pourrait s’accrocher. Nous faisions en silence le bilan de notre vie, mais les seules traces que nous voyions étaient des trous noirs, aveugles, comme les yeux des fusils automatiques qui nous fixaient [1]. »


  • Hane Fatoumata et Ridde Valéry (2021) « La place des citoyen.n.es dans la santé publique en Afrique : entre volontariat et professionnalisme: », Santé Publique, 33 (4) (novembre 22), p. 471-472. DOI : 10.3917/spub.214.0471. https://www.cairn.info/revue-sante-publique-2021-4-page-471.htm?ref=doi.


  • Inghels Maxime, Kouassi Arsène Kra, Niangoran Serge, Bekelynck Anne, Carillon Séverine, Sika Lazare, Koné Mariatou, Danel Christine, Desgrées du Loû Annabel, Larmarange Joseph et for the research team ANRS 12323 DOD-CI (2021) « Telephone peer recruitment and interviewing during a respondent-driven sampling (RDS) survey: feasibility and field experience from the first phone-based RDS survey among men who have sex with men in Côte d’Ivoire », BMC Medical Research Methodology, 21 (1) (février 5), p. 25. DOI : 10.1186/s12874-021-01208-x. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12874-021-01208-x.
    Résumé : Many respondent-driven sampling (RDS) methodologies have been employed to investigate hard-to-reach populations; however, these methodologies present some limits. We describe a minimally investigated RDS methodology in which peer recruitment and interviewing are phone-based. The feasibility of the methodology, field experiences, validity of RDS assumptions and characteristics of the sample obtained are discussed.
    Mots-clés : Côte d’Ivoire, Men who have sex with men, Phone-based survey, Respondent-driven sampling.

  • Iwuji Collins, Baisley Kathy, Orne-Gliemann Joanna, Larmarange Joseph, Plazy Mélanie, Collier Dami, Dreyer Jaco, Mngomezulu T, Herbst Kobus, Hanekom W, Dabis François et Siedner Mark (2021) « Long-term survival among people living with HIV in rural South Africa: results from 6 years of observation in the ANRS 12249 treatment as prevention trial » (poster PEC279), présenté à 11th IAS Conference on HIV Science, Berlin. https://theprogramme.ias2021.org/Abstract/Abstract/2085.
    Résumé : BACKGROUND: Universal test-and-treat trials increased population-level virological suppression across trial sites in sub-Saharan Africa. We followed the ANRS 12249 TasP trial population for 6 years to determine whether the intervention had longer-term survival benefits. METHODS: The TasP trial was a cluster-randomised trial implemented in 22 communities in rural South Africa, from 2012'2016. Households were offered six-monthly home-based HIV testing. Immediate antiretroviral therapy (ART) was offered in trial clinics to all people living with HIV (PLHIV) in the intervention clusters and according to national guidelines in the control clusters. At trial end, individuals attending the intervention clinics were transferred to the public ART programme, with a 'treat-all' strategy adopted in September 2016. Deaths during and two years after trial end were ascertained through annual demographic surveillance. Random effects Poisson regression was used to estimate rate ratios (RR) and 95%CI for the effect of trial arm on mortality among i) all PLHIV regardless of serostatus awareness, ii) PLHIV aware of their status, iii) those not on ART at entry to trial clinics. An interaction term between period and treatment arm was included, to allow the effect of trial arm to differ between periods. RESULTS: Amongst all PLHIV and those aware of their serostatus, there was no effect of immediate ART on mortality (Table). Among individuals who started ART during the trial, there was evidence that the intervention decreased mortality (aRR=0.69, 95%CI=0.45-1.04, p=0.08), although the effect was primarily during the trial (aRR=0.49, 95%CI=0.28-0.85, p=0.01), but not after the trial ended (aRR=1.15, 95%CI=0.59-2.21, p=0.69). CONCLUSIONS: The 'treat-all' strategy resulted in a mortality benefit amongst individuals who started ART within the trial but not in all PLHIV over 6 years of follow-up. To achieve maximum benefit of immediate ART in South Africa, barriers to ART uptake and retention in care need to be addressed.


