Publications des membres du Ceped


  • Ost Katarina, Duquesne Louise, Duguay Claudia, Traverson Lola, Mathevet Isadora, Ridde Valéry et Zinszer Kate (2021) « A rapid review of equity considerations in large-scale testing campaigns during infectious disease epidemics », MedRxiv (février 23), p. 2021.02.22.21252205. DOI : 10.1101/2021.02.22.21252205.
    Résumé : Large-scale testing is an intervention that is instrumental for infectious disease control and a central tool for the COVID-19 pandemic. Our rapid review aimed to identify if and how equity has been considered in large-scale testing initiatives. Methods: We searched Web of Science and PubMed in November 2020 and followed PRISMA recommendations for scoping reviews. Articles were analyzed using descriptive and thematic analysis. Results: Our search resulted in 291 studies of which 41 were included for data extraction after full article screening. Most of the included articles (83%) reported on HIV-related screening programs, while the remaining programs focused on other sexually transmitted infections (n=3) or COVID-19 (n=4). None of the studies presented a formal definition of (in)equity in testing, however, 23 articles did indirectly include elements of equity in the program or intervention design, largely through the justification of their target population. Conclusion: The studies included in our rapid review did not explicitly consider equity in their design or evaluation. It is imperative that equity is incorporated into the design of infectious disease testing programs and serves as an important reminder of how equity considerations are needed for SARS-CoV-2 testing and vaccination programs.</p>

  • Ouedraogo Wendkouni A. S., Biau Sandrine, Bonnet Emmanuel et Ridde Valéry (2021) « Telephones in public health policy processes in sub-Saharan Africa: a scoping review », Journal of Global Health Reports (juillet 21). DOI : 10.29392/001c.24167.
    Résumé : Background The telephone is being put to work in the quest for universal health coverage in sub-Saharan Africa. Multiple mobile health pilot projects are being deployed. The use of mobile technologies including citizens in the formulation, analysis, and revision of public health policies in sub-Saharan Africa is recent. This citizen m-participation could influence the democratic engagement of citizens and leaders in the planning, budgeting, and transparency of local governance processes of health systems. Methods We conducted a scoping review. A total of 995 papers were initially identified, 37 documents were finally included in the final synthesis after a review of the abstract and full text by two researchers. Results Despite multiple challenges, the social, technological, and instrumental feasibility of citizen m-participation in health decision-making processes is real. The documents highlight the contribution of m-Citizen Participation to the ongoing construction of a robust health democracy. However, government commitment and leadership for this innovation remain weak. This slows down the processes of inclusion and empowerment of patients on their health needs. Conclusions Evidence suggests that citizen m-participation is relevant to the inclusion of citizens in health decision-making processes. However, research is limited. We recommend participatory action research mechanisms focused on citizen inclusion in health decision-making processes in sub-Saharan Africa to expand the knowledge base on this innovation.
  • Passanti Cecilia (2021) « Contesting the Electoral Register during the 2019 Elections in Senegal. Why Allegations of Fraud Did not End with the Introduction of Biometrics », Jan Thorbecke Verlag, 48, p. 515-525. (FRANCIA).

  • Paul Elisabeth, Bodson Oriane et Ridde Valéry (2021) « What theories underpin performance-based financing? A scoping review », Journal of Health Organization and Management, ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) (janvier 20). DOI : 10.1108/JHOM-04-2020-0161.
    Résumé : Purpose The study aims to explore the theoretical bases justifying the use of performance-based financing (PBF) in the health sector in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted a scoping review of the literature on PBF so as to identify the theories utilized to underpin it and analyzed its theoretical justifications. Findings Sixty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Economic theories were predominant, with the principal-agent theory being the most commonly-used theory, explicitly referred to by two-thirds of included studies. Psychological theories were also common, with a wide array of motivation theories. Other disciplines in the form of management or organizational science, political and social science and systems approaches also contributed. However, some of the theories referred to contradicted each other. Many of the studies included only casually alluded to one or more theories, and very few used these theories to justify or support PBF. No theory emerged as a dominant, consistent and credible justification of PBF, perhaps except for the principal-agent theory, which was often inappropriately applied in the included studies, and when it included additional assumptions reflecting the contexts of the health sector in LMICs, might actually warn against adopting PBF. Practical implications Overall, this review has not been able to identify a comprehensive, credible, consistent, theoretical justification for using PBF rather than alternative approaches to health system reforms and healthcare providers' motivation in LMICs. Originality/value The theoretical justifications of PBF in the health sector in LMICs are under-documented. This review is the first of this kind and should encourage further debate and theoretical exploration of the justifications of PBF.

