Publications des membres du Ceped

2020


  • Meyer Jean-Baptiste (2020) « Cette université à distance que le Covid 19 a encouragé en Afrique », Le Point Afrique, août 6. https://www.lepoint.fr/afrique/cette-universite-a-distance-que-le-covid-19-a-encouragee-en-afrique-06-08-2020-2386949_3826.php#.

  • Meyer Jean-Baptiste (2020) « Learning at a distance : some lessons from the lockdown, in North Africa », University World News, juillet 2. https://www.universityworldnews.com/post.php?story=20200629133119735.


  • Meyer Jean-Baptiste (2020) « Pierre Puchot (dir.), Islam et politique », Hommes & migrations, 1330 (juillet 17), p. 244. DOI : 10.4000/hommesmigrations.11718. http://journals.openedition.org/hommesmigrations/11718.
    Résumé : Cet ouvrage collectif compare l’émergence des mouvements islamistes dans 13 pays de la région MENA (Moyen-Orient et Afrique du Nord) : l’Égypte, l’Arabie Saoudite, le Levant, le Liban, partiellement l’Irak et la Syrie, le Qatar, la Tunisie, le Maroc, l’Algérie, la Turquie, Gaza, le Yemen ainsi que les engagements extérieurs des États-Unis. Chaque pays fait l’objet d’une analyse essentiellement politique et historique de l’émergence et des vicissitudes des mouvements islamistes. Les descriptions convergent sur la période récente des « Printemps arabes » et se centrent sur des mouvements qui gravitent autour du pouvoir et parfois l’investissent. Elles font, pour la plupart, référence au mouvement des Frères musulmans de Hassan al-Banna durant les années 1930 en Égypte, qu’elles identifient comme origine ou inspiration de l’islam politique contemporain.

  • Meyer Jean-Baptiste (2020) « Université à distance: en Afrique des expériences encourageantes pendant la crise du Covid 19 », The Conversation, juillet 2. https://theconversation.com/universite-a-distance-en-afrique-des-experiences-encourageantes-pendant-la-crise-du-covid-141719.

  • Meyer Jean-Baptiste, Pilon Marc et Ravalihasy Andrainolo (2020) Les effectifs étudiants en Afrique au XXIe siècle : évolution passée et exercice de prospective, Working Papers du CEPED (48), Paris : Ceped, 31 p. https://www.ceped.org/wp.
    Résumé : L’enseignement supérieur africain reste peu développé comparé aux autres régions du monde. Les taux d’inscription étudiante demeurent moins élevés, dans un contexte où la jeunesse du continent s’accroît considérablement et rapidement. Les objectifs du développement durable (ODD) des Nation unies ainsi que l’agenda 2063 de l’Union Africaine (UA) préconisent sans équi-voque une tendance à rattraper les niveaux mondiaux en la matière. Ce document de travail entend fournir des repères quanti-tatifs quant à ces développements escomptés. Il relève dans un premier temps les travaux analysant l’évolution quantitative de la population passant par l’enseignement supérieur, leurs méthodes, leurs conclusions et leurs anticipations. Puis l’analyse s’attache à décrire le contexte africain et le recueil de données le concernant. Enfin, des projections rigoureuses des effectifs étudiants sur les deux horizons (ODD et UA) sont établies.


  • Mick Carola, Fernández María E., Alvarado Chuqui Cástula, Amasifuen Guerra Carlos A., Kleiche-Dray Mina, López Minchán Ana Paula et Silva López Jhonsy Omar (2020) « Regional development in Amazonas, Peru: science-society interactions for sustainability », The Anthropocene Review (septembre 16), p. 205301962095121. DOI : 10.1177/2053019620951210. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2053019620951210.

  • Mishtal Joanna, De Zordo Silvia, Capelli Irene, Martino Anastasia, Rahm Laura et Zanini Giulia (2020) « Political (in)action in abortion governance during COVID-19 in Europe: a call for a harmonized EU response during public health crises », Medical Anthropology Quarterly (juin 19). http://medanthroquarterly.org/2020/06/19/political-inaction-in-abortion-governance-during-covid-19-in-europe-a-call-for-a-harmonized-eu-response-during-public-health-crises/.


  • Moreau Nicolas, Roy Melissa, Wilson Andrew et Atlani-Duault Laetitia (2020) « “Life is more important than football”: Comparative analysis of Tweets and Facebook comments regarding the cancellation of the 2015 African Cup of Nations in Morocco », International Review for the Sociology of Sport (janvier 20), p. 1-24. DOI : 10.1177/1012690219899610. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1012690219899610.
    Résumé : This study analyzes comments from two major social media, Facebook and Twitter, regarding the controversial cancellation of the 2015 African Cup of Nations (CAN) in Morocco and its transfer to Equatorial Guinea, a move precipitated by the contemporaneous outbreaks of Ebola in West Africa. Using frame analysis methodology (frames being the central ideas structuring a narrative account of an issue, event or controversy), it investigates how the sporting and health worlds are understood and conceptualized on Twitter and Facebook, in the context of a specific event. We also investigated the extent to which these frames are platform-specific. Data were collected by keyword extraction and submitted to a qualitative thematic and frame analysis, from which we identified six frames (Epidemic management, Sporting event, Political, Skepticism, Religion, and Economic). Analysis of these frames identified a number of classic issues from the sociology of not only football and epidemics but also of African political issues. The cancellation of the CAN thus provides an excellent window into the complex links between sport, heath and politics. Indeed, the online comments of social media users expressed a rich range of pre-existing frustrations, beliefs and political positions. Our results show that, in the context of the cancellation of the 2015 CAN, tweets mostly framed the event as an epidemic management issue, while Facebook comments typically framed it as an epidemic management, sporting and political event. Some themes treated in a factual way on Twitter became politicized on Facebook where, in addition, new political themes emerged. We conclude that studying social media conversations relating to a mega-sporting event could provide sociologically valuable insights about topics not typically directly associated with sport or health. Keywords African Cup of Nation, Ebola, epidemic management, football, Facebook, qualitative thematic analysis, rhetorical frame analysis, soccer, social media, Twitter


  • Mouté Charles, Desgrées du Loû Annabel, Beninguisse Gervais et DeBeaudrap Pierre (2020) « Impact of disability on the transitions to adulthood of men and women in Cameroon », Alter, 14 (1) (février), p. 27-39. DOI : 10.1016/j.alter.2019.09.007. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1875067219301440.
    Résumé : The transition to adulthood is a critical stage in human development because it shapes the future lives of many young people. Little is known about how disability affects this transition. Most of the available evidence comes from high-resource settings, where the situation differs greatly from that of resource-limited countries. Using the data from the HandiVIH ANRS 12302 study, we aimed to examine the effect of disability on the social markers of the transition to adulthood in an African context with regard to gender and the nature and severity of the limitations. Our results show that men and women with disabilities experience significant delays in completing the different transitions to adulthood and, consequently, live in more precarious situations at the beginning of adulthood. We also found complex variations in the effects of disability with regard to disability characteristics and gender. These results call for gender- and disability-sensitive transitional programmes to achieve the goal of equal opportunity as envisioned in the sustainable development goals.