  • Jones Catherine M, Gautier Lara et Ridde Valéry (2021) « A scoping review of theories and conceptual frameworks used to analyse health financing policy processes in sub-Saharan Africa », Health Policy and Planning (mai 24), p. czaa173. DOI : 10.1093/heapol/czaa173. https://academic.oup.com/heapol/advance-article/doi/10.1093/heapol/czaa173/6283520.
    Résumé : Health financing policies are critical policy instruments to achieve Universal Health Coverage, and they constitute a key area in policy analysis literature for the health policy and systems research (HPSR) field. Previous reviews have shown that analyses of policy change in low- and middle-income countries are under-theorised. This study aims to explore which theories and conceptual frameworks have been used in research on policy processes of health financing policy in sub-Saharan Africa and to identify challenges and lessons learned from their use. We conducted a scoping review of literature published in English and French between 2000 and 2017. We analysed 23 papers selected as studies of health financing policies in sub-Saharan African countries using policy process or health policy-related theory or conceptual framework ex ante. Theories and frameworks used alone were from political science (35%), economics (9%) and HPSR field (17%). Thirty-five per cent of authors adopted a ‘do-it-yourself’ (bricolage) approach combining theories and frameworks from within political science or between political science and HPSR. Kingdon’s multiple streams theory (22%), Grindle and Thomas’ arenas of conflict (26%) and Walt and Gilson’s policy triangle (30%) were the most used. Authors select theories for their empirical relevance, methodological rational (e.g. comparison), availability of examples in literature, accessibility and consensus. Authors cite few operational and analytical challenges in using theory. The hybridisation, diversification and expansion of mid-range policy theories and conceptual frameworks used deductively in health financing policy reform research are issues for HPSR to consider. We make three recommendations for researchers in the HPSR field. Future research on health financing policy change processes in sub-Saharan Africa should include reflection on learning and challenges for using policy theories and frameworks in the context of HPSR.


  • Jones Forrest K, Mensah Keitly, Heraud Jean-Michel, Randriatsarafara Fidiniaina Mamy, Metcalf C Jessica E et Wesolowski Amy (2021) « The Challenge of Achieving Immunity Through Multiple-Dose Vaccines in Madagascar », American Journal of Epidemiology, 190 (10) (octobre 1), p. 2085-2093. DOI : 10.1093/aje/kwab145. https://academic.oup.com/aje/article/190/10/2085/6280147.
    Résumé : Abstract Administration of many childhood vaccines requires that multiple doses be delivered within a narrow time window to provide adequate protection and reduce disease transmission. Accurately quantifying vaccination coverage is complicated by limited individual-level data and multiple vaccination mechanisms (routine and supplementary vaccination programs). We analyzed 12,541 vaccination cards from 6 districts across Madagascar for children born in 2015 and 2016. For 3 vaccines—pentavalent diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-hepatitis B-Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (DTP-HB-Hib; 3 doses), 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10; 3 doses), and rotavirus vaccine (2 doses)—we used dates of vaccination and birth to estimate coverage at 1 year of age and timeliness of delivery. Vaccination coverage at age 1 year for the first dose was consistently high, with decreases for subsequent doses (DTP-HB-Hib: 91%, 81%, and 72%; PCV10: 82%, 74%, and 64%; rotavirus: 73% and 63%). Coverage levels between urban districts and their rural counterparts did not differ consistently. For each dose of DTP-HB-Hib, the overall percentage of individuals receiving late doses was 29%, 7%, and 6%, respectively; estimates were similar for other vaccines. Supplementary vaccination weeks, held to help children who had missed routine care to catch up, did not appear to increase the likelihood of being vaccinated. Maintaining population-level immunity with multiple-dose vaccines requires a robust stand-alone routine immunization program.

  • Joxe Ludovic (2021) « Des espaces de contrôle aux espaces d'intimité. La notion de hors-travail chez Médecins Sans Frontières », in Dé-libérer le travail. Démocratie et temporalités au cœur des enjeux de santé au travail, par Claire Edey Gamassou et Arnaud Mias, Buenos Aires : Teseo Press, p. 99-125. https://www.teseopress.com/delibererletravail/chapter/des-espaces-de-controle-aux-espaces-dintimite-la/.
    Résumé : Quel sens revêt la notion de hors-travail lorsque des salariés, comme ceux de l’organisation Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF), restent contraints par leur univers de travail sans interruption pendant des mois ? Me basant sur une observation participante lors d’une dizaine de missions avec MSF et sur la définition d’un hors-travail entendu comme un temps de préservation de l’intime, je défends l’idée que la notion de hors-travail est floutée chez MSF d’une part par le partage du logement entre collègues, par la flexibilité des horaires de travail, par la présence de règles de sécurité 24 heures sur 24 ou par la délégation de la santé des salariés pendant toute la durée de leur mission à l’organisation, mais d’autre part par un motif sous-jacent à tous les autres : l’enjeu autour de la signification du mot travail, entre activité contraignante et activité épanouissante.

