Publications des membres du Ceped

2021

Livre
  • Benavides Martin (2021) La reforma imposible. Enfrentando desafíos dsel sector educación 2018-2020, Pérou, 113 p.
    Résumé : Historique de l'expérience en tant qu"administrateur du secteur universitaire et en tant que Ministre de l'éducation au Pérou

  • Chosson Marie, Suremain Marie-Albane de et Viguier Anne (2021) (Ré) appropriations des savoirs: acteurs, territoires, processus, enjeux, Paris : Presses de l'Inalco. (TransAire(s). ISBN : 978-2-85831-386-0.


  • Cicchelli Vincenzo et Octobre Sylvie (2021) Une jeunesse crispée. Le vivre ensemble face aux crises globales, Paris : L'Harmattan, 228 p. (Logiques sociales). ISBN : 978-2-343-23880-7. https://www.editions-harmattan.fr/livre-une_jeunesse_crispee_le_vivre_ensemble_face_aux_crises_globales_vincenzo_cicchelli_sylvie_octobre-9782343238807-71332.html.
    Résumé : La longue suite de crises globales (économiques, migratoires, sociales, sécuritaires et politiques) que traverse la France depuis le début des années 2000 a profondément bouleversé le lien social et eu un impact sur la façon dont la jeunesse conçoit le vivre ensemble. Face au creusement des inégalités, à la perte de confi ance dans les institutions démocratiques, à la montée en puissance du communautarisme, à la crise du modèle républicain et au retour du nationalisme, cette génération est plus que jamais en quête d’un récit qui unirait les Français par-delà leurs divisions de genre, d’origines sociales et ethniques. Cet ouvrage alerte sur les crispations des jeunes et invite les adultes (décideurs, responsables politiques, éducateurs, parents) à leur proposer un récit du vivre ensemble renouvelé, avant que leurs inquiétudes ne s’expriment dans les urnes.

  • Eboko Fred (2021) Public policy lessons from the AIDS response in Africa, Abingdon, Oxon ; New York, NY : Routledge, 1 p. (Routledge studies in African development). ISBN : 978-1-00-300213-0.
    Résumé : "Public Policy Lessons from the AIDS Response in Africa examines how the interplay between national state dynamics in Africa and the global political arena has shaped the global AIDS response, and in this context develops a framework for analysing public policy action more broadly in contemporary Africa. By applying comparative political sociology to AIDS public action, this book identifies four political models that are applicable to public initiatives. Fred Eboko goes on to test these in other domains - namely, the malaria and tuberculosis health subsectors, and the education and environment sectors. By articulating global and national connections and contributing a critical perspective grounded in African scholarship and French political science, the author builds a bold and ambitious framework with the potential to enable coherent and effective public policy action in Africa. This book will be of interest to scholars and students of public health, global health, political science, and development studies, as well as policy-level practitioners in the areas of global health and development"--
    Mots-clés : Africa, AIDS (Disease), Government policy, International cooperation, Medical policy.
    Note Note
    Updated and revised version of the original French publication, Repenser l'action publique en Afrique: Du sida à la l'analyse de la globalisation des politiques publiques (Paris, Editions Karthala, 2015)
    Note Note
    Introduction: From Intimacy to Politics: AIDS in Africa as A Moving Object -- The International Policy Response to AIDS in Africa (1986-1996). Empirical Bases, Theoretical Tools -- AIDS and Governance in Africa. Instruments and Instrumentalisation of an International Policy -- International Comparison in Africa. Socio-political Determinants of Access to AIDS Drugs -- Socio-political Determinants of Access to AIDS Drugs in Africa. A Paradigm Shift -- From Policies to Politics. Policy before the Onslaught of Politics -- Towards a Matrix of Public Action in Africa. Norms, Interests and Cross-Sectoral Approach -- Conclusion. Towards a Return of the African State?


  • Mercier Paul et Copans Jean (2021) Dakar dans les années 1950, 336 p. (Le regard de l'ethnologue). ISBN : 978-2-7355-0924-9. http://cths.fr/ed/edition.php?id=7765#.


  • Ridde Valéry, ss la dir. de (2021) Une couverture sanitaire universelle en 2030 ? Réformes en Afrique subsaharienne, Québec, Canada : ESBC (Éditions science et bien commun), 950 p. ISBN : 978-2-925128-08-3. https://scienceetbiencommun.pressbooks.pub/cus/.
    Résumé : Cet ouvrage collectif, sous la direction de Valéry Ridde, rassemble les connaissances scientifiques les plus récentes sur les réformes du financement de la santé en Afrique subsaharienne, que ce soit à propos des politiques de gratuité, des financements basés sur les résultats ou des mutuelles de santé. Outre l’origine et le contenu de ces différentes politiques, les textes analysent les défis de leur mise en œuvre, mais aussi leurs effets et leur pérennité. Tout en s’inscrivant pleinement dans le débat actuel sur la couverture sanitaire universelle (CSU), l’un des principaux enjeux de cet ouvrage est aussi de nourrir les réflexions au niveau national, du Sénégal à la République démocratique du Congo, en passant par le Sahel ou le Bénin. Ainsi, une quarantaine d’autrices et d’auteurs partagent, dans une langue accessible, leurs analyses rigoureuses et pour la plupart inédites, pour mieux comprendre le chemin qu’il reste à parcourir afin que la CSU devienne une réalité pour l’Afrique subsaharienne, n’en déplaise aux tenants de la nouvelle gestion publique.