  • Paul Elisabeth, Brown Garrett W., Dechamps Mélanie, Kalk Andreas, Laterre Pierre-François, Rentier Bernard, Ridde Valéry et Zizi Martin (2021) « Covid-19: An extra-terrestrial disease? », International Journal of Infectious Diseases (juillet), p. S1201971221006093. DOI : 10.1016/j.ijid.2021.07.051.
    Résumé : Background : Since the beginning of the pandemic, Covid-19 has been regarded as an exceptional disease. Control measures have exclusively focused on “the virus”, failing to account for other biological and social factors that determine severe forms of the disease. Aim : We argue that if it is understandable that Covid-19 was initially considered a form of exceptionalism, justifying extraordinary response measures, this situation has changed – and so should our response. Main arguments : We now know that Covid-19 shares many features of common infectious respiratory diseases, and better understand that SARS-CoV-2 has not invented new problems out of the blue. Instead, it has unveiled and exacerbated existing problems in health systems and underlying population health. Of course, Covid-19 is not an extra-terrestrial disease. It is a complex zoonotic disease, and it needs to be managed as such, following long proven principles of medicine and public health. Conclusion : A complex disease cannot be solved through a simple, magic bullet cure or vaccine. The heterogeneity of population profiles susceptible to develop a severe form of Covid-19 suggests adopting varying, targeted measures, enabled to reach risk profiles in an appropriate way. The critical role of comorbidities in disease severity calls for complementing short-term virus-targeted interventions with medium-term policies aimed at reducing the burden of comorbidities, as well as mitigating the risk of “transition” from infection to disease. Complementary strategies are needed including upstream prevention, early treatment, and the consolidation of the health system. Keywords Covid-19 health policy public health treatment health promotion Background Although the threat of a pandemic had been expected for years, Covid-19 triggered frantic and uncoordinated reactions worldwide (Independent Panel for Pandemic 2021; Paul et al., 2020b). Since being declared a public health emergency in January 2020, Covid-19 has been regarded as an exceptional disease, as if it came from outer space. For the first time in history, billions of people were locked down, denied the right to go to school or to earn their living, and/or to see their loved ones, while an unprecedented race for treatment and vaccine discovery was launched. The collateral damage of these response measures were largely ignored, even if they may be greater than the positive effects of the counter-measures (Hrynick et al., 2021). The collateral damage ranged from economic recession and loss of education, to increased domestic violence, mental health problems, and the worsening of chronic conditions from a lack of access to care (Bavli et al., 2020). They weigh particularly heavily on young people and hit the most vulnerable disproportionately, aggravating inequities (Chakrabarti et al., 2021). In many countries, primary healthcare professionals have been denied the right to treat their patients and, without effective primary healthcare, hospitals were left with the task of treating severe cases, notwithstanding the absence of a specific recommended drug. This led to the further exacerbation of existing disparities in health systems and services, especially in low- and middle-income countries (Baral, 2021). Despite the fact that Covid-19 could be categorised a ‘syndemic’ (Horton, 2020) – a synergy of epidemics that ‘co-occur in time and place, interact with each other to produce complex sequelae, and share common underlying societal drivers’ (Swinburn et al., 2019) – control measures were exclusively focused on “the virus” and delay tactics, not taking into account other biological and social factors that contribute to determining severe forms of the disease (Paul et al., 2020a). After several inconclusive results, it is only in July 2020 that one of the two large international randomised control trials aimed at testing the efficacy of existing treatments against Covid-19 published a preliminary report showing that dexamethasone (a glucocorticoid) resulted, on average, in lower mortality rates in patients requiring supplemental oxygen or invasive mechanical ventilation (The RECOVERY Collaborative Group 2020). The lack of evidence on more effective medical treatments, coupled with projections suggesting high disease loads and death tolls, led to a perception that this was a one-off disease, which, unfortunately, translated into largely ignoring proven, traditional medical and public health practices. For instance, the longstanding concept of “herd immunity” which has always stood for an objective, or an achievement, is now considered by many as a “strategy”, yet not to be followed if acquired naturally, but only by means of vaccination (World Health Organization 2020, p.). In spite of all its potential risks, limitations and considerable uncertainties regarding long-term side effects, the duration of protection and its effectiveness against viral variants, vaccination quickly became the only salvation option promoted by key governments and international institutions (Paul et al., 2021). Although it is understandable that Covid-19 was considered a form of ‘exceptionalism’ in early 2020, which justified exceptional response measures – particularly since SARS-CoV-2 can trigger a variety of symptoms, some of them extremely severe (Hu et al., 2020; Wiersinga et al., 2020) – the situation has changed. So should our response (Paul et al., 2020a). In this piece, we argue that now that we far better understand the complex functioning of Covid-19, we should adapt our response strategy in a way that responds to its heterogeneity, and embraces proven, traditional medical and public health practices.

  • Paul Elisabeth, Brown Garrett W., Kalk Andreas et Ridde Valéry (2021) « Playing vaccine roulette: Why the current strategy of staking everything on Covid-19 vaccines is a high-stakes wager », Vaccine (juillet), p. S0264410X21009233. DOI : 10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.07.045.

  • Pérez Dennis, Robert Emilie, Pérez Elsury J., Vanlerberghe Veerle, Lefèvre Pierre et Ridde Valéry (2021) « A Realist Synthesis of Community-Based Interventions in Vector-Borne Diseases », The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (mars 1). DOI : 10.4269/ajtmh.20-0944.
    Résumé : Randomized control trials have provided evidence that some community-based interventions (CBIs) work in vector-borne diseases (VBDs). Conversely, there is limited evidence on how well those CBIs succeed in producing specific outcomes in different contexts. To conduct a realist synthesis for knowledge translation on this topic, we examined the extent to which realist concepts (context, mechanisms, and outcomes) and their relationships are present in the existing literature on CBIs for VBDs. Articles on CBIs were identified from prior scoping reviews of health interventions for VBDs. Content of the articles was extracted verbatim if it referred either to realist concepts or CBI features. The number of articles and the average number of words extracted per category per CBI were quantified. Content of the articles was scrutinized to inductively gather qualitative evidence on the interactions between realist concepts. We reviewed 41 articles on 17 CBIs from 12 countries. The average number of words used for mechanisms was much lower than those used for outcomes and context (309,474, and 836, respectively). The average number of words used for mechanisms increased when a CBI was described in three or more articles. There were more extensive accounts on CBI features than on mechanisms. It was difficult to gather evidence on the interactions among realist concepts from the content of the articles. Scarce reporting on mechanisms in published articles limits conducting a realist synthesis of CBIs in VBDs. More transdisciplinary research that goes beyond the biomedical paradigm is needed to boost the development of intervention mechanisms in this field.

  • Petit Véronique, Robin Nelly et Martin Nelly (2021) « Spatialité et temporalité de l’épidémie de la Covid-19 au Sénégal. Le processus de production des données sanitaires au regard des discontinuités territoriales », Revue francophone sur la santé et les territoires (juin 11). DOI : 10.4000/rfst.1150.

  • Petitfour Laurène, Bonnet Emmanuel, Mathevet Isadora, Nikiema Aude et Ridde Valéry (2021) « Out-of-pocket payments and catastrophic expenditures due to traffic injuries in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso », Health Economics Review, 11 (1), p. 46. DOI : 10.1186/s13561-021-00344-w.
    Résumé : Abstract Objective To estimate the out-of-pocket expenditures linked to Road Traffic Injuries in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, as well as the prevalence of catastrophic expenditures among those out-of-pocket payments, and to identify the socio-economic determinants of catastrophic expenditures due to Road Traffic Injuries. Methods We surveyed every admission at the only trauma unit of Ouagadougou between January and July 2015 at the time of their admission, 7 days and 30 days later. We estimate a total amount of out-of-pocket expenditures paid by each patient. We considered an expense as catastrophic when it represented 10% at least of the annual global consumption of the patient’s household. We used linear models to determine if socio-economic characteristics were associated to a greater or smaller ratio between out-of-pocket payment and global annual consumption. Findings We surveyed 1323 Road injury victims three times (admission, Days 7 and 30). They paid in average 46,547 FCFA (83.64 US dollars) for their care, which represent a catastrophic expenditure for 19% of them. Less than 5% of the sample was covered by a health insurance scheme. Household economic status is found to be the first determinant of catastrophic health expenditure occurrence, exhibiting a significant and negative on the ratio between road injury expenditures and global consumption. Conclusion Our findings highlight the importance of developing health insurance schemes to protect poor households from the economic burden of road traffic injuries and improve equity in front of health shocks.