  • Kabbanji Lama (2021) « Exploration radiophonique de l’immigration en France, une série de podcasts à contre-courant de nos représentations. Entretien avec Perin Emel Yavuz [in : Annabel Desgrées du Loû & Anne Gosselin (dir.)] », De Facto (en ligne), 29 (décembre), p. 8. https://www.icmigrations.cnrs.fr/2021/11/18/defacto-029–05/.
    Résumé : Les travailleurs étrangers sont régulièrement présentés comme des personnes exerçant des activités sans grande valeur économique ni savoir-faire particulier. Exploration radiophonique de l’immigration en France, une série de podcasts, entend déconstruire cette idée reçue.
    Mots-clés : ⛔ No DOI found.


  • Kabbanji Lama (2021) « Rethinking migration and development as a hegemonic project », in Handbook on the Governance and Politics of Migration, Emma Carmel, Katharina Lenner and Regine Paul, USA : Edward Elgar, p. 73-85. ISBN : 978 1 78811 722 7. https://www.elgaronline.com/view/edcoll/9781788117227/9781788117227.00012.xml.
    Résumé : This chapter uncovers power dynamics that shape the politics of migration and development using Gramsci’s concepts of hegemony and integral state. It shows how a political agenda has been elaborated by several state and non-state actors for at least three decades, to disseminate a hegemonic neoliberal narrative on migration and development. This narrative, which is rooted in the migration ‘management’ tool kit, seems to have three main objectives: share the costs of migration control with migrant sending countries; regulate competition among industrialized countries for highly skilled workers; and impose economic restructuring and particular forms of governance in the countries of the ‘Global South’. To do so, various political and financial mechanisms have been implemented in order to constrain or obtain the consent of ‘Global South’ private and public actors. Similar mechanisms have been used more recently to design a new approach for managing displacement.


  • Kabbanji Lama (2021) « Enquête sonore des 20 premiers jours de l’intifada d’octobre 2019 au Liban », Ethnologie francaise, 51 (2) (août 18), p. 239-254. DOI : 10.3917/ethn.212.0239. https://www.cairn.info/revue-ethnologie-francaise-2021-2-page-239.htm.
    Résumé : « Tous veut dire tous ». Ce slogan a uni en 2019 plus de la moitié de la population libanaise dans la rue contre l’oligarchie au pouvoir, au-delà des clivages confessionnels, régionaux ou de classe. Cet article propose une exploration sonore des vingt premiers jours de l’intifada du 17 octobre. L’enquête sonore est proposée comme approche méthodologique permettant l’exploration d’un mouvement social à ses débuts. Les enregistrements sonores permettent à la fois de capter, de faire revivre, et d’analyser les ambiances et les émotions sur le vif puis de zoomer sur les mots de la révolte : discours, interactions, slogans. Au fil des enregistrements se dévoile le rôle clé des jeunes générations ainsi que le répertoire discursif que celles-ci mobilisent pour expliquer leur révolte : le refus de l’exil, l’accès à une éducation publique, gratuite et de qualité ainsi qu’à une offre de travail locale. Cette approche permet de préciser certaines dynamiques sociales qui sous-tendent l’intifada d’octobre, notamment la rencontre entre les classes rendue possible par la crise du système capitaliste au Liban, et les espoirs que cette rencontre a suscités.


  • Kabbanji Lama, Levatino Antonina et Toma Sorana (2021) « Mobilités étudiantes internationales : l’attractivité de la France », Plein droit, 130 (3) (décembre 31), p. 3-6. DOI : 10.3917/pld.130.0005. http://www.cairn.info/revue-plein-droit-2021-3-page-3.htm.