  • Ruiz de Elvira Laura et Saeidnia Sahar Aurore (2021) Les mondes de la bien-faisance. Les pratiques du bien au prisme des sciences sociales, Paris : CNRS Editions, 408 p. (CNRS Alpha). ISBN : 978-2-271-13205-5. https://www.cnrseditions.fr/catalogue/sciences-politiques-et-sociologie/les-mondes-de-la-bien-faisance/.
    Résumé : Charité, philanthropie, solidarité, aide humanitaire, care… les pratiques du « bien » sont au cœur du fonctionnement de nos sociétés. Interdisciplinaire et comparatiste, cet ouvrage propose de les analyser dans leur pluralité et leurs diverses histoires politiques, sociales et religieuses, de la Judée antique à la France contemporaine, en passant par la Tunisie et l’Iran du xixe siècle. Il explore les mondes de la bien-faisance au prisme des représentations qui leur sont associées, de leurs fondements moraux, des formes organisationnelles qu’ils adoptent, mais aussi – et surtout – à partir des investissements concurrentiels du social qu’ils produisent. Ce faisant, il met en lumière le caractère construit, voire conflictuel, du partage des tâches et expose en quoi et comment celui-ci contribue au maintien de l’ordre social et de ses hiérarchies, ou bien à sa recomposition et à sa critique.


  • Temporal Franck (2021) Migrations, emplois et inégalités à l'île de La Réunion (1946-1999) Quel apport pour la compréhension du développement ?, Paris : L'Harmattan, 298 p. ISBN : 978-2-343-21514-3. https://www.editions-harmattan.fr/index.asp?navig=catalogue&obj=livre&no=68224.
    Résumé : Depuis la départementalisation (1946), l’île de La Réunion a connu de profondes mutations et des transitions multiples (politique, épidémiologique, démographique, familiale, économique et sociale) dont la caractéristique commune est leur simultanéité et leur rapidité. Au passage au 21ème siècle, le développement de La Réunion peut être considéré comme réussi du point de vue des indicateurs « macro » (hausse des niveaux de vie, du niveau de formation, allongement de l’espérance de vie, croissance économique forte) mais il convient de relativiser le caractère positif de ces évolutions au niveau individuel en raison du maintien d’inégalités sociales marquées et du niveau élevé du chômage. L’approche individuelle du développement permet de constater que les jeunes, les femmes et les moins diplômés sont les plus exposés au non-emploi et à la pauvreté. Les dispositifs existants et notamment les transferts sociaux ne viennent atténuer que partiellement ces inégalités entre individus et ne parviennent pas à résoudre le problème du chômage compte tenu de la croissance soutenue de la population active. Dans ce contexte, ce livre s’interroge sur la place et le rôle de la migration dans le processus de développement d’une société insulaire comme La Réunion sur la période 1946-1999. La migration a presque toujours été l’outil d’ajustement de la main d’œuvre privilégié par les pouvoirs publics avec pour objectif principal de réguler la croissance démographique et de résoudre les problèmes économiques et sociaux de la population de l’île.
Article de revue
  • Akouwerabou Lirassê, Alexandre Laurice et D'andria Aude (2021) « Caractéristiques de l’entrepreneuriat genré dans un pays en développement, le cas du Burkina Faso », Revue Recherches en Sciences de Gestion-Management, 142 (mai), p. 41-69.
    Résumé : Cet article tente d’analyser les caractéristiques de l’entrepreneuriat genré au Burkina Faso. Note étude quantitative menée auprès 272 entrepreneurs (hommes et femmes), dévoile que les entrepreneures burkinabè représentent 22% du total des entrepreneurs. Elles sont plus éduquées que leurs homologues masculins. Elles entreprennent majoritairement dans un domaine proche de leur formation. Plutôt jeunes (38 ans) et majoritairement mariées, elles sont en position Pull. Elles souffrent peu du manque d’accompagnement et du manque de financement car elles reçoivent le soutien de leur entourage. Elles dirigent des entreprises de 10 salariés et plus. Enfin, leurs entreprises dégagent une rentabilité quasi identique à celle créées par des hommes, voire légèrement supérieure.
  • Albritton T, Coulibaly Karna, Zoumenou Iris, Paige M, Carillon Severine, Matthews D, Anne, Austin P. S., Miles L et Frye V (2021) « Examining systemic racism in "empowerment-based" HIV prevention research : reflections of a US-France research partnership », Journal of the International AIDS Society, 24 (S1).


  • Alom Bartrolí Montserrat et Arvanitis Rigas (2021) « Le financement de la recherche dans les pays non-hégémoniques : coopération internationale et compétence nationale », L’éducation en débats : analyse comparée, 10 (2) (février 11), p. 304-320. DOI : 10.51186/journals/ed.2020.10-2.e353. https://oap.unige.ch/journals/ed/article/view/353.
    Résumé : La recherche scientifique est aujourd’hui une activité mondialisée qui s’effectue en réseau, autour d’objets ou de questions largement financés par des organismes internationaux, nationaux, aussi bien publics que privés. Si les partenariats des coopérations scientifiques se sont démultipliés, le mode projet, lui, s’est imposé comme mode de financement de la recherche par excellence. Cette nouvelle configuration par rapport à celle de la science du XXème siècle pose des questions sur les modalités de mise en œuvre de la coopération scientifique internationale, qui, de par sa complexité, ne peut pas se résumer à une question d’accès à des ressources financières ni de connexion à des réseaux scientifiques internationaux. Ainsi, en nous appuyant sur une enquête de terrain, la théorie de l’Acteur-réseau nous permet de montrer que la participation à des projets de recherche pour le développement collaboratifs, soutenus par des financements internationaux, passe nécessairement par la construction et/ou la consolidation d’une compétence nationale. Nous discutons, en même temps, dans quelle mesure les agences qui soutiennent la recherche pour le développement contribuent à renforcer les investissements réalisés par les pays non-hégémoniques sur le plan local tout en consolidant leur positionnement à l’international.
    Mots-clés : COOPERATION INTERNATIONALE, DEVELOPPEMENT, FINANCEMENT DE LA RECHERCHE, RECHERCHE SCIENTIFIQUE.