  • Petitprez Karine, Mattuizzi Aurélien, Guillaume Sophie, Arnal Maud, Artzner France, Bernard Catherine, Caron François-Marie, Chevalier Isabelle, Daussy-Urvoy Claude, Ducloy-Bouthorsc Anne-Sophie, Garnier Jean-Michel, Keita-Meyer Hawa, Lavillonnière Jacqueline, Lejeune-Sadaa Valérie, Le Ray Camille, Morandeau Anne, Nadjafizade Marjan, Pizzagalli Franck, Schantz Clemence, Schmitz Thomas, Shojai Raha, Hédon Bernard et Sentilhes Loïc (2021) « Normal delivery: physiologic support and medical interventions. Guidelines of the French National Authority for Health (HAS) with the collaboration of the French College of Gynecologists and Obstetricians (CNGOF) and the French College of Midwives (CNSF) », The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine (mai 12), p. 1-10. DOI : 10.1080/14767058.2021.1918089.
    Résumé : Objective: To define for women at low obstetric risk methods of management that respect the rhythm and the spontaneous course of giving birth as well as each woman’s preferences. Methods: These clinical practice guidelines were developed through professional consensus based on an analysis of the literature and of the French and international guidelines available on this topic. Results: Labor should be monitored with a partograph (professional consensus). Digital cervical examination should be offered every 4 h during the first stage of labor, hourly during the second. The choice between continuous (cardiotocography) or discontinuous (by cardiotocography or intermittent auscultation) monitoring should be left to the woman (professional consensus). In the active phase of the first stage of labor, dilation speed is considered abnormal if it is less than 1 cm/4 h between 5 and 7 cm or less than 1 cm/2 h after 7 cm. In those cases, an amniotomy is recommended if the membranes are intact, and the administration of oxytocin if the membranes are already broken and uterine contractions are judged insufficient (professional consensus). It is recommended that pushing not begin when full dilation has been reached; rather, the fetus should be allowed to descend (grade A). Umbilical cord clamping should be delayed beyond the first 30 s in newborns who do not require resuscitation (grade C). Conclusion: The establishment of these clinical practice guidelines should enable women at low obstetric risk to receive better care in conditions of optimal safety while supporting physiologic birth.
  • Pierce L, Zahreddine C, Abreu K, Dantas M. A., Caprara A, Ridde Valéry et Zinszer K (2021) « Dengue knowledge, attitudes, and practices : baseline data from the COESA study », AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE, 105 (5) (novembre), p. 326-326.

  • Pison Leslie (2021) « La dissonance dans le dissensus : manifestations et conséquences argumentatives d’une attaque psychologisante », Argumentation et analyse du discours, 27 (octobre 14). DOI : 10/gnsxxw.
    Résumé : L’objectif de cet article est de décrire le fonctionnement argumentatif de l’expression « dissonance cognitive » sur le réseau social Twitter. La démarche descriptive proposée s’attache à rendre compte de l’usage de ce lexème dans le cadre d’échanges polémiques. La spécificité de l’expression « dissonance cognitive », contrairement à d’autres attaques psychiatrisantes, réside dans le fait qu’elle est également une critique méta-argumentative. En effet, « dissonance cognitive » désigne initialement en sciences cognitives une incohérence entre deux éléments perçus par le cerveau. Les analyses menées dans cet article, en portant notamment une attention particulière au contre-discours, montrent que cette théorisation est réinvestie lors de l’usage argumentatif de « dissonance cognitive », qui produit un double mouvement de réfutation-disqualification. L’argument de la dissonance cognitive est par conséquent assimilable à un ad hominem tu quoque.

  • Pourette Dolorès (2021) « Les défis du transfert de connaissances scientifiques. Réflexions à partir d'un projet en cours (Madagascar, Maurice) », présenté à Conférence internationale de la Fondation Croix rouge française : Transition humanitaire dans l’océan Indien : enjeux, acteurs et dynamiques, Saint-Denis, La Réunion.
  • Pourette Dolorès (2021) « Réflexions à partir de deux études socio-anthropologiques sur le cancer du col de l'utérus à (Madagascar, Burkina Faso) » (Communication orale), présenté à La recherche en sciences sociales au service de la lutte contre les cancers féminins en Afrique, Fondation Sylvia Bongo Ondimba, Gabon (virtuel).
  • Pourette Dolorès, Rakotoarisoa Onintsoa, Louault Marion, Rakotomanana Elliot et Mattern Chiarella (2021) « The impact of Covid-19 on healthcare provision and support services for PLHIV in Antananarivo: ANRS CoVIH-OI qualitative study initial results (2021) » (Communication orale), présenté à 21st ICASA Conference, Durban.

  • Pourette Dolorès, Rakotoarisoa Onintsoa, Louault Marion, Rakotomanana Elliot et Mattern Chiarella (2021) « Effets de la Covid-19 sur le suivi médical des personnes vivant avec le VIH à Antananarivo, Madagascar. Premiers résultats de l’étude qualitative ANRS CoVIH-OI (2021) » (Unesco), présenté à Colloque international "Les sciences sociales face à la pandémie de Covid-19. Etat des connaissances et propositions concrètes" organisé par l'UNESCO, Paris.

  • Pourraz Jessica, Haxaire Claudie et Arhinful Daniel Kojo (2021) « Strengthening national pharmaceutical regulation through local production », in Understanding Drugs Markets An Analysis of Medicines, Regulations and Pharmaceutical Systems in the Global South, London : Routledge, p. 321. (Routledge Studies in the Sociology of Health and Illness). ISBN : 978-0-367-35067-3.

  • Quet Mathieu (2021) « Fakeness, Human-Object Fluidity and Ethnic Suspicion on the Kenyan Pharmaceutical Market », Journal of African Cultural Studies, 33 (3) (juillet 3), p. 359-363. DOI : 10.1080/13696815.2021.1886057.

  • Quet Mathieu (2021) « Subalternes (études) », Publictionnaire. Dicitionnaire encyclopédique et critique des publics.