  • Ndour Mamour et Alexandre Laurice (2020) « L’évolution du modèle d’affaires des organisations de l’entrepreneuriat social : le cas des jeunes entreprises du numérique en France », Revue internationale P.M.E.: Économie et gestion de la petite et moyenne entreprise, 33 (1), p. 75. DOI : 10.7202/1069284ar. http://id.erudit.org/iderudit/1069284ar.


  • Ndour Mamour et Alexandre Laurice (2020) « La dynamique du modèle d’affaires des start-ups dans le secteur des TIC, le cas des entreprises sociales au Sénégal », Management & Avenir, N°115 (1), p. 15. DOI : 10.3917/mav.115.0015. http://www.cairn.info/revue-management-et-avenir-2020-1-page-15.htm?ref=doi.
    Résumé : Cet article tente de répondre à la question suivante : « comment les différents éléments du modèle d’affaires des start-ups sociales évoluent dans le temps dans un pays en transition ? ». Grâce à l’étude approfondie de 10 start-ups sociales dans le secteur des TIC au Sénégal, il a été démontré que le modèle d’affaires évolue selon les phases de développement des entreprises, et la proposition de valeur peut évoluer de trois façons : (1) l’adaptation de l’offre par modification ou changement de l’offre ; (2) l’enrichissement de l’offre de départ par l’ajout de services annexes ; (3) la création d’une nouvelle offre liée ou non à l’offre de départ pour la cible actuelle ou pour une nouvelle cible. Il semblerait également que le modèle d’affaires social sénégalais n’a pas encore atteint la phase de maturité d’un modèle d’affaires social d’une entreprise française.


  • Nguyen Hoa Thi, Torbica Aleksandra, Brenner Stephan, Kiendrébéogo Joël Arthur, Tapsoba Ludovic, Ridde Valéry et De Allegri Manuela (2020) « Economic Evaluation of User-Fee Exemption Policies for Maternal Healthcare in Burkina Faso: Evidence From a Cost-Effectiveness Analysis », Value in Health, 23 (3) (mars), p. 300-308. DOI : 10.1016/j.jval.2019.10.007. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1098301519351794.
    Résumé : Objectives The reduction and removal of user fees for essential care services have recently become a key instrument to advance universal health coverage in sub-Saharan Africa, but no evidence exists on its cost-effectiveness. We aimed to address this gap by estimating the cost-effectiveness of 2 user-fee exemption interventions in Burkina Faso between 2007 and 2015: the national 80% user-fee reduction policy for delivery care services and the user-fee removal pilot (ie, the complete [100%] user-fee removal for delivery care) in the Sahel region. Methods We built a single decision tree to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the 2 study interventions and the baseline. The decision tree was populated with an own impact evaluation and the best available epidemiological evidence. Results Relative to the baseline, both the national 80% user-fee reduction policy and the user-fee removal pilot are highly cost-effective, with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of $210.22 and $252.51 per disability-adjusted life-year averted, respectively. Relative to the national 80% user-fee reduction policy, the user-fee removal pilot entails an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $309.74 per disability-adjusted life-year averted. Conclusions Our study suggests that it is worthwhile for Burkina Faso to move from an 80% reduction to the complete removal of user fees for delivery care. Local analyses should be done to identify whether it is worthwhile to implement user-fee exemptions in other sub-Saharan African countries.

  • Niangoran Serge, Inghels Maxime, Kouassi Arsène Kra, Bekelynck Anne, Carillon Séverine, Sika Lazare, Danel Christine, Koné Mariatou et Larmarange Joseph (2020) « Physicians' knowledge of Hepatitis B and C in Côte d'Ivoire » (poster), présenté à INTEREST 2020, online. http://interestworkshop.org/.
    Résumé : Background: Viral hepatitis is a major public health problem in Côte d'Ivoire, with a prevalence of 8% to 10% for hepatitis B and 1% for hepatitis C. Research indicates that there is a lack of awareness of hepatitis in the general population; however, there remains little evidence concerning physician’s knowledge of the virus. We, thus, investigate physician’s knowledge on viral hepatitis B and C, which can be the first condition for screening and treatment. Materials and methods: In 2018, we conducted a cross-sectional Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) telephone survey on a random sample of physicians working in health facilities in Côte d'Ivoire. Data collected included an assessment of knowledge about viral hepatitis B and C and their personal attitudes towards hepatitis screening and vaccination. We created a knowledge score based on 14 variables (screening test variables, HBV viral load variables, treatment indications variables, treatment availability and associated costs variables) and identified the associated factors using a multivariate Poisson model. Results: Among the 542 physicians contacted, 316 physicians participated in the survey (58%). The vast majority of doctors spontaneously cited cirrhosis (79%) and liver cancer (77%) as the main complications of viral hepatitis. Screening modalities were also well known. Knowledge of modes of transmission and prevention were uneven : blood transmission 88%, sexual 78%, saliva 27%, during pregnancy or childbirth 20%. Physicians' knowledge of the prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in the population remains very limited (32% indicates between 5% and 15% for HBV while 33% indicates less than 5% for HCV) In terms of treatment, less than half knew the conditions for initiating hepatitis B treatment (42%) or the existence of curative treatment for hepatitis C (34%). Similarly, few knew the cost of associated treatments or tests (23%), such as HBV viral load (17%). A higher knowledge score was associated with having a close relative infected by viral hepatitis (RR=1.09 [1.00 – 1.19], p=0.052), receiving training on viral hepatitis (RR=1.16 [1.04 – 1.29], p=0,008) and testing for any viral hepatitis (RR=1.16 [1.04 – 1.29], p=0.008). Conclusion: The fight against viral hepatitis requires the involvement of physicians. Findings suggest that many physicians are in need of ongoing training on prevention and treatment of viral hepatitis.