  • Andrianantoandro Voahirana Tantely, Pourette Dolorès, Rakotomalala Olivier, Ramaroson Henintsoa Joyce Valentina, Ratovoson Rila et Rakotoarimanana Feno M. Jacob (2021) « Factors influencing maternal healthcare seeking in a highland region of Madagascar: a mixed methods analysis », BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 21 (1) (décembre), p. 428-440. DOI : 10.1186/s12884-021-03930-2. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12884-021-03930-2.
    Résumé : In Madagascar, maternal mortality remains stable and high (426 deaths per 100,000 live births). This situation is mainly due to a delay or lack of use of maternal healthcare services. Problems related to maternal healthcare services are well documented in Madagascar, but little information related to maternal healthcare seeking is known. Thus, this paper aims to identify and analyze the factors that influence the utilization of maternal services, specifically, the use of antenatal care (ANC) during pregnancy and the use of skilled birth attendants (SBAs) at delivery.
    Mots-clés : Determinants, Highlands of Madagascar, Maternal healthcare seeking, Mixed methods.


  • Arvanitis, Rigas (2021) « La perte de l’unité. Note introductive de l’article de Bernstein et Hooper », Revue d'Anthropologie des Connaissances, 15 (1). DOI : 10.4000/rac.19848. https://doi.org/10.4000/rac.19848.
    Résumé : Introduire un texte polémique, une parodie d’une exceptionnelle vigueur, est difficile. Il permet de resituer un auteur peu connu en Europe, théoricien de l’hypertexte et designer d’applications pour écrire et publier des hypertextes


  • Atlani-Duault Laetitia, Lina Bruno, Chauvin Franck, Delfraissy Jean-François et Malvy Denis (2021) « Immune evasion means we need a new COVID-19 social contract », The Lancet Public Health (février 18), p. S2468266721000360. DOI : 10.1016/S2468-2667(21)00036-0. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2468266721000360.
    Résumé : The collective benefits of herd immunity have become similar to a mantra in mass vaccination strategies, repeated by governments and researchers. However, the prominence of herd immunity being touted as a solution to the pandemic might be about to change with the emergence of immune evasion, a virological game changer that is as important as the arrival of SARS-CoV-2 variants. Dealing with immune evasion will require a re-evaluation of public health strategies, and the creation of a new, evidence-based social contract.


  • Ba Mouhamadou Faly, Kane Ndèye Mbacké, Diallo Mamadou Kindi Korka, Bassoum Oumar, Boh Oumy Kaltome, Mboup Fatoumata Zahra Mohamed, Faye El Hadji Bilal, Bedekelabou Andre Pouwedeou, Dieng Sara Danièle, Diop Fatimata Niang, Badiane Médoune, Ridde Valéry et Faye Adama (2021) « Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices on Rabies among Human and Animal Health Professionals in Senegal », Pathogens, 10 (10). DOI : 10.3390/pathogens10101282. https://www.mdpi.com/2076-0817/10/10/1282.
    Résumé : Rabies is still a public health problem in Senegal. This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices on rabies among human and animal health professionals. It was a cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study conducted in the Kaffrine district. Data were collected from 28 June to 01 July 2021. An exhaustive recruitment was done, and the final sample size was 95 health professionals. R software was used for descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analyses. Health professionals with sufficient knowledge, positive attitudes and good practices in relation to rabies represented 35.8%, 26.3% and 45.3% of the study respectively. The results of the multivariate analysis showed that professionals who worked in urban areas (AOR = 11.10; 95% CI = [3.50–41.69]) and who worked in animal health (AOR = 7.45; 95% CI = [1.16–70.40]) were more likely to have sufficient knowledge about rabies. Professionals with tertiary education (AOR = 12.40; CI95% = [1.80–268.00]) and with sufficient knowledge (AOR = 3.41; CI95% = [1.01–12.70]) were more likely to have a positive attitude about rabies. Professionals with a positive attitude about rabies (AOR = 3.23; 95% CI = [1.08–10.70]) were more likely to have a good practice when presented with an animal bite case. These results suggest that improving health professionals’ knowledge about rabies is essential in order to influence their attitudes and practices against rabies.


  • Bernard-Maugiron Nathalie (2021) « La loi sur le khul‘ en Égypte: Contraintes argumentatives et réformes du droit de la famille », Cahiers d'études africaines, LXI (242) (juin 15), p. 395-416. DOI : 10.4000/etudesafricaines.34339. http://journals.openedition.org/etudesafricaines/34339.
    Résumé : Cette contribution propose, à travers l’étude de l’adoption de la loi sur le khul‘ en Égypte (2000) et son application par les tribunaux, d’étudier les processus de légitimation auxquels les autorités égyptiennes ont recouru pour justifier l’introduction de cette réforme dans le système juridique égyptien. Cette contribution montre également comment les ONG féministes elles-mêmes ont fini par accepter de se placer sur le terrain du religieux pour ancrer leur combat en faveur de l’adoption de nouvelles réformes du droit de la famille. Elle révèle, enfin, comment les juges du fond, amenés à se prononcer sur des demandes de divorce pour khul‘, se réfèrent eux aussi très souvent à la loi islamique, mais sans remettre en question l’interprétation pourtant audacieuse adoptée par le législateur.