  • Ravalihasy Andrainolo, Rude Nathalie, Yazdanpanah Yazdan, Kardas-Sloma Lidia, Desgrées du Loû Annabel, Gosselin Anne et Ridde Valéry (2021) « Development and Validation of an HIV/AIDS Empowerment Scale for Impact Intervention Evaluation. An Example from the MAKASI Intervention », American Journal of Health Education (août 6), p. 1-11. DOI : 10.1080/19325037.2021.1955230.
    Résumé : Background The MAKASI intervention aimed to empower sub-Saharan immigrants living in the Paris metropolitan area regarding sexual health and reduce their HIV exposure. The intervention was developed based upon a theoretical model of individual empowerment. Purpose A scale was developed using sixteen 4-point Likert items adapted from existing tools to measure HIV/AIDS empowerment as an intervention outcome. This study describes the psychometric validation of this scale. Methods Data from 433 participants were used. Construct validity and internal consistency were assessed using factor analysis and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (α). The scale’s predictive validity for health and social outcomes was assessed using bivariable logistic regressions. Results Five dimensions were identified: i) sexual communication; ii) perceived control at the individual level; iii) knowledge of HIV treatment and social resources; iv) ability to find and understand healthcare information; and v) ability to understand and use disease prevention messages. The internal consistency (α = 0.71) and predictive validity (p < .05) were satisfactory.

  • Rice Benjamin L., Annapragada Akshaya, Baker Rachel E., Bruijning Marjolein, Dotse-Gborgbortsi Winfred, Mensah Keitly, Miller Ian F., Motaze Nkengafac Villyen, Raherinandrasana Antso, Rajeev Malavika, Rakotonirina Julio, Ramiadantsoa Tanjona, Rasambainarivo Fidisoa, Yu Weiyu, Grenfell Bryan T., Tatem Andrew J. et Metcalf C. Jessica E. (2021) « Variation in SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks across sub-Saharan Africa », Nature Medicine, 27 (3) (mars), p. 447-453. DOI : 10.1038/s41591-021-01234-8.
    Résumé : A surprising feature of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic to date is the low burdens reported in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries relative to other global regions. Potential explanations (for example, warmer environments(1), younger populations(2-4)) have yet to be framed within a comprehensive analysis. We synthesized factors hypothesized to drive the pace and burden of this pandemic in SSA during the period from 25 February to 20 December 2020, encompassing demographic, comorbidity, climatic, healthcare capacity, intervention efforts and human mobility dimensions. Large diversity in the probable drivers indicates a need for caution in interpreting analyses that aggregate data across low- and middle-income settings. Our simulation shows that climatic variation between SSA population centers has little effect on early outbreak trajectories; however, heterogeneity in connectivity, although rarely considered, is likely an important contributor to variance in the pace of viral spread across SSA. Our synthesis points to the potential benefits of context-specific adaptation of surveillance systems during the ongoing pandemic. In particular, characterizing patterns of severity over age will be a priority in settings with high comorbidity burdens and poor access to care. Understanding the spatial extent of outbreaks warrants emphasis in settings where low connectivity could drive prolonged, asynchronous outbreaks resulting in extended stress to health systems.

  • Ridde Valéry (2021) « Researchers and humanitarian actors: moving from mistrust to efficiency », Humanitarian Alternatives, 17, p. 1-9. mistrust-to-efficiency/.

  • Ridde Valery (2021) « L’épidémie de choléra en Haïti : histoire d’un fiasco des Nations Unies et de la persévérance d’un (collectif) chercheur français », Médecine Tropicale et Santé Internationale - magazine, 1 (février 19).
    Résumé : Alors que la pandémie de Covid-19 fait des ravages dans le monde, il est certainement utile de prendre un peu de recul épidémiologique. La lecture de l’ouvrage de Renaud Piarroux concernant son expérience de lutte contre l’épidémie de choléra en Haïti entre 2010 et 2018 est riche d’enseignements. Il montre le fiasco et les errances du système des Nations Unies et de certains de ses cadres mais aussi la vision étriquée des diplomates et des responsables de la santé mondiale française. Mais l’ouvrage est aussi précieux pour comprendre le fonctionnement académique de la santé publique mondiale, à l’image du désastre contemporain covidien : une santé publique biomédicale, orientée vers certaines maladies en particulier, sans vision interdisciplinaire et avec son lot de dérives, d’abus et de clientélisme scientifique. Les é et les jeunes devraient pouvoir se saisir de cette analyse pour faire évoluer la situation…en espérant qu’on leur donne de la place.

  • Ridde Valéry, ss la dir. de (2021) Une couverture sanitaire universelle en 2030 ? Réformes en Afrique subsaharienne, Québec, Canada : ESBC (Éditions science et bien commun), 950 p. ISBN : 978-2-925128-08-3.
    Résumé : Cet ouvrage collectif, sous la direction de Valéry Ridde, rassemble les connaissances scientifiques les plus récentes sur les réformes du financement de la santé en Afrique subsaharienne, que ce soit à propos des politiques de gratuité, des financements basés sur les résultats ou des mutuelles de santé. Outre l’origine et le contenu de ces différentes politiques, les textes analysent les défis de leur mise en œuvre, mais aussi leurs effets et leur pérennité. Tout en s’inscrivant pleinement dans le débat actuel sur la couverture sanitaire universelle (CSU), l’un des principaux enjeux de cet ouvrage est aussi de nourrir les réflexions au niveau national, du Sénégal à la République démocratique du Congo, en passant par le Sahel ou le Bénin. Ainsi, une quarantaine d’autrices et d’auteurs partagent, dans une langue accessible, leurs analyses rigoureuses et pour la plupart inédites, pour mieux comprendre le chemin qu’il reste à parcourir afin que la CSU devienne une réalité pour l’Afrique subsaharienne, n’en déplaise aux tenants de la nouvelle gestion publique.

  • Ridde Valery, Ba M. F., Gaye I., Diallo A. I., Bonnet Emmanuel et Faye A. (2021) « Participating in a vaccine trial for COVID-19 in Senegal: trust and information », Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics (juillet 19), p. 1-6. DOI : 10.1080/21645515.2021.1951097.
    Résumé : This research aims to understand the level and determinants of people’s willingness to participate in a vaccine trial for COVID-19 in Senegal. We conducted a telephone survey among a marginal quota sample of 607 people over 18 years of age. Only 44.3% of the participants wanted to participate in a vaccine trial for COVID-19, with females intending to participate more than males (AOR = 1.82, 95% CI [1.22–2.72]). Participants who intended to be vaccinated against COVID-19 (AOR = 6.48, 95% CI [4.12–10.4]) and who thought that being infected with the coronavirus would have a significant impact on their health (AOR = 2.34, 95% CI [1.57, 3.51]) were more likely to agree to take part in the COVID-19 vaccine trial. Confidence in the vaccine, health personnel, and the government in the fight against the pandemic are key factors in participants’ willingness to participate in a vaccine trial in Senegal.
  • Ridde Valéry (2021) « From malaria-dengue to an intervention in Burkina Faso », in Sonar-Global team. SPECIAL SOC EPIDEMICS: Training social scientists on the social dimensions of epidemics, par A Billaud, Alice Desclaux, et K. Sow, Dakar : CRCF.