  • Kabbanji Lama et Scientifique » le collectif « Étrangèr-es et division internationale du travail (2021) « Ultra-sélection à l’université », Plein droit, 130 (3) (décembre 31), p. 15-18. DOI : 10.3917/pld.130.0017. http://www.cairn.info/revue-plein-droit-2021-3-page-15.htm.
    Résumé : Si elle s’inscrit dans la lignée des politiques de « maîtrise des flux migratoires », la réforme adoptée en 2019 ouvre la voie à la marchandisation de l’enseignement supérieur et, dans son sillage, à l’instauration d’un régime d’inégal accès à l’enseignement supérieur fondé sur une sélection tant géographique que financière des demandes d’admission au séjour pour études. La promotion d’une délocalisation des formations payantes à l’étranger, et en particulier dans les pays d’Afrique francophone, laisse présager une reconfiguration sans précédent de l’espace universitaire français.


  • Kameda Koichi (2021) « Molecular Sovereignty: Building a Blood Screening Test for the Brazilian Nation », Medicine Anthropology Theory, 8 (2) (novembre 3), p. 1-25. DOI : 10/gncwbr. http://www.medanthrotheory.org/article/view/5122.
    Résumé : This article interrogates the relationship between the development of national diagnostic technologies and the exercise of sovereignty, by analysing a Brazilian project to produce a nucleic acid test (NAT) for the country’s blood screening programme. The concept of ‘molecular sovereignty’ is proposed to demonstrate that exercising sovereignty demands not only technological resources but also a sufficiently powerful and national imaginary to support local knowledge production as a means of advancing national healthcare priorities. First, this research article contextualises the political importance of blood safety for Brazil during its transition to democracy in the 1980s and the creation of its universal healthcare system. Then, it investigates how adopting the NAT led the state to invest in the production of a national technology. Third, the article unpacks the diagnostic test to consider how certain aspects of the project might ultimately strengthen the ability of global capital to cross national boundaries and create new markets. Lastly, it discusses how the project ended up creating a centralised and ‘closed’ system to avoid leaving the country vulnerable to the entry of global diagnostic companies. This case demonstrates how the molecularisation of blood, through the construction of a unified healthcare system driven by the constitutional right to health, can be deployed to construct imagined communities on the scale of a nation.
    Mots-clés : Blood, Brazil, Diagnostic tests, Global health, Molecularisation, Sovereignty.