  • Bernard-Maugiron Nathalie (2021) « L’autonomisation économique des femmes dans la région Moyen-Orient et Afrique du Nord: L’impact des cadres juridiques algérien, égyptien, jordanien, libyen, marocain et tunisien », Cahiers d'études africaines, LXI (242) (juin 15), p. 447-452. DOI : 10.4000/etudesafricaines.34479. http://journals.openedition.org/etudesafricaines/34479.
    Résumé : Malgré les progrès accomplis ces dernières années dans la protection juridique des droits des femmes, l’écart entre les sexes dans la participation à la vie économique persiste dans la région Moyen-Orient et Afrique du Nord. Un rapport de l’OCDE s’interroge sur l’incidence négative des cadres juridiques et de facteurs sociétaux et culturels sur l’autonomie des femmes et leur capacité à s’impliquer dans des activités économiques.


  • Bernard-Maugiron Nathalie et N’Diaye Marième (2021) « Les femmes au cœur des processus de réformes juridiques dans les Afriques musulmanes », Cahiers d'études africaines, LXI (242) (juin 15), p. 265-285. DOI : 10.4000/etudesafricaines.34129. http://journals.openedition.org/etudesafricaines/34129.


  • Biau Sandrine, Bonnet Emmanuel, Dagenais Christian, De Allegri Manuela, Traoré Zoumana, Ouédraogo Abdoul, Sow Abdramane, Dubois-Nguyen Karina et Ridde Valéry (2021) « Technologies’ contribution to the engagement of citizens in strengthening health system governance in Burkina Faso: an action research protocol (Preprint) », JMIR Research Protocols (mars 15). DOI : 10.2196/28780. http://preprints.jmir.org/preprint/28780/accepted.


  • Bonnet Emmanuel, Bodson O., Le Marcis F., Faye A., Sambieni N. E., Fournet F., Boyer F., Coulibaly A., Kadio K., Diongue F. B. et Ridde Valery (2021) « The COVID-19 pandemic in francophone West Africa: from the first cases to responses in seven countries », BMC Public Health, 21 (1) (décembre), p. 1490. DOI : 10.1186/s12889-021-11529-7. https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-021-11529-7.
    Résumé : Abstract Background In early March 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic hit West Africa. In response, countries in the region quickly set up crisis management committees and implemented drastic measures to stem the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The objective of this article is to analyse the epidemiological evolution of COVID-19 in seven Francophone West African countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Senegal) as well as the public health measures decided upon during the first 7 months of the pandemic. Methods Our method is based on quantitative and qualitative data from the pooling of information from a COVID-19 data platform and collected by a network of interdisciplinary collaborators present in the seven countries. Descriptive and spatial analyses of quantitative epidemiological data, as well as content analyses of qualitative data on public measures and management committees were performed. Results Attack rates (October 2020) for COVID-19 have ranged from 20 per 100,000 inhabitants (Benin) to more than 94 per 100,000 inhabitants (Senegal). All these countries reacted quickly to the crisis, in some cases before the first reported infection, and implemented public measures in a relatively homogeneous manner. None of the countries implemented country-wide lockdowns, but some implemented partial or local containment measures. At the end of June 2020, countries began to lift certain restrictive measures, sometimes under pressure from the general population or from certain economic sectors. Conclusion Much research on COVID-19 remains to be conducted in West Africa to better understand the dynamics of the pandemic, and to further examine the state responses to ensure their appropriateness and adaptation to the national contexts.

  • Bousmah Marwân-al-Qays, Nishimwe Marie Libérée, Kuaban Christopher et Boyer Sylvie (2021) « Free access to antiretroviral treatment and protection against the risk of catastrophic health expenditure in people living with HIV: evidence from Cameroon », BMC Health Services Research, 21 (1) (avril 7), p. 313. DOI : 10.1186/s12913-021-06331-5.
    Résumé : To foster access to care and reduce the burden of health expenditures on people living with HIV (PLHIV), several sub-Saharan African countries, including Cameroon, have adopted a policy of removing HIV-related fees, especially for antiretroviral treatment (ART). We investigate the impact of Cameroon’s free antiretroviral treatment (ART) policy, enacted in May 2007, on catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) risk according to socioeconomic status, in PLHIV enrolled in the country’s treatment access program.
    Mots-clés : Cameroon, Catastrophic health expenditure, Costs, Free antiretroviral treatment, HIV, Policy evaluation, Poverty, Treatment.