  • Ridde Valéry et Faye Adama (2021) La riposte nationale contre la COVID-19 au Sénégal : de la formulation à sa mise en œuvre, Working Papers du CEPED (50), Paris : Ceped.
    Résumé : Face à l’arrivée de la pandémie de COVID-19, les gouvernements africains ont été contraints de réagir promptement et par anticipation pour protéger leurs populations. Au Sénégal, le plan national de riposte a été planifié avant que le pays ait connu son premier cas officiel de COVID-19, le 2 mars 2020. Alors que le pays subit une troisième vague épidémique depuis fin juin 2021, cette étude en méthodes mixtes, réalisée en mars et avril 2021, vise à comprendre comment la riposte nationale a été formulée et mise en œuvre dans les régions. L’étude montre que si la réaction a été rapide, le contenu (les instruments) de la riposte est resté classique, dominé par les solutions biomédicales et verticales influencées par le passé (lutte contre Ébola) et donnant lieu à des enjeux de pouvoir propres à la gestion de l’urgence. La mise en œuvre de la réponse à la pandémie a été influencée par de nombreux facteurs facilitants et contraignants et elle s’est confrontée à des contextes régionaux divers et spécifiques qui ont façonné son organisation. Le niveau central a également parfois usé de processus de réflexivité pour adap-ter sa riposte. Malgré la vague épidémique sans précédent qui déferle en ce mois de juillet 2021, les mesures drastiques prises en 2020 et étudiées dans ce texte ne sont pas encore revenues. Cohérence et confiance sont de nouveau questionnées par les citoyens qui voient les médias s’inquiéter des conséquences pour le système de santé et la santé des populations.

  • Ridde Valéry et Fillol Amandine (2021) « Santé Mondiale », Anthropen (juin 13). DOI : 10.47854/anthropen.vi0.51161.
    Résumé : La santé mondiale et sa définition sont l’objet de multiples débats dans un contexte de mondialisation. Elles souffrent encore d’un manque de clarté conceptuelle. Notre texte propose une analyse critique du vocable de santé mondiale. Après avoir décrit les définitions proposées, nous abordons les enjeux de pouvoir qui sont au cœur du fonctionnement et du quotidien de la santé mondiale que la nouvelle génération (si on lui laisse de la place) devra nécessairement affronter.
    Mots-clés : Coopération.

  • Ridde Valéry, Gautier Lara, Dagenais Christian, Chabrol Fanny, Hou Renyou, Bonnet Emmanuel, David Pierre-Marie, Cloos Patrick, Duhoux Arnaud, Lucet Jean-Christophe, Traverson Lola, de Araujo Oliveira Sydia Rosana, Cazarin Gisele, Peiffer-Smadja Nathan, Touré Laurence, Coulibaly Abdourahmane, Honda Ayako, Noda Shinichiro, Tamura Toyomitsu, Baba Hiroko, Kodoi Haruka et Zinszer Kate (2021) « Learning from public health and hospital resilience to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic: protocol for a multiple case study (Brazil, Canada, China, France, Japan, and Mali) », Health Research Policy and Systems, 19 (1) (mai 6), p. 76. DOI : 10/gjwdb7.
    Résumé : All prevention efforts currently being implemented for COVID-19 are aimed at reducing the burden on strained health systems and human resources. There has been little research conducted to understand how SARS-CoV-2 has affected health care systems and professionals in terms of their work. Finding effective ways to share the knowledge and insight between countries, including lessons learned, is paramount to the international containment and management of the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this project is to compare the pandemic response to COVID-19 in Brazil, Canada, China, France, Japan, and Mali. This comparison will be used to identify strengths and weaknesses in the response, including challenges for health professionals and health systems.

  • Ridde Valéry et Hane Fatoumata (2021) « Universal health coverage: the roof has been leaking for far too long », BMJ Global Health, 6 (12) (décembre), p. e008152. DOI : 10.1136/bmjgh-2021-008152.

  • Ridde Valéry, Ouedraogo Samiratou et Yaya Sanni (2021) « Closing the diversity and inclusion gaps in francophone public health: a wake-up call », BMJ Global Health, 6 (2) (février), p. e005231. DOI : 10.1136/bmjgh-2021-005231.
  • Ridde Valéry, Saré Diane, Quan Nha Hong, et Pluye Pierre (2021) « Grilles pour décrire les interventions populationnelles dans les revues des écrits scientifiques en santé », McGill Family Medicine Studies Online, 16:e02.
    Résumé : L'étude a pour objectif de répertorier toutes les grilles de description des interventions populationnelles et celles qui soutiennent l’extraction des données pour la réalisation des revues systématiques des écrits scientifiques en santé publique.

  • Rikap Cecilia (2021) Capitalism, power and innovation: intellectual monopoly capitalism uncovered, Abingdon, Oxon ; New York, NY : Routledge, 1 p. (Routledge studies in the economics of innovation). ISBN : 978-1-00-036875-8 978-0-429-34148-9.
    Résumé : "In contemporary global capitalism, the most powerful corporations are innovation or intellectual monopolies. The book's unique perspective focuses on how private ownership and control of knowledge and data have become a major source of rent and power. The author explains how at the one pole, these corporations concentrate income, property and power in the US, China, and in a handful of intellectual monopolies, particularly from digital and pharmaceutical industries, while at the other pole developing countries are left further behind. The book includes detailed empirical mappings of how intellectual monopolies develop and transform knowledge from universities and open-source collaborations into intangible assets. The result is a strategy that combines undermining the commons through privatization with harvesting from the same commons. The book ends with provoking reflections to tilt the scale against intellectual monopoly capitalism and arguing that desired changes require democratic mobilization of workers and citizens at large. This book represents one of the first attempts to capture the contours of an emerging new era where old perspectives lead us astray, and the old policy toolbox is hopelessly inadequate. This is true for the idea that the best, or only, way to promote innovation is to transform knowledge into private property. It is also true for anti-trust policies focusing exclusively on consumer prices. The formation of global infrastructures that lead to 'natural monopolies' call for public rather than private ownership. Scholars and professionals from the social sciences and humanities (in particular economics, sociology, political science, geography, educational science and science and technology studies) will enjoy a clear and all-embracing depiction of innovation dynamics in contemporary capitalism, with a particular focus on asymmetries between actors, regions and topics. In fact, its topical issue broadens the book's scope to those curious about how innovation networks shape our world"--
    Mots-clés : Capitalism, Economic aspects, Information technology, Intellectual capital, Monopolies, Political aspects, Power (Social sciences), Technological innovations.