  • Kameda Koichi, Barbeitas Mady, Caetano Rosângela, Löwy Ilana, Oliveira Ana Claudia Dias de, Corrêa Marilena Cordeiro Dias Villela et Cassier Maurice (2021) « Testing COVID-19 in Brazil: fragmented efforts and challenges to expand diagnostic capacity at the Brazilian Unified National Health System », Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 37 (3), p. e00277420. DOI : 10.1590/0102-311x00277420. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-311X2021000306001&tlng=en.
    Résumé : Abstract: Since the first recorded case of COVID-19 on February 26, 2020, Brazil has seen an exponential growth in the number of cases and deaths. The national testing approach has been insufficient to correctly use this tool in the support of containing the epidemic in the country. In this communication, we discuss efforts and challenges to scale-up COVID-19 testing at the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS). This communication presents the initial results of the research project created to investigate the political, industrial, technological, and regulatory aspects that may affect the diagnostic and testing capacity for COVID-19 in Brazil. The paper draws on the review of academic literature, media publication, and collection of public data on tests purchase and regulation. It enlists initiatives to enhance PCR testing, national production and development of technologies, as well as regulatory measures to fast-track new tests. Our analysis indicates some points of reflection. Firstly, the lack of a consistent national strategy to fight COVID-19 exarcebated supply problems of diagnostic components. If the country was eventually able to circumvent this situation, it still faces a more structural dependency on the importation of diagnostic components. Secondly, the discontinued funding and distribution of tests may have implied health policy fragmentation and the growing importance of local governments and non-state actors to fighting the epidemics within SUS. Finally, initiatives established since the second semester of 2020 have expanded the testing capacity at SUS. However, it has not been sufficient to control the progress of the epidemic in the country. , Resumen: Desde que se registró el primer caso de COVID-19 el 26 de febrero de 2020, Brasil ha visto un crecimiento exponencial en el número de casos y muertes. La estrategia nacional para preconizar el test de diagnóstico ha sido insuficiente en el uso correcto de esta herramienta, con el fin de ayudar a contener la epidemia en el país. Se presentó los esfuerzos y los desafíos para ampliar la realización de pruebas de COVID-19 en el Sistema Único de Salud brasileño (SUS). Este artículo presenta los resultados iniciales del proyecto de investigación sobre los aspectos políticos, industriales, tecnológicos y regulatorios que pueden afectar la capacidad de diagnóstico para la COVID-19 en Brasil. El grupo de investigación realizó una revisión de la literatura académica, medios de comunicación y recogida de datos públicos respecto a la adquisición de tests y su regulación. Se haz referencia a iniciativas para promover la realización de pruebas de PCR, la producción nacional y el desarrollo de tecnologías, así como las medidas regulatorias fast-track para nuevas pruebas. Nuestro análisis indica algunos puntos de reflexión. Primero, la falta de una estrategia nacional consistente para luchar contra la COVID-19 que exacerbó los problemas de sumistro de los componentes de diagnóstico en un primer momento. Se solucionó posteriormente esta situación, aunque se coloque nuevamente en pauta la dependencia estructural del país en la importación de insumos de salud estratégicos. Segundo, la financiación y la distribución de tests de forma descontinuada pueden indicar la fragmentación de la política de salud, así como los gobiernos estaduales, municipales, y atores no estatales asumiendo un rol preponderante en acciones de combate a la epidemia en el SUS. En último, las iniciativas establecidas en el segundo semestre del 2020 contribuyeron para ampliar la capacidad de realización de tests moleculares en el SUS. Sin embargo, esa capacidad no fue suficiente para controlar la epidemia en Brasil. , Resumo: Desde que o primeiro caso de COVID-19 no Brasil foi notificado, em 26 de fevereiro de 2020, o país assiste a um crescimento exponencial no número de casos e mortes. A estratégia nacional de testagem tem sido insuficiente para usar essa ferramenta corretamente no apoio à contenção da epidemia no país. O artigo discute os esforços e desafios para escalonar a testagem para COVID-19 no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). O texto apresenta os resultados iniciais de um projeto de pesquisa sobre os aspectos políticos, industriais, tecnológicos e regulatórios que podem afetar a capacidade diagnóstica e de testagem para COVID-19 no Brasil. O estudo se apoia em revisão da literatura cientifica, artigos publicados na mídia e coleta de dados públicos sobre a compra e regulamentação de testes. O texto faz referência a iniciativas para ampliar a testagem de PCR, a produção nacional e o desenvolvimento de tecnologias, além de medidas regulatórias fast-track para novos testes. Nossa análise sugere alguns pontos para reflexão. Primeiro, a falta de uma estratégia nacional consistente para combater a COVID-19 agravou os problemas de fornecimento de reagentes de diagnostico num primeiro momento. Esta situação foi posteriormente resolvida, embora coloque novamente em pauta a dependência estrutural do país na importação de insumos de saúde estratégicos. Em segundo lugar, financiamento e a distribuição de testes, que ocorreram de forma descontinuada, podem indicar a fragmentação da política sanitária, assim como o papel de governos estaduais, municipais e atores não estatais no combate à epidemia no âmbito do SUS. Por último, iniciativas estabelecidas no segundo semestre de 2020 contribuíram para ampliar a capacidade de testagem molecular no SUS. Contudo, essa capacidade não foi suficiente para controlar a epidemia no Brasil.


  • Kameda Koichi, Kelly Ann H, Lezaun Javier et Löwy Ilana (2021) « Imperfect diagnosis: The truncated legacies of Zika testing », Social Studies of Science (août 31), p. 030631272110354. DOI : 10.1177/03063127211035492. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/03063127211035492.
    Résumé : When the Zika virus burst onto the international scene in the second half of 2015, the development of diagnostic tools was seen as an urgent global health priority. Diagnostic capacity was restricted to a small number of reference laboratories, and none of the few available molecular or serological tests had been validated for extensive use in an outbreak setting. In the early weeks of the crisis, key funders stepped in to accelerate research and development efforts, and the WHO took responsibility for steering diagnostic standardization, a role it had successfully played during the West Africa Ebola virus outbreak. Yet when the WHO declared the end of the Zika Public Health Emergency of International Concern in November 2016, diagnostic capacity remained patchy, and few tools were available at the scale required in the countries that bore the brunt of the epidemic, particularly Brazil. This article analyses the limited impact of global R&D efforts on the availability of Zika diagnostic options where they were most needed and for those most vulnerable: women who might have been exposed to the virus during their pregnancy and children born with suspected congenital Zika syndrome. The truncated legacies of testing during the Zika crisis reveal some of the fault lines in the global health enterprise, particularly the limits of ‘emergency R&D’ to operate in geopolitical contexts that do not conform to the ideal type of a humanitarian crisis, or to tackle technical issues that are inextricably linked to domestic struggles over the scope and distribution of biological citizenship. Diagnostic shortcomings, we argue, lie at the heart of the stunning transformation, in less than two years, in the status of Zika: from international public health emergency to neglected disease.