  • Boye Sokhna, Bouaré Seydou, Ky-Zerbo Odette, Rouveau Nicolas, Simo Fotso Arlette, d'Elbée Marc, Silhol Romain, Maheu-Giroux Mathieu, Vautier Anthony, Breton Guillaume, Keita Abdelaye, Bekelynck Anne, Desclaux Alice, Larmarange Joseph et Pourette Dolorès (2021) « Challenges of HIV Self-Test Distribution for Index Testing When HIV Status Disclosure Is Low: Preliminary Results of a Qualitative Study in Bamako (Mali) as Part of the ATLAS Project », Frontiers in Public Health, 9 (mai 19). DOI : 10.3389/fpubh.2021.653543. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpubh.2021.653543/full?&utm_source=Email_to_authors_&utm_medium=Email&utm_content=T1_11.5e1_author&utm_campaign=Email_publication&field=&journalName=Frontiers_in_Public_Health&id=653543.
    Résumé : The rate of HIV status disclosure to partners is low in Mali, a West African country with a national HIV prevalence of 1.2%. HIV self-testing (HIVST) could increase testing coverage among partners of people living with HIV (PLHIV). This study aims to improve our understanding of the practices, limitations and issues related to the distribution of HIV self-tests at an HIV care clinic in Bamako, Mali. An ethnographic survey was conducted in 2019. It consisted of (i) individual interviews with 8 health professionals involved in the distribution of HIV self-tests; (ii) 591 observations of medical consultations, including social service consultations, with PLHIV; (iii) 7 observations of peer educator-led PLHIV group discussions. HIVST was discussed in only 9% of the observed consultations (51/591). When HIVST was discussed, the discussion was almost always initiated by the health professional rather than PLHIV. HIVST was discussed infrequently because in most of the consultations, it was not appropriate to propose partner HIVST (e.g., when PLHIV were widowed, did not have partners, or had delegated someone to renew their prescriptions). Some PLHIV had not disclosed their HIV status to their partners. Dispensing HIV self-tests was time-consuming, and medical consultations were very short. Three main barriers to HIV self-test distribution when HIV status had not been disclosed to partners were identified: (1) almost all health professionals avoided offering HIVST to PLHIV when they thought or knew that the PLHIV had not disclosed their HIV status to partners; (2) PLHIV were reluctant to offer HIVST to their partners if they had not disclosed their HIV-positive status to them; (3) there was limited use of strategies to support the disclosure of HIV status. In conclusion, it is essential to strengthen strategies to support the disclosure of HIV+ status. It is necessary to develop a specific approach for the provision of HIV self-tests for the partners of PLHIV by rethinking the involvement of stakeholders. This approach should provide them with training tailored to the issues related to the (non)disclosure of HIV status and gender inequalities, and improving counseling for PLHIV.
    Mots-clés : HIV self-testing, HIV status disclosure, Index testing, Knowledge of HIV status, Mali, Partners of PLHIV, People living with HIV, Screening -.


  • Cambon Linda, Bergeron Henri, Castel Patrick, Ridde Valéry et Alla François (2021) « Quand la réponse mondiale à la pandémie de COVID-19 se fait sans la promotion de la santé », Global Health Promotion (mai 25), p. 175797592110151. DOI : 10.1177/17579759211015131. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/17579759211015131.


  • Cambon Linda, Bergeron Henri, Castel Patrick, Ridde Valéry et Alla François (2021) « When the worldwide response to the COVID-19 pandemic is done without health promotion », Global Health Promotion, 28 (2) (juin), p. 3-6. DOI : 10.1177/17579759211015129. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/17579759211015129.


  • Cambon Linda, Bergeron Henri, Castel Patrick, Ridde Valéry et Alla François (2021) « Cuando la respuesta mundial a la pandemia de la COVID-19 no tiene en cuenta la promoción de la salud », Global Health Promotion, 28 (2), p. 111-114. DOI : 10.1177/17579759211015130. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/17579759211015130.


  • Chao Fengqing, Gerland Patrick, Cook Alex Richard, Guilmoto Christophe Z et Alkema Leontine (2021) « Projecting sex imbalances at birth at global, regional and national levels from 2021 to 2100: scenario-based Bayesian probabilistic projections of the sex ratio at birth and missing female births based on 3.26 billion birth records », BMJ Global Health, 6 (8) (août), p. e005516. DOI : 10.1136/bmjgh-2021-005516. https://gh.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/bmjgh-2021-005516.
    Résumé : Introduction Skewed levels of the sex ratio at birth (SRB) due to sex-selective abortions have been observed in several countries since the 1970s. They will lead to long-term sex imbalances in more than one-third of the world’s population with yet unknown social and economic impacts on affected countries. Understanding the potential evolution of sex imbalances at birth is therefore essential for anticipating and planning for changing sex structures across the world. Methods We produced probabilistic SRB projections from 2021 to 2100 based on different scenarios of sex ratio transition and assessed their implications in terms of missing female births at global, regional and national levels. Based on a comprehensive SRB database with 3.26 billion birth records, we project the skewed SRB and missing female births with a Bayesian hierarchical time series mixture model. The SRB projections under reference scenario S1 assumed SRB transitions only for countries with strong statistical evidence of SRB inflation, and the more extreme scenario S2 assumed a sex ratio transition for countries at risk of SRB inflation but with no or limited evidence of ongoing inflation. Results Under scenario S1, we projected 5.7 (95% uncertainty interval (1.2; 15.3)) million additional missing female births to occur by 2100. Countries affected will be those already affected in the past by imbalanced SRB, such as China and India. If all countries at risk of SRB inflation experience a sex ratio transition as in scenario S2, the projected missing female births increase to 22.1 (12.2; 39.8) million with a sizeable contribution of sub-Saharan Africa. Conclusion The scenario-based projections provide important illustrations of the potential burden of future prenatal sex discrimination and the need to monitor SRBs in countries with son preference. Policy planning will be needed in the years to come to minimise future prenatal sex discrimination and its impact on social structures.
    Pièce jointe Texte intégral 844.9 ko (source)