  • Rikap Cecilia et Lundvall Bengt-Åke (2021) The Digital Innovation Race: Conceptualizing the Emerging New World Order, Cham : Springer International Publishing. ISBN : 978-3-030-89442-9 978-3-030-89443-6.
    Résumé : This book develops new theoretical perspectives on the economics and politics of innovation and knowledge in order to capture new trends in modern capitalism. It shows how giant corporations establish themselves as intellectual monopolies and how each of them builds and controls its own corporate innovation system. It presents an analysis of a new form of production where Google, Amazon, Facebook, Apple and Microsoft, and their counterparts in China, extract value and appropriate intellectual rents through privileged access to AI algorithms trained by data from organizations and individuals all around the world. These companies’ specific form of production and rent-seeking takes place at the global level and challenges national governments trying to regulate intellectual monopolies and attempting to build stronger national innovation systems. It is within this context that the authors provide new insights on the complex interplay between corporate and national innovation systems by looking at the US-China conflict, understood as a struggle for global technological supremacy. The book ends with alternative scenarios of global governance and advances policy recommendations as well as calls for social activism. This book will be of interest to students, academics and practitioners (both from national states and international organizations) and professionals working on innovation, digital capitalism and related topics. Bengt-Åke Lundvall is Professor emeritus in economics at Department of Business Studies at Aalborg University and Professor emeritus at Department of Economic History at Lund University. His research is organized around a broad set of issues related to innovation systems and learning economies. Cecilia Rikap is Lecturer in International Political Economy at City, University of London, CONICET researcher and associate researcher at COSTECH, Université de Technologie de Compiègne. She has a PhD in Economics from the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Her research deals with the global political economy of science, technology and innovation.

  • Robinson David, Hayes Alex, Couch [aut Simon, cre, Patil Indrajeet, Chiu Derek, Gomez Matthieu, Demeshev Boris, Menne Dieter, Nutter Benjamin, Johnston Luke, Bolker Ben, Briatte Francois, Arnold Jeffrey, Gabry Jonah, Selzer Luciano, Simpson Gavin, Preussner Jens, Hesselberth Jay, Wickham Hadley, Lincoln Matthew, Gasparini Alessandro, Komsta Lukasz, Novometsky Frederick, Freitas Wilson, Evans Michelle, Brunson Jason Cory, Jackson Simon, Whalley Ben, Whiting Karissa, Rosseel Yves, Kuehn Michael, Cimentada Jorge, Holgersen Erle, Werner Karl Dunkle, Christensen Ethan, Pav Steven, PJ Paul, Schneider Ben, Kennedy Patrick, Medina Lily, Fannin Brian, Muhlenkamp Jason, Lehman Matt, Denney Bill, Crane Nic, Bates Andrew, Arel-Bundock Vincent, Hayashi Hideaki, Tobalina Luis, Wang Annie, Tham Wei Yang, Wang Clara, Smith Abby, Cooper Jasper, Krauska E. Auden, Wang Alex, Barrett Malcolm, Gray Charles, Wilber Jared, Gegzna Vilmantas, Szoecs Eduard, Aust Frederik, Moore Angus, Williams Nick, Barth Marius, Wundervald Bruna, Cahoon Joyce, McDermott Grant, Zarca Kevin, Kuriwaki Shiro, Wallrich Lukas, Martherus James, Xiao Chuliang, Larmarange Joseph, Kuhn Max, Bojanowski Michal, Malmedal Hakon, Wang Clara, Oller Sergio, Sonnet Luke, Hester Jim, Brunson Cory, Schneider Ben, Gray Bernie, Averick Mara, Jacobs Aaron, Bender Andreas, Templer Sven, Buerkner Paul-Christian, Kay Matthew, Pennec Erwan Le, Junkka Johan, Zhu Hao, Soltoff Benjamin, Saldana Zoe Wilkinson, Littlefield Tyler, Gray Charles T., Banks Shabbh E., Robinson Serina, Bivand Roger, Ots Riinu, Williams Nicholas, Jakobsen Nina, Weylandt Michael, Lendway Lisa, Hailperin Karl, Rodriguez Josue, Bryan Jenny, Jarvis Chris, Macfarlane Greg, Mannakee Brian, Tyre Drew, Singh Shreyas, Geffert Laurens, Ooi Hong, Bengtsson Henrik, Szocs Eduard, Hugh-Jones David, Stigler Matthieu, Tavares Hugo, Vervoort R. Willem, Wiernik Brenton M., Yamamoto Josh, Lee Jasme et Sanders Taren (2021) Broom: Convert Statistical Objects into Tidy Tibbles, version 0.7.10.
    Résumé : Summarizes key information about statistical objects in tidy tibbles. This makes it easy to report results, create plots and consistently work with large numbers of models at once. Broom provides three verbs that each provide different types of information about a model. tidy() summarizes information about model components such as coefficients of a regression. glance() reports information about an entire model, such as goodness of fit measures like AIC and BIC. augment() adds information about individual observations to a dataset, such as fitted values or influence measures.