  • Kameda Koïchi et Kessel Nils (2021) « Quels consensus ?: La sécurité transfusionnelle en Allemagne et au Brésil », Cahiers Droit, Sciences & Technologies, 12, p. 97-115. DOI : 10.4000/cdst.3483. http://journals.openedition.org/cdst/3483.
    Résumé : Le présent article s’intéresse à l’émergence du consensus sur l’introduction du dépistage génomique viral (DGV ou nucleic acid based test - NAT) dans deux pays, l’Allemagne et le Brésil. L’introduction du DGV vers la fin des années 1990 en Europe puis une décennie plus tard au Brésil s’inscrit ainsi dans un ensemble de processus transnationaux : une menace virale identifiée, la disponibilité d’un ensemble de technologies mobilisant la polymerase-chain-réaction (PCR) ainsi que des normes scientifiques, technologiques et juridiques internationales relatives à la production et à la circulation du sang et à la transfusion de ses produits dérivés. L’article poursuit trois objectifs : d’abord il vise à décrire les formes et les contenus des consensus qui ont émergé dans les deux pays respectifs. Puis, nous nous intéressons à la manière dont le consensus est le résultat d’une coopération étroite entre acteurs établis. Enfin, en prolongement des questionnements de Marie-Angèle Hermitte, cet article analyse comment les processus « technoscientifiques » (Dominique Pestre) et l’évolution du droit sont intriqués et s’influencent mutuellement dans l’émergence d’un consensus.


  • Klein Armelle et Sandron Frédéric (2021) « La mobilité résidentielle comme cause et conséquence de vulnérabilité chez les personnes âgées à La Réunion », Populations vulnérables, 7 (décembre 1), p. 34-49. DOI : 10.4000/popvuln.850. https://journals.openedition.org/popvuln/850.
    Résumé : Sur la base d’une revue de la littérature et d’un corpus de quatorze entretiens semi-directifs, l’objet de cet article est de mettre en relation les facteurs de vulnérabilité du territoire réunionnais, ceux des personnes âgées de ce département français d’outre-mer ainsi que ceux éventuellement issus d’une mobilité résidentielle. Pour cela, une analyse macroscopique et une analyse individuelle sont proposées autour des facteurs de vulnérabilité dans les registres économiques, sanitaires, sociaux et environnementaux. Ces deux niveaux d’analyse indiquent la nécessité d’une approche territoriale fine pour mieux comprendre la vulnérabilité des personnes âgées et ses liens avec la mobilité résidentielle.