  • Chao Fengqing, Guilmoto Christophe Z. et Ombao Hernando (2021) « Sex ratio at birth in Vietnam among six subnational regions during 1980–2050, estimation and probabilistic projection using a Bayesian hierarchical time series model with 2.9 million birth records », éd. par Srinivas Goli, PLOS ONE, 16 (7) (juillet 14), p. e0253721. DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0253721. https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0253721.
    Résumé : The sex ratio at birth (SRB, i.e., the ratio of male to female births) in Vietnam has been imbalanced since the 2000s. Previous studies have revealed a rapid increase in the SRB over the past 15 years and the presence of important variations across regions. More recent studies suggested that the nation’s SRB may have plateaued during the 2010s. Given the lack of exhaustive birth registration data in Vietnam, it is necessary to estimate and project levels and trends in the regional SRBs in Vietnam based on a reproducible statistical approach. We compiled an extensive database on regional Vietnam SRBs based on all publicly available surveys and censuses and used a Bayesian hierarchical time series mixture model to estimate and project SRB in Vietnam by region from 1980 to 2050. The Bayesian model incorporates the uncertainties from the observations and year-by-year natural fluctuation. It includes a binary parameter to detect the existence of sex ratio transitions among Vietnamese regions. Furthermore, we model the SRB imbalance using a trapezoid function to capture the increase, stagnation, and decrease of the sex ratio transition by Vietnamese regions. The model results show that four out of six Vietnamese regions, namely, Northern Midlands and Mountain Areas, Northern Central and Central Coastal Areas, Red River Delta, and South East, have existing sex imbalances at birth. The rise in SRB in the Red River Delta was the fastest, as it took only 12 years and was more pronounced, with the SRB reaching the local maximum of 1.146 with a 95% credible interval (1.129, 1.163) in 2013. The model projections suggest that the current decade will record a sustained decline in sex imbalances at birth, and the SRB should be back to the national SRB baseline level of 1.06 in all regions by the mid-2030s.


  • Cicchelli Vincenzo et Octobre Sylvie (2021) « La globalisation de la culture à l’aune de la circulation des produits culturels », Reseaux, 226-227 (2-3) (avril 26), p. 9-15. DOI : 10.3917/res.226.0009. https://www.cairn.info/revue-reseaux-2021-2-page-9.htm.


  • Coulibaly Pierre, Schantz Clémence, Traoré Brehima, Bagayoko Nanko S., Traoré Abdoulaye, Chabrol Fanny et Guindo Oumar (2021) « In the era of humanitarian crisis, young women continue to die in childbirth in Mali », Conflict and Health, 15 (1). DOI : 10.1186/s13031-020-00334-5. https://link.springer.com/epdf/10.1186/s13031-020-00334-5.
    Résumé : Maternal mortality occurs mostly in contexts of poverty and health system collapse. Mali has a very high maternal mortality rate and this extremely high mortality rate is due in part to longstanding constraints in maternal health services. The central region has been particularly affected by the humanitarian crisis in recent years, and maternal health has been aggravated by the conflict. Sominé Dolo Hospital is located in Mopti, central region. In the last decade, a high number of pregnant or delivering women have died in this hospital. We conducted a retrospective and exhaustive study of maternal deaths occurring in Mopti hospital. Between 2007 and 2019, 420 women died, with an average of 32 deaths per year. The years 2014–2015 and the last 2 years have been particularly deadly, with 40 and 50 deaths in 2018 and 2019, respectively. The main causes were hypertensive disorders/eclampsia and haemorrhage. 80% of these women’s deaths were preventable. Two major explanations result in these maternal deaths in Sominé Dolo’s hospital: first, a lack of accessible and safe blood, and second, the absence of a reference and evacuation referral system, all of which are aggravated by security issues in and around Mopti. Access to quality hospital care is in dire need in the Mopti region. There is an urgent need for a safe blood collection system and free of charge for pregnant women. We also strongly recommend that the referral/evacuation system be reinvigorated, and that universal health coverage be strengthened.


  • Cu Anthony, Meister Sofia, Lefebvre Bertrand et Ridde Valéry (2021) « Assessing healthcare access using the Levesque’s conceptual framework– a scoping review », International Journal for Equity in Health, 20 (1) (décembre), p. 116. DOI : 10.1186/s12939-021-01416-3. https://equityhealthj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12939-021-01416-3.
    Résumé : Abstract Introduction Countries are working hard to improve access to healthcare through Universal Healthcare Coverage. To genuinely address the problems of healthcare access, we need to recognize all the dimensions and complexities of healthcare access. Levesque’s Conceptual Framework of Access to Health introduced in 2013 provides an interesting and comprehensive perspective through the five dimensions of access and the five abilities of the population to access healthcare. The objectives of this paper are to identify and analyze all empirical studies that applied Levesque’s conceptual framework for access to healthcare and to explore the experiences and challenges of researchers who used this framework in developing tools for assessing access. Methods A scoping review was conducted by searching through four databases, for studies citing Levesque et al. 2013 to select all empirical studies focusing on healthcare access that applied the framework. An initial 1838 documents underwent title screening, followed by abstract screening, and finally full text screening by two independent reviewers. Authors of studies identified from the scoping review were also interviewed. Results There were 31 studies identified on healthcare access using the Levesque framework either a priori , to develop assessment tool/s (11 studies), or a posteriori , to organize and analyze collected data (20 studies) . From the tools used, 147 unique questions on healthcare access were collected, 91 of these explored dimensions of access while 56 were about abilities to access. Those that were designed from the patient’s perspective were 73%, while 20% were for health providers, and 7% were addressed to both. Interviews from seven out of the 26 authors, showed that while there were some challenges such as instances of categorization difficulty and unequal representation of dimensions and abilities, the overall experience was positive. Conclusion Levesque’s framework has been successfully used in research that explored, assessed, and measured access in various healthcare services and settings. The framework allowed researchers to comprehensively assess the complex and dynamic process of access both in the health systems and the population contexts. There is still potential room for improvement of the framework, particularly the incorporation of time-related elements of access.