  • Rouveau Nicolas, Ky-Zerbo Odette, Boye Sokhna, Simo Fotso Arlette, d’Elbée Marc, Maheu-Giroux Mathieu, Silhol Romain, Kouassi Arsène Kra, Vautier Anthony, Doumenc-Aïdara Clémence, Breton Guillaume, Keita Abdelaye, Ehui Eboi, Ndour Cheikh Tidiane, Boilly Marie-Claude, Terris-Prestholt Fern, Pourette Dolorès, Desclaux Alice, Larmarange Joseph et ATLAS Team (2021) « Describing, analysing and understanding the effects of the introduction of HIV self-testing in West Africa through the ATLAS programme in Côte d’Ivoire, Mali and Senegal », BMC Public Health, 21 (1) (janvier 21), p. 181. DOI : 10.1186/s12889-021-10212-1.
    Résumé : The ATLAS programme aims to promote and implement HIV self-testing (HIVST) in three West African countries: Côte d’Ivoire, Mali, and Senegal. During 2019–2021, in close collaboration with the national AIDS implementing partners and communities, ATLAS plans to distribute 500,000 HIVST kits through eight delivery channels, combining facility-based, community-based strategies, primary and secondary distribution of HIVST. Considering the characteristics of West African HIV epidemics, the targets of the ATLAS programme are hard-to-reach populations: key populations (female sex workers, men who have sex with men, and drug users), their clients or sexual partners, partners of people living with HIV and patients diagnosed with sexually transmitted infections and their partners. The ATLAS programme includes research support implementation to generate evidence for HIVST scale-up in West Africa. The main objective is to describe, analyse and understand the social, health, epidemiological effects and cost-effectiveness of HIVST introduction in Côte d’Ivoire, Mali and Senegal to improve the overall HIV testing strategy (accessibility, efficacy, ethics). Methods ATLAS research is organised into five multidisciplinary workpackages (WPs): Key Populations WP: qualitative surveys (individual in-depth interviews, focus group discussions) conducted with key actors, key populations, and HIVST users. Index testing WP: ethnographic observation of three HIV care services introducing HIVST for partner testing. Coupons survey WP: an anonymous telephone survey of HIVST users. Cost study WP: incremental economic cost analysis of each delivery model using a top-down costing with programmatic data, complemented by a bottom-up costing of a representative sample of HIVST distribution sites, and a time-motion study for health professionals providing HIVST. Modelling WP: Adaptation, parameterisation and calibration of a dynamic compartmental model that considers the varied populations targeted by the ATLAS programme and the different testing modalities and strategies. Discussion ATLAS is the first comprehensive study on HIV self-testing in West Africa. The ATLAS programme focuses particularly on the secondary distribution of HIVST. This protocol was approved by three national ethic committees and the WHO’s Ethical Research Committee.
    Mots-clés : Côte d’Ivoire, HIV self-testing, HIV/AIDS, Mali, Senegal, West Africa.

  • Rozée Virginie et Schantz Clémence (2021) « Les violences gynécologiques et obstétricales : construction d’une question politique et de santé publique », Sante Publique, 33 (5), p. 629-634. DOI : 10.3917/spub.215.0629.
    Résumé : Le concept de « violences gynécologiques et obstétricales » a émergé au début des années 2000 en Amérique latine dans les milieux militants et scientifiques. Il a été repris à partir des années 2010 dans les débats féministes et politiques français et européens. Les militantes féministes, notamment à travers les réseaux sociaux et les médias, ont joué un rôle important dans la construction de cette question de santé publique. Ce concept est aujourd’hui mobilisé dans l’espace public, politique et académique, en France et à l’international. Il recouvre des réalités et des pratiques médicales diverses et permet de rendre compte des expériences, à la fois objectives et subjectives, des femmes. Les travaux en sciences sociales qui mobilisent cette nouvelle approche conceptuelle sont de plus en plus nombreux. Ils portent cependant majoritairement sur l’accouchement, alors que le domaine de la gynécologie reste plus largement à explorer.

  • Ruiz de Elvira Laura (2021) « De l’engagement armé à l’engagement humanitaire : trajectoires militantes, émotions et sentiments moraux dans la Syrie post-2011: », Critique internationale, 91 (2) (avril 27), p. 23-44. DOI : 10.3917/crii.091.0026.

  • Ruiz de Elvira Laura (2021) « « Associations de bienfaisance et prise en charge du social en Syrie. De l’étatisme à la "décharge" », in Les mondes de la bien-faisance. Les pratiques du bien au prisme des sciences sociales, Paris : CNRS Editions, p. 355-377. (CNRS Alpha). ISBN : 978-2-271-13205-5.

  • Ruiz de Elvira Laura et Saeidnia Sahar Aurore (2021) « Introduction. Les mondes de la bien-faisance. Pour une nouvelle analyse des pratiques du « bien » », in Les mondes de la bien-faisance. Les pratiques du bien au prisme des sciences sociales, Paris : CNRS Editions, p. 15-37. (CNRS Alpha). ISBN : 978-2-271-13205-5.

  • Ruiz de Elvira Laura et Saeidnia Sahar Aurore (2021) Les mondes de la bien-faisance. Les pratiques du bien au prisme des sciences sociales, Paris : CNRS Editions, 408 p. (CNRS Alpha). ISBN : 978-2-271-13205-5.
    Résumé : Charité, philanthropie, solidarité, aide humanitaire, care… les pratiques du « bien » sont au cœur du fonctionnement de nos sociétés. Interdisciplinaire et comparatiste, cet ouvrage propose de les analyser dans leur pluralité et leurs diverses histoires politiques, sociales et religieuses, de la Judée antique à la France contemporaine, en passant par la Tunisie et l’Iran du xixe siècle. Il explore les mondes de la bien-faisance au prisme des représentations qui leur sont associées, de leurs fondements moraux, des formes organisationnelles qu’ils adoptent, mais aussi – et surtout – à partir des investissements concurrentiels du social qu’ils produisent. Ce faisant, il met en lumière le caractère construit, voire conflictuel, du partage des tâches et expose en quoi et comment celui-ci contribue au maintien de l’ordre social et de ses hiérarchies, ou bien à sa recomposition et à sa critique.

  • Ruiz de Elvira Laura et Saeidnia Sahara Aurore (2021) « Beneficence and Welfare: Notes for the Comparative Study of “Doing Good” Practices (‘amal khayr) in the Islamic World », in Social Policy in the Islamic World (Editors: Tajmazinani, Ali Akbar), Palgrave MacMillan, p. 63-82. ISBN : 978-3-030-57753-7.
  • Sambou Césarine, Allavena Clotilde, DeBeaudrap Pierre, Pourette Dolorès et Raho-Moussa Mariem (2021) « Les médecins généralistes face à la prise en charge des personnes âgées de 70 ans et plus vivant avec le VIH (PvVIH 70+) et polypathologiques : cloisonnements, fractionnements des soins et difficultés associées » (Poster), présenté à Congrès SLFS 22éme édition, Grenoble.