  • Kouassi Arsène Kra, Colin Géraldine, Diop Papa Moussa, Simo Fotso Arlette, Rouveau Nicolas, Hervé Kouakou Kouamé, Geoffroy Olivier, Diallo Bakary, Kabemba Odé Kanku, Dieng Baidy, Diallo Sanata, Vautier Anthony, Larmarange Joseph et ATLAS Team (2021) « Introducing and Implementing HIV Self-Testing in Côte d'Ivoire, Mali, and Senegal: What Can We Learn From ATLAS Project Activity Reports in the Context of the COVID-19 Crisis? », Frontiers in Public Health (juillet 20), p. 1-14. DOI : 10.3389/fpubh.2021.653565. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpubh.2021.653565/full.
    Résumé : Background: The ATLAS program promotes and implements HIVST in Côte d’Ivoire, Mali, and Senegal. Priority groups include members of key populations – female sex workers (FSW), men having sex with men (MSM), and people who use drugs (PWUD) – and their partners and relatives. HIVST distribution activities, which began in mid-2019, were impacted in early 2020 by the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This article, focusing only on outreach activities among key populations, analyzes quantitative and qualitative program data collected during implementation to examine temporal trends in HIVST distribution and their evolution in the context of the COVID-19 health crisis. Specifically, we investigated the impact on, the adaptation of, and the disruption of field activities. Results: In all three countries, the pre-COVID-19 period was marked by a gradual increase in HIVST distribution. The period corresponding to the initial emergency response (March-May 2020) witnessed an important disruption of activities: a total suspension in Senegal, a significant decline in Côte d’Ivoire, and a less pronounced decrease in Mali. Secondary distribution was also negatively impacted. Peer educators showed resilience and adapted by relocating from public to private areas, reducing group sizes, moving night activities to the daytime, increasing the use of social networks, integrating hygiene measures, and promoting assisted HIVST as an alternative to conventional rapid testing. From June 2020 onward, with the routine management of the COVID-19 pandemic, a catch-up phenomenon was observed with the resumption of activities in Senegal, the opening of new distribution sites, a rebound in the number of distributed HIVST kits, a resurgence in larger group activities, and a rebound in the average number of distributed HIVST kits per primary contact. Conclusions: Although imperfect, the program data provide useful information to describe changes in the implementation of HIVST outreach activities over time. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on HIVST distribution among key populations was visible in the monthly activity reports. Focus groups and individual interviews allowed us to document the adaptations made by peer educators, with variations across countries and populations. These adaptations demonstrate the resilience and learning capacities of peer educators and key populations.
    Mots-clés : Côte d'Ivoire, COVID-19, HIV self-testing, Key populations, Mali, Senegal, West Africa.
  • Kouassi Arsène Kra, Simo Fotso Arlette, N'Guessan Kouassi Noël, Geoffroy Olivier, Younoussa Sidibé, Kanku Kabemba Odé, Dieng Baidy, Dama Ndeye Pauline, Rouveau Nicolas, Maheu-Giroux Mathieu, Boily Marie-Claude, Silhol Romain, d'Elbée Marc, Vautier Anthony, Larmarange Joseph et on behalf of the ATLAS Team (2021) « Reaching key and peripheral populations: a phone-based survey of HIV self-test users in West Africa » (poster #PEC004), présenté à 21st ICASA, Durban.
    Résumé : Background In West Africa, community-based strategies focussing on key populations (KP) such as female sex workers (FSW) and men having sex with men (MSM) have significantly improved access to HIV testing for KP. However, some of them (like “occasional FSW” or “hidden MSM”) remain difficult to reach, as well as their sexual partners and clients. HIV self-testing (HIVST) kits can be distributed to primary contacts for personal use and through secondary distribution, where contacts are invited to redistribute kits to their peers, partners, and relatives. Since 2019, the ATLAS program implements such a strategy in Côte d’Ivoire, Mali, and Senegal, including FSW-based and MSM-based activities within the communities. Methods To examine the profiles of actual HIVST users without actively tracking them, we implemented a phone‐based survey. Between March and June 2021, leaflets were distributed in Côte d'Ivoire, Mali and Senegal with the HIV test kits, inviting users to call a free phone number anonymously. Participation was rewarded with $3 USD of phone credit. Each flyer had a unique participation number to indirectly identify the distribution channel (DC), FSW-based or MSM-based. Results A total of 1305 participants were recruited among the FSW-DC and 1100 through MSM-DC across countries out of 44’598 HIVST kits distributed. Of participants, 69% received their self-test kit through primary distribution and 31% received it from a friend (17%), sexual partner (7%), relative (6%) or colleague (1%), which illustrates the feasibility of secondary distribution. In the FSW-DC, 48% of participants were male, and in the MSM-DC 9% were female, showing the capacity of HIVST to reach sexual partners and clients of KP. Only 50% of male participants in the MSM-DC reported to the interviewer that they ever had sex with a man, suggesting that some “hidden MSM” may also be recruited. One third of female participants from the FSW-DC and 45% of male participants from the MSM-DC were testing for the first time. The proportions whose last HIV test was done more than a year were respectively 24% and 14%. These proportions are higher than observed in surveys conducted among FSW and MSM in the same countries. Conclusions HIVST offers a complementary testing approach to increase diagnosis coverage among KP that face barriers to conventional HIV testing strategies. Secondary distribution of HIVST is feasible and has the potential to reach, beyond KP, vulnerable peripheral groups.
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