  • d'Elbée Marc, Traore Métogara Mohamed, Badiane Kéba, Vautier Anthony, Simo Fotso Arlette, Kabemba Odé Kanku, Rouveau Nicolas, Godfrey-Faussett Peter, Maheu-Giroux Mathieu, Boily Marie-Claude, Medley Graham Francis, Larmarange Joseph, Terris-Prestholt Fern et ATLAS Team (2021) « Costs and Scale-Up Costs of Integrating HIV Self-Testing Into Civil Society Organisation-Led Programmes for Key Populations in Côte d'Ivoire, Senegal, and Mali », Frontiers in Public Health, 9 (mai 24). DOI : 10.3389/fpubh.2021.653612. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpubh.2021.653612/full.
    Résumé : Despite significant progress on the proportion of individuals who know their HIV status in 2020, Côte d’Ivoire (76%), Senegal (78%), and Mali (48%) remain far below, and key populations (KP) including female sex workers (FSW), men who have sex with men (MSM), and people who use injectable drugs (PWuID) are the most vulnerable groups with a HIV prevalence at 5%-30%. HIV self-testing (HIVST), a process where a person collects his/her own specimen, performs an HIV test, and interprets the result, was introduced in 2019 as a new testing modality through the ATLAS project coordinated by the international partner organisation Solthis (IPO). In this paper, we estimate the costs of implementing HIVST through twenty-three civil society organisations (CSO)-led models for KP in Côte d’Ivoire (N=7), Senegal (N=11), and Mali (N=5). We modelled costs for programme transition (2021) and early scale-up (2022-2023). Between July 2019 and September 2020, a total of 51,028, 14,472 and 34,353 HIVST kits were distributed in Côte d’Ivoire, Senegal, and Mali, respectively. Across countries, 64%-80% of HIVST kits were distributed to FSW, 20%-31% to MSM, and 5%-8% to PWuID. Average costs per HIVST kit distributed ranged $12-$15 (FSW), $14-$27 (MSM), and $15-$143 (PWuID), driven by personnel costs at various intervention levels (53%-78% of total costs), and HIVST kits costs (2%-15%). Estimated average costs at scale-up ranged $6-$13 (FSW), $6-$23 (MSM), and $14-$50 (PWuID), and were mainly explained by the spreading of IPO costs over higher HIVST distribution volumes. In all three countries, CSO-led HIVST kit provision to KP showed relatively high costs during the study period related to the progressive integration of the programme to CSO activities and contextual challenges (COVID-19 pandemic, country safety concerns). The analysis of costs at scale suggests that, in the transition to scale-up and further integration of the HIVST programme into CSO existing activities, this model can evolve into an affordable HIV testing strategy. This is particularly relevant as it remains today the most promising strategy for reaching KP of the HIV epidemic, their sexual partners, and FSW clients not accessing HIV testing. Further research will assess the overall cost-effectiveness of this model.
    Mots-clés : Costs and Cost Analysis, Côte d'Ivoire, diagnosis, Female sex workers, HIV self-testing, Key populations, Knowledge of HIV status, Mali, Men who have sex with men, People who use injectable drugs, Scale-up, screening, Senegal, West Africa.


  • Dagenais Christian, Proulx Michelle, Mc Sween-Cadieux Esther, Nikiema Aude, Bonnet Emmanuel, Ridde Valéry et Somé Paul-André (2021) « Collaborative research and knowledge translation on road crashes in Burkina Faso: the police perspective 18 months on », Health Research Policy and Systems, 19 (1) (décembre), p. 3. DOI : 10.1186/s12961-020-00654-1. https://health-policy-systems.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12961-020-00654-1.
    Résumé : In this commentary, we present a follow-up of two articles published in 2017 and 2018 about road traffic crashes, which is an important public health issue in Africa and Burkina Faso. The first article reported on a research project, conducted in partnership with local actors involved in road safety, carried out in Ouagadougou in 2015. Its aim was to test the effectiveness, acceptability, and capacity of a surveillance system to assess the number of road traffic crashes and their consequences on the health of crash victims. Several knowledge translation activities were carried out to maximize its impact and were reported in the 2018 article published in HRPS: monthly reports presenting the research data, large-format printed maps distributed to the city’s police stations, and a deliberative workshop held at the end of the research project. The present commentary presents our efforts to deepen our understanding of the impacts of the knowledge translation strategy, based on follow-up interviews, 18 months after the workshop, with the heads of the road traffic crash units in Ouagadougou police stations ( n  = 5). Several benefits were reported by respondents. Their involvement in the process prompted them to broaden their knowledge of other ways of dealing with the issue of road crashes. This led them, sometimes with their colleagues, to intervene differently: more rapid response at collision sites, increased surveillance of dangerous intersections, user awareness-raising on the importance of the highway code, etc. However, sustaining these actions over the longer term has proven difficult. Several lessons were derived from this experience, regarding the importance of producing useful and locally applicable research data, of ensuring the acceptability of the technologies used for data collection, of using collaborative approaches in research and knowledge translation, of ensuring the visibility of actions undertaken by actors in the field, and of involving decision-makers in the research process to maximize its impacts.