  • Saulnier Dell D, Blanchet Karl, Canila Carmelita, Cobos Muñoz Daniel, Dal Zennaro Livia, de Savigny Don, Durski Kara N, Garcia Fernando, Grimm Pauline Yongeun, Kwamie Aku, Maceira Daniel, Marten Robert, Peytremann-Bridevaux Isabelle, Poroes Camille, Ridde Valery, Seematter Laurence, Stern Barbara, Suarez Patricia, Teddy Gina, Wernli Didier, Wyss Kaspar et Tediosi Fabrizio (2021) « A health systems resilience research agenda: moving from concept to practice », BMJ Global Health, 6 (8) (août), p. e006779. DOI : 10.1136/bmjgh-2021-006779.
    Résumé : Health system resilience, known as the ability for health systems to absorb, adapt or transform to maintain essential functions when stressed or shocked, has quickly gained popularity following shocks like COVID-19. The concept is relatively new in health policy and systems research and the existing research remains mostly theoretical. Research to date has viewed resilience as an outcome that can be measured through performance outcomes, as an ability of complex adaptive systems that is derived from dynamic behaviour and interactions, or as both. However, there is little congruence on the theory and the existing frameworks have not been widely used, which as diluted the research applications for health system resilience. A global group of health system researchers were convened in March 2021 to discuss and identify priorities for health system resilience research and implementation based on lessons from COVID-19 and other health emergencies. Five research priority areas were identified: (1) measuring and managing systems dynamic performance, (2) the linkages between societal resilience and health system resilience, (3) the effect of governance on the capacity for resilience, (4) creating legitimacy and (5) the influence of the private sector on health system resilience. A key to filling these research gaps will be longitudinal and comparative case studies that use cocreation and coproduction approaches that go beyond researchers to include policy-makers, practitioners and the public.

  • Schantz Clémence (2021) « L’enjeu des violences obstétricales en Afrique de l’Ouest », ID4D, Le media du développement Durable.
    Résumé : Malgré la médicalisation de l’accouchement en Afrique de l’Ouest, des violences obstétricales continuent de miner la santé maternelle.

  • Schantz Clémence (2021) « Biomédicalisation massive de l’accouchement au Cambodge après 150 ans de résistance », Moussons, 38 (novembre 25), p. 85-110. DOI : 10/gnpdzk.

  • Schantz Clémence, Lhotte Marie et Pantelias Anne-Charlotte (2021) « Dépasser les tensions éthiques devant les demandes maternelles de césarienne », Santé Publique, Vol. 32 (5) (mars 2), p. 497-505. DOI : 10.3917/spub.205.0497.
    Résumé : Introduction : Dans un contexte juridique centré sur le droit et l’autonomie de la patiente, certaines femmes souhaitent pouvoir choisir leur mode d’accouchement. Les sages-femmes étant les actrices de premier recours des femmes enceintes avec une grossesse physiologique, nous avons voulu savoir s’il était, pour elles, éthiquement recevable d’accompagner une femme dans sa décision de césarienne. Méthode : Cette enquête est une étude ancillaire du programme de recherche CESARIA validé par le Comité de Protection des Personnes Sud Méditerranée IV et déclaré au CNIL. Trente-sept entretiens semi-directifs ont été réalisés auprès de sages-femmes et de femmes. Résultats : La majorité des femmes et des sages-femmes partagent une vision de l’accouchement comme « naturel » et considèrent la demande de césarienne comme relevant de la déviance. Lorsqu’elle est formulée, cette demande place les sages-femmes dans une situation de tension éthique. D’une part, les sages-femmes souhaitent orienter les femmes vers l’accouchement par voie basse qu’elles considèrent comme étant la norme, et ce choix incarne les principes éthiques de bienfaisance et de non-malfaisance. D’autre part, les sages-femmes expriment vouloir respecter le choix et la liberté des patientes, illustrant le principe éthique de respect de l’autonomie. Conclusion : L’enjeu éthique de la césarienne sur demande ne se situe pas tant dans la décision d’accepter ou non une césarienne, mais plutôt dans l’écoute de cette demande. Prendre en considération une indication médicale plus largement que la simple indication obstétricale permet d’accompagner de manière éthique ces demandes, dans le respect de l’autonomie de la femme enceinte.

  • Schantz Clémence, Pantelias Anne-Charlotte, Loenzien Myriam de, Ravit Marion, Rozenberg Patrick, Louis-Sylvestre Christine et Goyet Sophie (2021) « ‘A caesarean section is like you've never delivered a baby’: A mixed methods study of the experience of childbirth among French women », Reproductive Biomedicine & Society Online, 12 (mars), p. 69-78. DOI : 10.1016/j.rbms.2020.10.003.
    Résumé : The experience of childbirth has been technologized worldwide, leading to major social changes. In France, childbirth occurs almost exclusively in hospitals. Few studies have been published on the opinions of French women regarding obstetric technology and, in particular, caesarean section. In 2017–2018, we used a mixed methods approach to determine French women’s preferences regarding the mode of delivery, and captured their experiences and satisfaction in relation to childbirth in two maternity settings. Of 284 pregnant women, 277 (97.5%) expressed a preference for vaginal birth, while seven (2.5%) women expressed a preference for caesarean section. Vaginal birth was also preferred among 26 women who underwent an in-depth interview. Vaginal birth was perceived as more natural, less risky and less painful, and to favour mother–child bonding. This vision was shared by caregivers. The women who expressed a preference for vaginal birth tended to remain sexually active late in their pregnancy, to find sexual intercourse pleasurable, and to believe that vaginal birth would not enlarge their vagina. A large majority (94.5%) of women who gave birth vaginally were satisfied with their childbirth experience, compared with 24.3% of those who underwent caesarean section. The caring attitude of the caregivers contributed to increasing this satisfaction. The notion of women’s ‘empowerment’ emerged spontaneously in women’s discourse in this research: women who gave birth vaginally felt satisfied and empowered. The vision shared by caregivers and women that vaginal birth is a natural process contributes to the stability of caesarean section rates in France.

  • Schloerke Barret, Cook Di, Larmarange Joseph, Briatte Francois, Marbach Moritz, Thoen Edwin, Elberg Amos, Toomet Ott, Crowley Jason, Hofmann Heike et Wickham Hadley (2021) GGally: Extension to 'ggplot2', version 2.1.2.
    Résumé : The R package 'ggplot2' is a plotting system based on the grammar of graphics. 'GGally' extends 'ggplot2' by adding several functions to reduce the complexity of combining geometric objects with transformed data. Some of these functions include a pairwise plot matrix, a two group pairwise plot matrix, a parallel coordinates plot, a survival plot, and several functions to plot networks.

  • Schultz Emilien et Ward J.K. (2021) « Public perceptions of scientific advice: toward a science savvy public culture? », Public Health, 194 (mai), p. 86-88. DOI : 10.1016/j.puhe.2021.02.007.
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