  • Niangoran Serge, Inghels Maxime, Kouassi Arsène Kra, Bekelynck Anne, Carillon Séverine, Sika Lazare, Koné Mariatou, Desgrées du Loû Annabel et Larmarange Joseph (2020) « Connaissances des médecins sur les hépatites virales B et C en Côte d’Ivoire et facteurs associés » (poster PL189), présenté à AFRAVIH 2020, Dakar. http://www.afravih2020.org/.
    Résumé : Objectifs Avec une prévalence de 8% à 10% pour l’hépatite B et de 1% pour l’hépatite C, les hépatites virales constituent un problème de santé publique majeur en Côte d’Ivoire. Alors que ces infections sont mal connues en population générale, qu’en est-il des médecins ? Matériels et Méthodes Une enquête transversale par téléphone a été réalisée en 2018 auprès d’un échantillon aléatoire de 316 médecins exerçant dans des structures de santé en Côte d’Ivoire. Le questionnaire administré portait notamment sur l’évaluation des connaissances sur les hépatites virales B et C ainsi que leurs attitudes personnelles face au dépistage et à la vaccination. Un score de connaissance a été créé à partir de 14 variables (figure) et les facteurs associés ont été mesurés à l’aide d’un modèle multivarié de Poisson. Résultats La grande majorité des médecins citent spontanément la cirrhose et le cancer du foie comme principales complications des hépatites virales. Les modalités de dépistage sont également bien connues. Les connaissances en termes de modes de transmission et de moyens de prévention sont inégales, tandis qu’un tiers a une idée des prévalences des hépatites B et C en Côte d’Ivoire. En matière de prise en charge, moins de la moitié connaît les indications de traitement pour l’hépatite B ou l’existence d’un traitement curatif pour l’hépatite C (figure). De même, peu connaissent les coûts des traitements ou des examens comme la charge virale VHB. Le score de connaissances varie selon le type de structure, le sexe, le fait de connaître un proche porteur d’une hépatite virale, le fait qu’une ONG intervienne ou non dans la structure de santé, avoir suivi une formation sur les hépatites virales et le fait de s’être soi-même fait dépister. Conclusion La lutte contre les hépatites virales passe nécessairement par une implication accrue de l’ensemble des médecins, et notamment par des formations continues à la prévention et à la prise en charge qui doivent être développées.


  • Oluwaseyi Somefun Dolapo et Simo Fotso Arlette (2020) « The effect of family and neighbourhood social capital on youth mental health in South Africa », Journal of Adolescence, 83 (août 1), p. 22-26. DOI : 10.1016/j.adolescence.2020.06.009. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140197120300944.
    Résumé : Introduction Despite the prevalence of mental illness among young adults in South Africa, few studies have examined its correlation with social capital using nationally representative data. Sources of social capital are different for youth, which is why understanding the correlation between family and neighbourhood social capital and mental health outcomes is important for designing optimal interventions. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between social capital and youth mental health. We also sought to understand whether family social capital was more protective for the mental health of youth compared to neighbourhood social capital. Methods Using the National Income Dynamics Survey data for South Africa, we examine these associations among 2307 youth aged 15–24 across the four waves. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine these associations. Results Our findings emphasize the substantial burden of mental illness among youth in South Africa (26% in wave 4). Although results for parental presence were not significant, family social capital measured by household income significantly decreased the odds of incident depression only for those belonging to the third quintile (aOR 0.74, 95% CI 0.54–1.01). High perception of crime in the neighbourhood was associated with significantly higher odds of incident depression (aOR 1.33, 95% CI 1.06–1.67). Conclusions Our results confirm the independent effect of neighbourhood characteristics on youth mental health and did not support family social capital as being protective for developing depression. This implies that youth program planners must focus on community context in improving youth developmental outcomes such as mental health.
    Mots-clés : Depression, Family, Mental health, Neighbourhood, Social capital, South Africa, Youth.

  • Orozco L, Pirela Arnoldo, Requier-Desjardins D et Guibert M (2020) « Hydrocarbons, agro-food production and energy transition in Latin America: Theoretical elements of the debate », Caravelle, 115, p. 11-24. DOI : 10.4000/caravelle.8556.
    Résumé : Climate change poses a double threat to Latin America, both to agricultural production and to the exploitation of its main comparative advantage; fossil resources. This paper's aim is to tackle the technological convergence/divergence in Latin America between the hydrocarbon and agrifood value chains in a context of energy transition. This theoretical work is based on existing literature.

  • Ouedraogo Wendkouni, Biau Sandrine, Bonnet Emmanuel et Ridde Valery (2020) Scoping review protocol on the use of telephone in the implementation of citizen participation in the processes of developing health system strengthening reforms/policies in Sub-Saharan Africa (participation in decision-making) v1 (protocols.io.bky7kxzn). https://www.protocols.io/view/scoping-review-protocol-on-the-use-of-telephone-in-bky7kxzn.

  • Pannetier Julie et Ravalihasy Andrainolo (2020) « Les femmes migrantes face aux violences sexuelles en France », The Conversation (mai 29). https://theconversation.com/les-femmes-migrantes-face-aux-violences-sexuelles-en-france-138896.
    Résumé : Les violences sexuelles envers les femmes immigrées sont fréquentes mais restent largement invisibles dans les statistiques publiques en Europe. Si l’opinion publique y a été sensibilisée dans les pays de transit comme en Libye, c’est beaucoup moins le cas lorsque ces violences ont lieu dans le pays de destination. Rappelons que les personnes originaires d’Afrique subsaharienne représentent 13 % des immigrés en France. Parmi ces personnes, la moitié sont des femmes. Même après la migration, les femmes sont confrontées à des contextes marqués par des insécurités multiples qui les exposent à des violences sexuelles, rarement documentées et analysées. Leurs effets sur la santé sont également peu étudiés.
    Mots-clés : ⛔ No DOI found.


  • Paul Elisabeth, Brown Garrett W et Ridde Valery (2020) « COVID-19: time for paradigm shift in the nexus between local, national and global health », BMJ Global Health, 5 (4) (avril), p. e002622. DOI : 10.1136/bmjgh-2020-002622. http://gh.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/bmjgh-2020-002622.


  • Paul Elisabeth, Brown Garrett W., Ensor Tim, Ooms Gorik, van de Pas Remco et Ridde Valéry (2020) « We shouldn’t count chickens before they hatch: results-based financing and the challenges of cost-effectiveness analysis », Critical Public Health (janvier 3), p. 1-6. DOI : 10.1080/09581596.2019.1707774. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09581596.2019.1707774.
    Résumé : Results-based financing (RBF) is subject to fierce debate and the evidence-base on its cost effectiveness is scarce. To our knowledge, only one cost-effectiveness study of RBF in a lower-middle income country has been published in a peer reviewed journal. That study – in Zambia – concludes that RBF is cost-effective, which was then uncritically repeated in an editorial accompanying its release. Here we would like to warn against readily accepting the conclusion of the cost-effectiveness study of RBF in Zambia, because its conclusions are not straightforward and could be dangerously misleading, especially for those readers unfamiliar with health economics. After outlining the results from the Zambia’s RBF cost-effectiveness study, we point to important methodological issues related to cost-effectiveness analysis, showing how key assumptions produce particular results. We then reflect on how cost-effectiveness is different from efficiency and affordability – which is important, since cost-effectiveness studies often have considerable influence on national health financing strategies and policy priorities. Finally, we provide an alternative reading of the evidence on RBF in Zambia. Namely, when examined from an efficiency point of view, the study actually demonstrates that RBF is less efficient than the simpler alternative of providing more resources to health facilities, unconditioned on performance, which will be of most interest to a government with tight budget constraints. As a result, existing claims that RBF is cost-effective are overstated, requiring further and more nuanced examination with more adequate research methods.


  • Paul Elisabeth, Brown Garrett W., Kalk Andreas, Van Damme Wim, Ridde Valery et Sturmberg Joachim (2020) « “When My Information Changes, I Alter My Conclusions.” What Can We Learn From the Failures to Adaptively Respond to the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic and the Under Preparedness of Health Systems to Manage COVID-19? », International Journal of Health Policy and Management. DOI : 10.34172/ijhpm.2020.240. https://www.ijhpm.com/article_3972.html.
    Mots-clés : COVID-19, Evidence-Based Policy, Health Policies, Public Health, SARS-CoV-2, Systemic Approach.


  • Paul Elisabeth, Brown Garrett W. et Ridde Valéry (2020) « Misunderstandings and ambiguities in strategic purchasing in low‐ and middle‐income countries », The International Journal of Health Planning and Management (juillet 16), p. hpm.3019. DOI : 10.1002/hpm.3019. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/hpm.3019.
    Résumé : Strategic purchasing is branded as an approach that is necessary for progress towards universal health coverage. While we agree that publicly purchased health services should respond to society's needs and patient expectations, and thus generally endorse strategic purchasing, here we would like to explore two emerging concerns within current discussions in low‐ and middle‐income countries. First, there exists a great deal of misunderstanding and conceptual unclarity, within practitioner groups, around the concept of strategic purchasing and what instruments it incorporates. Second, there is a growing trend to regularly fuse strategic purchasing into a performance‐based financing (PBF) discourse in ways that increasingly blur their distinctive properties and policy orientations, while perhaps too easily obfuscating potential tensions. We believe the discourse on strategic purchasing would benefit from better conceptual clarity by dissociating and prioritising its two objectives, namely: priority should be given to needs‐based allocation of resources, while rewarding performance is a subsequent concern. We argue there is a need for a more thoroughgoing conceptual and empirical re‐examination of strategic purchasing's priorities, its link with PBF, as well as for a wider evidence‐base on what strategic purchasing tools exist and which are most appropriate for diverse contexts.

  • Paul Elisabeth et Ridde Valéry (2020) « Évaluer les effets des différentes mesures de lutte contre le Covid-19, mission impossible ? », The Conversation, avril 5. https://theconversation.com/evaluer-les-effets-des-differentes-mesures-de-lutte-contre-le-covid-19-mission-impossible-135060.

  • Pellegrini Chloé, Alazali Monia et Meyer Jean-Baptiste (2020) L’enseignement supérieur au Maroc : état des lieux et comparaison public/privé, Working Papers du CEPED (46), Paris : Ceped. https://www.ceped.org.
    Résumé : L’enseignement supérieur marocain se développe rapidement. Il s’accroît considérablement et se transforme particulièrement depuis deux décennies. Le présent document examine ces évolutions à la lumière des statistiques locales. Elles couvrent de façon variable les différents secteurs de l’enseignement supérieur mais offrent globalement un panorama édifiant de ces transformations. Il permet de caractériser la massification en cours et de constater comment le pays répond aux enjeux de formation post-scolaire d’une population jeune aux effectifs croissants. Il scrute tour à tour puis en comparaison les différents éléments des secteurs publics et privés : répartition géographique, distribution par domaine, évolution temporelle. Il examine les complémentarités éventuelles de ces deux secteurs et l’enjeu d’employabilité de leurs diplômés.


  • Pérez Myriam Cielo, Chandra Dinesh, Koné Georges, Singh Rohit, Ridde Valery, Sylvestre Marie-Pierre, Seth Aaditeshwar et Johri Mira (2020) « Implementation fidelity and acceptability of an intervention to improve vaccination uptake and child health in rural India: a mixed methods evaluation of a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial », Implementation Science Communications, 1 (1) (décembre), p. 88. DOI : 10.1186/s43058-020-00077-7. https://implementationsciencecomms.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s43058-020-00077-7.
    Résumé : The Tika Vaani intervention, an initiative to improve basic health knowledge and empower beneficiaries to improve vaccination uptake and child health for underserved rural populations in India, was assessed in a pilot cluster randomized trial. The intervention was delivered through two strategies: mHealth (using mobile phones to send vaccination reminders and audio-based messages) and community mobilization (face-to-face meetings) in rural Indian villages from January to September 2018. We assessed acceptability and implementation fidelity to determine whether the intervention delivered in the pilot trial can be implemented at a larger scale. Methods We adapted the Conceptual Framework for implementation fidelity to assess acceptability and fidelity of the pilot interventions using a mixed methods design. Quantitative data sources include a structured checklist, household surveys, and mobile phone call patterns. Qualitative data came from field observations, intervention records, semi-structured interviews and focus groups with project recipients and implementers. Quantitative analyses assessed whether activities were implemented as planned, using descriptive statistics to describe participant characteristics and the percentage distribution of activities. Qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis and in the light of the implementation fidelity model to explore moderating factors and to determine how well the intervention was received. Results Findings demonstrated high (86.7%) implementation fidelity. A total of 94% of the target population benefited from the intervention by participating in a face-to-face group meeting or via mobile phone. The participants felt that the strategies were useful means for obtaining information. The clarity of the intervention theory, the motivation, and commitment of the implementers as well as the periodic meetings of the supervisors largely explain the high level of fidelity obtained. Geographic distance, access to a mobile phone, level of education, and gender norms are contextual factors that contributed to heterogeneity in participation. Conclusions Although the intervention was evaluated in the context of a randomized trial that could explain the high level of fidelity obtained, this evaluation provides confirmatory evidence that the results of the study reflect the underlying theory. The mobile platform coupled with community mobilization was well-received by the participants and could be a useful way to improve health knowledge and change behavior.



  • Pérez Myriam Cielo, Singh Rohit, Chandra Dinesh, Ridde Valéry, Seth Aaditeshwar et Johri Mira (2020) « Development of an mHealth Behavior Change Communication Strategy: A case-study from rural Uttar Pradesh in India » (présenté à COMPASS '20: ACM SIGCAS Conference on Computing and Sustainable Societies), in Proceedings of the 3rd ACM SIGCAS Conference on Computing and Sustainable Societies, Ecuador : ACM, p. 274-278. ISBN : 978-1-4503-7129-2. DOI : 10.1145/3378393.3402505. https://dl.acm.org/doi/10.1145/3378393.3402505.


  • Pérouse de Montclos Marc-Antoine (2020) Une guerre perdue : la France au Sahel, Paris : J.C. Lattès, 311 p. (Essais et Documents). ISBN : 978-2-7096-6603-9. http://www.documentation.ird.fr/hor/fdi:010077657.
    Résumé : Janvier 2013 : l'armée française intervient au Mali. C'est sa plus grosse opération militaire à l'étranger depuis la guerre d'Algérie. François Hollande avait pourtant annoncé que la France n'interviendrait pas. L'objectif au départ était seulement d'appuyer une éventuelle opération de paix des Nations-Unies pour rétablir l'ordre. Mais avec la prise par les djihadistes de Tombouctou, de Gao, de Kidal, il faut agir, dit-on, sinon Bamako pourrait tomber. Tout le "Sahélistan" serait aux mains des fous de Dieu. La France est alors la seule à intervenir. L'auteur, chercheur, spécialiste des questions africaines et du djihadisme, écoute les partisans de l'opération Serval, les déclarations d'intention qui balaient toute critique. Il suit le déroulement de l'opération : l'intervention aurait dû être le déroulement de l'opération : l'intervention aurait dû être courte, elle s'éternise et avec des effets dévastateurs. Les mouvances djihadistes ont étendu leurs actions, les violences intercommunautaires se sont multipliées. Un livre passionnant sur une guerre lointaine où la France joue un rôle majeur. Un chercheur renommé qui refuse le silence et les mensonges sur ce que fait la France et au nom de quoi elle le fait.


  • Pérouse de Montclos Marc-Antoine (2020) « Boko Haram : un cas d’école de l’échec de l’islam politique au Nigeria », Canadian Journal of African Studies / Revue canadienne des études africaines (avril 28), p. 1-18. DOI : 10.1080/00083968.2019.1700141. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00083968.2019.1700141.
    Résumé : This article analyses some of the reasons why Boko Haram proved unable to govern the territories it was able to control before its allegiance to the Islamic State and its withdrawal into the Lake Chad wetlands in 2015. The group's political failure is not limited to its fragmentation, its criminalisation, its lack of qualified professionals and the inadequacy of a 'low cost' insurgency. Indeed, the predatory character of the sect is both a cause and a symptom of its disorganisation and inability to govern. Claiming the legitimacy of the jihad of Ousmane dan Fodio in Sokoto, the movement never sought to resuscitate the Borno Empire to raise taxes and dispense very rudimentary justice. Thus, the case of Boko Haram demonstrates in its own way the failure of political Islamand attempts to extend the scope of Sharia law in Nigeria since the end of the military dictatorship in 1999.


  • Pérouse de Montclos Marc-Antoine (2020) « "Horn, Sahel and Rift : faultlines, of the African Jihad". - Hansen, Stig Jarle, London, Hurst [Compte rendu de lecture] », Small Wars and Insurgencies, 31, p. 204–208. DOI : 10.1080/09592318.2020.1672977. http://www.documentation.ird.fr/hor/fdi:010077400.
    Mots-clés : AFRIQUE SUBSAHARIENNE.

  • Petersen Maya, Larmarange Joseph, Wirth Kathleen E, Skalland Timothy, Ayles Helen, Kamya Moses, Lockman Shahin, Iwuji Collins, Dabis François, Makhema Joseph, Havlir Diane, Floyd Sian, Hayes Richard et UT3C Consortium (2020) « Population-level Viremia Predicts HIV Incidence across the Universal Test and Treat Studies » (communication orale), présenté à Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunitic Infections (CROI), Boston. http://www.croiconference.org/sessions/population-level-viremia-predicts-hiv-incidence-across-universal-test-treat-studies.
    Résumé : Improved understanding of the extent to which increased population-level viral suppression will reduce HIV incidence is needed. Using data from four large Universal Test and Treat Trials, we evaluated the relationship between viremia and incidence and its consistency across epidemic contexts. We analyzed data from 105 communities in the PopART (21 communities in South Africa and Zambia, ~ 25,000 adults each), BCPP (30 communities in Botswana, ~3,600 adults each), ANRS 12249 TasP (22 communities in South Africa, ~1,300 adults each) and SEARCH (32 communities in Uganda and Kenya, ~5,000 adults each) studies. Communities ranged from rural to urban and varied in the mobility of their populations and their sex ratio (~30% to 50% male). HIV incidence was measured via repeat testing between 2012-2018. Population viremia ­– % of all adults (HIV+ or HIV-) with HIV viremia – was estimated at midpoint of follow-up based on HIV prevalence and non-suppression among HIV+, with adjustment for differences between the measurement cohort and underlying population. Community-level regression, adjusted for study, was used to quantify the association between HIV incidence and viremia and to evaluate cross-study heterogeneity. HIV prevalence (measured in 257,929 total persons, PopART: 37,006; BCPP: 12,570; TasP: 20,978; SEARCH: 187,375), ranged from 2% to 40% by community. Non-suppression among HIV+ (measured in 39,928 persons, PopART: 6,233; BCPP: 2,318; TasP: 6,617; SEARCH: 16,209) ranged from 3% to 70%. HIV incidence (measured over 345,844 person-years, PopART: 39,702; BCPP: 8,551; TasP: 26,832; SEARCH: 270,759) ranged from 0.03 to 3.4 per 100PY. Population-level viremia was strongly associated with HIV incidence; pooling across studies, HIV incidence decreased by 0.07/100PY (95% CI: 0.05,0.10, p<0.001) for each 1% absolute decrease in viremia. Incidence was significantly associated with viremia in each study; however, both strength of the incidence-viremia relationship (slope) and projected incidence at 0% viremia (intercept) differed (Figure). Lower population-level HIV viremia was associated with lower HIV incidence in all four Universal Test and Treat Studies, conducted in a wide range of epidemic contexts in sub-Saharan Africa. Differences in external infection rate (due to variation in community size, mobility, and sex ratio) may have contributed to heterogeneity between studies.


  • Petit Véronique (2020) « « Tu peux être en vie et déjà mort » : le quotidien ordinaire d’une personne atteinte de troubles psychiques au Sénégal », Politique Africaine, 1 (157), p. 39-69. DOI : 10.3917/polaf.157.0039. https://www.cairn.info/revue-politique-africaine-2020-1-page-39.htm.
    Résumé : Cet article propose une ethnographie de la vie quotidienne d’une personne atteinte de troubles psychiques et de la manière dont l’aspect chronique de la maladie mentale affecte les dynamiques familiales au sein d’un espace domestique marqué par l’économie morale. La mise en intrigue de cette vie ordinaire à travers les discours révèle les positionnements, les attentes et les ajustements des acteurs les uns aux autres, avec les tensions, les violences symboliques et les émotions qu’ils impliquent.

  • Petit Véronique (2020) « An Anthropological Demography of Mental Health in Senegal », in The Anthropological Demography of Health, éd. par Véronique Petit, Kaveri Qureshi, Yves Charbit, et Philip Kreager, Oxford : Oxford University Press, p. 153-182. ISBN : 978-0-19-886243-7.
    Résumé : This chapter stems from ongoing field research on mental health in Senegal, an African country in the midst of an epidemiological transition. While mental health has been integrated into global health and sustainable development objectives, it is not a priority in sub-Saharan Africa. Few states have a mental health policy, nor specific programmes and data on the situation of mentally ill people and their families. From the time of the French colonization, Senegal has developed an original strand of psychiatric intervention, the Fann School of Cultural Psychiatry. The current supply of psychiatric care takes place in the multi-therapeutic context of this ethnically and religiously diverse society. The therapeutic pathways of patients are analysed in terms of stigmatization, relationships between patients and healers, socio-economic inequalities, poverty, and the absence of universal medical coverage for the entire population. To understand adherence to psychiatric treatment, one must take into account the family and social dynamics at work in a society increasingly marked by individuation processes and globalization through international migration. In attending to the subtleties of care as conceived by sufferers’ families and social networks, the chapter points to multiple layers of the demographic governance of mental ill health, from the state to local kin and social groups.

  • Petit Véronique et Robin Nelly (2020) « Les circulations transnationales, un des éléments-clés de la gestion de la crise du coronavirus en Afrique », Le Monde afrique, juin 2. https://www.lemonde.fr/afrique/article/2020/06/02/les-circulations-transnationales-un-des-elements-cles-de-la-gestion-de-la-crise-du-coronavirus-en-afrique_6041551_3212.html.

  • Petit Véronique et Robin Nelly (2020) « Covid-19 et migrations en Afrique : la réduction des mobilités, une riposte efficace ? », The Conversation, mai 31. https://theconversation.com/covid-19-et-migrations-en-afrique-la-reduction-des-mobilites-une-riposte-efficace-139283.
    Résumé : Les circulations transnationales constituent l’un des éléments clés de la gestion de la crise du Covid-19 en Afrique. Dans cet article, nous proposons une analyse cartographique de l’origine des premiers cas détectés dans les pays africains et des enjeux de la fermeture des frontières dans un environnement de fortes mobilités.


  • Petitprez K., Guillaume S., Mattuizzi A., Arnal M., Artzner F., Bernard C., Bonnin M., Bouvet L., Caron F.-M., Chevalier I., Daussy-Urvoy C., Ducloy-Bouthorsc A.-S., Garnier J.-M., Keita-Meyer H., Lavillonnière J., Lejeune-Sadaa V., Leray C., Morandeau A., Morau E., Nadjafizade M., Pizzagalli F., Schantz Clémence, Schmitz T., Shojai R., Hédon B. et Sentilhes L. (2020) « Accouchement normal : accompagnement de la physiologie et interventions médicales. Recommandations de la Haute Autorité de Santé (HAS) avec la collaboration du Collège National des Gynécologues Obstétriciens Français (CNGOF) et du Collège National des Sages-Femmes de France (CNSF) – Texte des recommandations (texte court) », Gynécologie Obstétrique Fertilité & Sénologie, 48 (12) (décembre), p. 873-882. DOI : 10.1016/j.gofs.2020.09.013. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2468718920302701.

  • Pirela Arnoldo (2020) « Petroleum geopolitics and authoritarianism in Latin America and the Caribbean: the case of Venezuela », Caravelle, 115, p. 59-73. DOI : en.
    Résumé : This paper focuses on the armed conflicts in Central America in the late 70s and 80s, as they relate to the so-called "turn to the left", which began with Hugo Chavez in 1999. It suggests a reading based on the economic and political history of Venezuela, taking into consideration its development strategy of using oil revenues to break tax dependency from oil. It is in fact the story of a mainly pragmatic nationalism with a social democratic orientation that completes a virtuous circle by the oil industry nationalization in 1976, only to find itself trapped in the limitations of its conflicting strategy; and, with the turn of the century, leading the country into the hands of a successful convergence operation between the traditional authoritarianism of military lodges and the totalitarianism of Soviet-cuban inspiration.
    Mots-clés : ⚠️ Invalid DOI.


  • Pourette Dolorès, Andrianantoandro T V, Rakotoarimanana F M J, Razakamanana M, Rakotomalala O et Ramiaramanana J (2020) « Use of healthcare services at time of delivery: a prospective community based study in Madagascar », European Journal of Public Health, 30 (Supplement_5) (septembre 1), p. ckaa166.908. DOI : 10.1093/eurpub/ckaa166.908. https://academic.oup.com/eurpub/article/doi/10.1093/eurpub/ckaa166.908/5915795.
    Résumé : Abstract Background Maternal mortality remains high in Madagascar (478 deaths per 100,000 live births) and more than 60% of birth are not assisted by professional health workers. This study aimed to determine factors that influence choices of delivery place in two municipalities of Vakinakaratra region. Methods This was a prospective study. 245 pregnant women in the 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy were included and surveyed during Oct-Nov 2016. The same women were re-surveyed 3 months or more after their respective deliveries (June-July 2017). Binary logistic regression was used and the analysis were supported by qualitative interviews conducted with 35 women from the sample, 7 community health workers, 5 professionals health workers and 15 traditional healers and traditional births attendants or 'reninjaza'. Results Overall, 91.8 % of women intended to give birth at health facilities. The reasons given are the quality of services and the medical support in case of complications, the registration of birth and the referrals and encouragement from reninjaza. However, out of 229 mothers interviewed after delivery, only 60.7% gave birth in a health facility. Educated mothers were ORa=6.6 (p &lt; 0.001) times more likely to deliver at health facility and mothers with at least 4 births are ORa=0.17 (p &lt; 0.01) times less likely to do it. The qualitative analysis highlights the cost (logistics and care) as well as the fear of caesarean sections as a brake on childbirth in a health facility. The distance from the health center and the lack of preparation to travel there were also identified. Decisions at the time of childbirth come under the close family. Conclusions Use of maternity services remains low. The implementation of free delivery care policies, formalizing the collaboration between reninjaza and health workers and raising awareness among close family should improve the access to healthcare. Key messages Collaborations between health workers and traditional healers should be formalized. The close family of pregnant women (spouse, mother, mother-in-law) should be the target of awareness raising strategies.
  • Pourette Dolorès, Andrianantoandro Tantely, Rakotoarimanana Feno, Rakotomalala, Olivier et Razakamanana Marilys (2020) « Use of healthcare services at time of delivery: a prospective community based study in Madagascar » (Poster DQ 69), présenté à 16th World Congress on Public Health 2020, Rome (virtual).


  • Pourette, Dolorès, Rakotomalala, Olivier et Mattern, Chiarella (2020) « Donner naissance à Madagascar. Articulation des recours « traditionnels » et biomédicaux autour de la naissance », in Naître et grandir. Normes du Sud, du Nord, d’hier et d’aujourd’hui, éd. par Laurence Pourchez, Paris : Editions des archives contemporaines, p. 61-67. ISBN : 978-2-8130-0261-7. https://doi.org/10.17184/eac.9782813002617.

  • Prigent Steven (2020) Les Vagabonds et la dette. L'éducation au Cambodge en milieu rural, Les Indes Savantes, 192 p. (Etudes Asie). ISBN : 2-84654-545-6.
    Résumé : Cet ouvrage, fondé sur une série d'enquêtes menées dans un village de la province de Kompong Cham entre 2008 et 2016, porte sur l'éducation des enfants dans le Cambodge rural contemporain. Quel « sentiment de l'enfance » partagent ces familles de riziculteurs ? Quelles théories et pratiques éducatives ont cours dans les maisons, les monastères et les salles de classes ? Quelle vie sociale déploient les garçons et les filles sur les chemins du village, dans la cour de récréation ou à travers champs ? Ancrée dans l'anthropologie de l'ordinaire, cette étude vise à traduire l'économie morale de l'éducation partagée par les paysans khmers et s'organise autour du problème du « vagabondage » des enfants. Ce livre interroge également le devenir des enfants du village en étudiant le parcours de leurs frères et sœurs aînés, dont la grande majorité a quitté l'école avant la fin du collège pour privilégier le salariat non qualifié. Les usines de confection et les chantiers de construction, les petits emplois de service, l'espoir de migration ouvrière en Corée du sud, le travail féminin dans les bars et la vie monastique concernent aujourd'hui une large frange de la jeune génération paysanne cambodgienne, outre l'activité de riziculture.
  • Prigent Steven et Diepart Jean-Christophe (2020) « Cambodge. Une souveraineté sous tension », in L’Asie du sud-est 2020. Bilan, enjeux et perspectives (dir. Claire Thi-Liên Tran et Christine Cabasset), Bangkok : IRASEC, Institut de Recherches sur l'Asie du sud-est contemporaine/Les Indes savantes, p. 183-204.


  • Quet Mathieu et Dahdah Marine Al (2020) « Technologies Without Borders? The Digitization of Society in a Postcolonial World », Science, Technology and Society, 25 (3), p. 363-367. DOI : 10.1177/0971721820912894. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0971721820912894.


  • Raberahona Mihaja, Monge François, Andrianiaina Rijasoa Harivelo, Randria Mamy Jean de Dieu, Ratefiharimanana Andosoa, Rakatoarivelo Rivo Andry, Randrianary Lanto, Randriamilahatra Emma, Rakotobe Liva, Mattern Chiarella, Andriananja Volatiana, Rajaonarison Hobimahanina, Randrianarisoa Mirella, Rakotomanana Elliott, Pourette Dolorès, Andriamahenina Hery Zo, Dezé Charlotte, Boukli Narjis, Baril Laurence et Vallès Xavier (2020) « Is Madagascar at the edge of a generalised HIV epidemic? Situational analysis », Sexually Transmitted Infections (mai 18). DOI : 10.1136/sextrans-2019-054254. https://sti.bmj.com/content/early/2020/05/17/sextrans-2019-054254.
    Résumé : Objectives To describe the epidemiological situation of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and to identify the main drivers for vulnerability in Madagascar. Design Literature review, qualitative research and situational analysis. Data sources Search of electronic bibliographic databases, national repositories of documentation from 1998 to 2018. Search keywords included Madagascar, HIV, sexually transmitted infections, men who have sex with men (MSM), sex workers (SWs), transactional sex (TS), injecting drug users (IDUs), vulnerability and sexual behaviour. Qualitative sources were interviews and focus group discussions. Review methods Studies focused on HIV and/or vulnerability of HIV in Madagascar in general, and key populations (KPs) and HIV/AIDS response were taken into account. National reports from key HIV response actors were included. Results Madagascar is characterised by a low HIV/AIDS epidemic profile in the general population (GP) (0.3%) combined with a high prevalence of HIV among KPs (SWs, MSM and IDUs).An increase in HIV prevalence among KP has been observed during recent years. Hospital-based data suggest an increase in HIV prevalence among the GP. The vulnerability traits are inconsistent use of condoms, multipartner relationships and other contextual factors like widespread TS and gender inequality. A high prevalence/incidence of sexually transmitted infections could indicate a high vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. However, there are no reports of HIV prevalence of >1% in antenatal consultation. Conclusion There is not enough evidence to make a conclusion about the HIV epidemiological situation in Madagascar due to the scarcity of the epidemiological data. However, Madagascar may be closer to a turning point towards a high-prevalence epidemic with severe consequences, particularly when taking into account its socioeconomical fragility and underlying vulnerabilities. More precise epidemiological data and improved HIV/AIDS diagnosis and case management should be a public health priority.
    Mots-clés : Africa, AIDS, HIV.

  • Rahm Laura (2020) Gender-biased sex selection in South Korea, India and Vietnam: assessing the influence of public policy, Cham : Springer, Cham, 340 p. ISBN : 978-3-030-20233-0.
    Résumé : "This book provides an...analysis of the influence of public policy on sex selection. Three Asian countries were chosen for the comparative policy analysis, namely South Korea, India and Vietnam that share in common a historical legacy of son preference, high levels of sex imbalances and active policy response to curbing the growing demographic masculinization of their nations. The research based on the data collected from field work in the three countries shows that despite the adoption of very similar anti-sex selection policies the outcomes have been markedly different for each of the three countries. These unexpected diverse outcomes are explained partly by their different historical and cultural contexts, and partly to the different social, political and economic institutions and dynamics. This monograph offers...explanations of both within and across country diversities in policy outcomes, pointing to the importance and the limits of cross-national policy learning and adoption, and raising questions about the efficacy of international organizations' current approaches to global policy and knowledge transfer."--


  • Rajan Dheepa, Koch Kira, Rohrer Katja, Bajnoczki Csongor, Socha Anna, Voss Maike, Nicod Marjolaine, Ridde Valery et Koonin Justin (2020) « Governance of the Covid-19 response: a call for more inclusive and transparent decision-making », BMJ Global Health, 5 (5) (mai), p. e002655. DOI : 10.1136/bmjgh-2020-002655. http://gh.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/bmjgh-2020-002655.
    Résumé : Not all countries make their Covid-19 task force membership list public—the available information varies by country. There is currently a predominance of politicians, virologists and epidemiologists in the Covid-19 response at the country level. Experts on non-Covid-19 health, social and societal consequences of Covid-19 response measures are, for the most part, not included in Covid-19 decision-making bodies. There is little transparency regarding whom decision-making bodies are consulting as their source of advice and information. From the available data on Covid-19 decision-making entities, female representation is particularly paltry. In addition, civil society is hardly involved in national government decision-making nor its response efforts, barring some exceptions. We need to be more inclusive and multidisciplinary: the Covid-19 crisis is not simply a health problem but a societal one—it impacts every single person in society one way or another. Decision makers need to address more systematically the suffering from mental illness exacerbations, domestic violence, child abuse, child development delays, chronic diseases and so on, during lockdown.


  • Ratovoson Rila, Kunkel Amber, Rakotovao Jean Pierre, Pourette Dolores, Mattern Chiarella, Andriamiadana Jocelyne, Harimanana Aina et Piola Patrice (2020) « Frequency, risk factors, and complications of induced abortion in ten districts of Madagascar: results from a cross-sectional household survey », BMC Women's Health, 20 (1) (mai 6). DOI : 10.1186/s12905-020-00962-2. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32375746/.
    Résumé : Madagascar has restrictive abortion laws with no explicit exception to preserve the woman’s life. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of abortion in the country and examine the methods, consequences, and risk factors of these abortions.


  • Ravaoarisoa Lantonirina, Razafimahatratra Mamy Jean Jacques, Rakotondratsara Mamy Andrianirina, Pourette Dolorès, Rakotonirina Julio et Rakotomanga Jean de Dieu Marie (2020) « Appréciation des interventions de lutte contre la malnutrition maternelle par la population à Madagascar », Sante Publique, Vol. 32 (1) (juin 29), p. 113-122. DOI : 10.3917/spub.201.0113. https://www.cairn.info/revue-sante-publique-2020-1-page-113.htm.
    Résumé : Madagascar has adopted strategies to fight against maternal malnutrition, but the evaluation of their implementation is not effective. Purpose of research: The present study aims to describe beneficiary appreciation of interventions to fight maternal malnutrition and to identify their expectations. Method: A qualitative study was conducted in the Amoron'i Mania region, Madagascar. The study included mothers of children under 5, pregnant women, and other family members and community members (fathers, grandmothers, matrons and community workers). Six focus groups and 16 individual interviews were conducted to collect the data. The thematic analysis was used. Results: Food supplementation, improved production of agriculture and livestock, and nutrition education, operated by NGOs, are the best-known interventions. The health centers were not mentioned as interveners and their interventions were ignored. The effectiveness of the intervention is generally judged on the benefits perceived by the beneficiaries. Interveners working on a project basis were assessed as unsustainable. Two main problems were mentioned: first, the insufficiency of agricultural production resulting in the inaccessibility of the ingredients required for the nutrition education, and second the low coverage of the interventions. The improvement of agricultural production is the main suggestion mentioned to fight against maternal undernutrition. Conclusions: Beneficiaries thought that existing interventions in the region are insufficient to address the problem of malnutrition among mothers.


  • Ravit Marion, Ravalihasy Andrainolo, Audibert Martine, Ridde Valéry, Bonnet Emmanuel, Raffalli Bertille, Roy Flore-Apolline, N’Landu Anais et Dumont Alexandre (2020) « The impact of the obstetrical risk insurance scheme in Mauritania on maternal healthcare utilization: a propensity score matching analysis », Health Policy and Planning, 35 (4) (janvier 31). DOI : 10.1093/heapol/czz150. https://academic.oup.com/heapol/advance-article/doi/10.1093/heapol/czz150/5718854.
    Résumé : In Mauritania, obstetrical risk insurance (ORI) has been progressively implemented at the health district level since 2002 and was available in 25% of public healthcare facilities in 2015. The ORI scheme is based on pre-payment scheme principles and focuses on increasing the quality of and access to both maternal and perinatal healthcare. Compared with many community-based health insurance schemes, the ORI scheme is original because it is not based on risk pooling. For a pre-payment of 16–18 USD, women are covered during their pregnancy for antenatal care, skilled delivery, emergency obstetrical care [including caesarean section (C-section) and transfer] and a postnatal visit. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of ORI enrolment on maternal and child health services using data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) conducted in 2015. A total of 4172 women who delivered within the last 2 years before the interview were analysed. The effect of ORI enrolment on the outcomes was estimated using a propensity score matching estimation method. Fifty-eight per cent of the studied women were aware of ORI, and among these women, more than two-thirds were enrolled. ORI had a beneficial effect among the enrolled women by increasing the probability of having at least one prenatal visit by 13%, the probability of having four or more visits by 11% and the probability of giving birth at a healthcare facility by 15%. However, we found no effect on postnatal care (PNC), C-section rates or neonatal mortality. This study provides evidence that a voluntary pre-payment scheme focusing on pregnant women improves healthcare services utilization during pregnancy and delivery. However, no effect was found on PNC or neonatal mortality. Some efforts should be exerted to improve communication and accessibility to ORI. Maternal health, neonatal mortality, pre-payment scheme, universal health coverage, Mauritania, Sub-Saharan Africa Topic: pregnancycesarean sectionhealth care facilityinsurancemauritaniamotherspostnatal careobstetricsprenatal careneonatal mortalityhealth care usemalnutrition-inflammation-cachexia syndrome
    Pièce jointe Texte intégral 450.4 ko (source)


  • Rey Matthieu et Ruiz de Elvira Laura (2020) « Luttes de sens, cadrages et grammaire lexicale en contexte révolutionnaire. Le cas de la Syrie (2011-2012) », Cultures & conflits, 117 (juillet 1), p. 11-33. DOI : 10.4000/conflits.21372. http://journals.openedition.org/conflits/21372.
    Résumé : Le combat entre le régime syrien et ses opposants s’est en partie joué sur un plan interprétatif et discursif. Loin d’être anodins, les termes et les expressions employés, ainsi que les cadrages des événements proposés par les différents acteurs de la crise révolutionnaire, sont porteurs de significations sociales et politiques situées. L’objectif de cet article est de les analyser en contextualisant les moments de leur émergence et en évoquant l’imaginaire collectif avec lesquels ils font résonance. Il montre tout d’abord la forte prégnance du local, malgré le travail d’alignement permanent qui cherche à les unifier et les universaliser ; ensuite, leur résonance avec des récits historiques qui facilitent leur diffusion et les inscrivent dans la longue durée ; enfin, leur articulation avec une réalité du terrain changeante. La production langagière des acteurs de la crise participe ainsi à la construction de cette dernière pour en devenir une partie constitutive fondamentale. Mots-clés : luttes de sens, cadrages, grammaire lexicale, crise révolutionnaire, Syrie, 2011-2012 Keywords : giving meaning, framing, lexical grammar, revolutionary crisis, Syria, 2011-2012


  • Ridde Valéry, Aho Joséphine, Ndao Elhadji Malick, Benoit Magalie, Hanley Jill, Lagrange Solène, Fillol Amandine, Raynault Marie-France et Cloos Patrick (2020) « Unmet healthcare needs among migrants without medical insurance in Montreal, Canada », Global Public Health (mai 27), p. 1-14. DOI : 10.1080/17441692.2020.1771396. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/17441692.2020.1771396.
    Résumé : While access to healthcare for permanent residents in Canada is well known, this is not the case for migrants without healthcare coverage. This is the first large-scale study that examines the unmet healthcare needs of migrants without healthcare coverage in Montreal. 806 participants were recruited: 436 in the community and 370 at the NGO clinic. Proportions of individuals reporting unmet healthcare needs were similar (68.4% vs. 69.8%).The main reason invoked for these unmet needs was lacking money (80.6%). Situations of not working or studying, not having had enough food in the past 12 months, not having a medical prescription to get medication and having had a workplace injury were all significantly associated with higher odds of having unmet healthcare needs. Unmet healthcare needs were more frequent among migrants without healthcare coverage than among recent immigrants or the citizens with health healthcare coverage (69%, 26%, 16%). Canada must take measures to enable these individuals to have access to healthcare according to their needs in order to reduce the risk of worsening their health status, something that may have an impact on the healthcare system and population health. The Government of Quebec announced that all individuals without any healthcare coverage will have access to COVID-19 related health care. We hope that this right, the application of which is not yet obvious, can continue after the pandemic for all health care.
    Note Note
    <p>doi: 10.1080/17441692.2020.1771396</p>
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