  • Diagne Ibra, Petit Véronique et Boiro Djibril (2021) « Accidental Trihexyphenidyl Intoxication in a Seven-Year Old Child: A Case Report from Senegal », Journal of Psychiatry & Mental Disorders, 6 (3), p. 1045. https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03320988.
    Résumé : Trihexyphenidyl or Artane® /Parkinane® is an anti-cholinergic drug belonging to the antimuscarinic class. It is used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and widely in psychiatry for the management of extrapyramidal side effects of neuroleptics. Its overdose leads to a central and peripheral anti-cholinergic syndrome. We report here the case of a seven-year-old Senegalese boy who developed signs of intoxication due to accidental ingestion of a high dose of trihexyphenidyl and recovered completely after administration of parenteral antipyretic, gastric lavage and supportive care in a paediatric setting.
    Mots-clés : ⛔ No DOI found.


  • Diagne Ibra, Petit Véronique, Seck Khadim, Ba El Hadj Makhtar, Ndiaye Ndongo Ndeye Diale, Sylla Aida et Thiam Mamadou Habib (2021) « Caractéristiques de la population carcérale suivie en ambulatoire au service de psychiatrie du Centre Hospitalier National Universitaire de Fann, Sénégal », Pan African Medical Journal, 39 (221) (juillet 29). DOI : 10.11604/pamj.2021.39.221.23700. https://www.panafrican-med-journal.com/content/article/39/221/full.
    Résumé : Introduction: les troubles psychiatriques affectent une grande proportion de la population carcérale. En effet, depuis plusieurs années, les conditions de détention dans les prisons sénégalaises sont décriées en évoquant notamment la surpopulation. Ces conditions jouent probablement un rôle déterminant dans la survenue des troubles psychiques dans cette population. Ce travail décrit les caractéristiques sociodémographiques et cliniques chez ces détenus suivis en ambulatoire au service de psychiatrie du Centre Hospitalier National Universitaire Universitaire (CHNU) de Fann. Méthodes: l´étude était de type rétrospectif et descriptif. Les auteurs avaient colligé tous les détenus ayant consulté à l´Unité de la Consultation Externe du service de Psychiatrie du CHNU de Fann entre le 1er janvier 2005 et le 31 décembre 2010, soit sur une période de six ans. Résultats: notre population d´étude était constituée de 62 détenus répartis en 92% d´hommes et 8% de femmes. L´âge moyen était de 32 ans, près de trois quarts des individus (72,6%) étaient célibataires. Leur situation professionnelle était précaire dans la majorité des cas et 69,3% d´entre eux n´avaient pas atteint le niveau d´étude secondaire. L´insomnie était le motif de consultation le plus important (29%) suivis des cas d´hallucinations acousticoverbales (22,6%). L´agressivité physique et/ou les menaces envers les codétenus étaient observées dans 17,7% des cas. Les principales catégories diagnostiques constatées étaient les troubles schizophréniques (32,3%) et les troubles dépressifs (27,4%). Entre 2005 et 2010, le nombre de consultations des détenus a été multiplié par trois/an passants de 7 à 19. Conclusion: il ressort de cette étude, que la population carcérale, suivie en ambulatoire en psychiatrie, est caractérisée par un âge jeune, majoritairement masculin et célibataire, de bas niveau d´instruction, de statut professionnel désavantagé. Un profil semblable a été dégagé dans la littérature internationale sur le même sujet. En l´état actuel du développement socio-économique et sanitaire du Sénégal, nous remarquons, que bien que le nombre de consultations des détenus augmente au fil des années, que seuls les individus avec des troubles mentaux sévères parviennent dans les services sanitaires spécialisés. Compte tenu de l´effectif de la population carcérale, des parcours biographiques des détenus, des conditions de détention et de l´absence de certaines pathologies, une enquête conduite dans les prisons s´avère nécessaire afin d´évaluer les besoins de soins de santé mentale des populations carcérales et les problématiques spécifiques qui pourraient les affecter.
    Mots-clés : ⚠️ Invalid DOI.


  • Diallo Alhassane, Carlos-Bolumbu Miguel, Cervantes-Gonzalez Minerva, Wozniak Veronika, Diallo Mamadou Hassimiou, Diallo Boubacar Djelo, Delamou Alexandre et Galtier Florence (2021) « Immunogenicity and safety of Ebola virus vaccines in healthy adults: a systematic review and network meta-analysis », Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics (juillet 16), p. 1-13. DOI : 10.1080/21645515.2021.1932214. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/21645515.2021.1932214.

  • El Abid Ghislaine (2021) « Promotion de la culture artistique marocaine par des travailleurs immigrés en France. Le parcours de Monsieur Mustapha Idbihi, ancien travailleur de l’usine Renault Billancourt », Hommes & Migrations, 1332 (janvier). (Dossier : Diaspora africaine et créativité). https://www.histoire-immigration.fr/hommes-migrations/article/promotion-de-la-culture-artistique-marocaine-par-des-travailleurs-immigres.
    Résumé : Ouvrier spécialisé au sein de l’usine Renault Billancourt devenu producteur artistique dans les années 1970-1980, Mustapha Idbihi demeure un indéfectible passeur de cultures. En organisant des concerts et autres événements culturels à l’attention des travailleurs et de leurs familles, il a contribué à la diffusion de nombreux talents venus du Maghreb. Par son parcours singulier, cet immigré marocain OS en France a su faire de la culture un élément de mixité et un facteur de mobilité sociale.

  • Erlich Valérie, Gérard Étienne et Mazzella Sylvie (2021) « La triple torsion des mobilités étudiantes. Financiarisation de l’enseignement supérieur, concurrence sur le marché mondial et différenciations sociales accrues des parcours », Agora débats/jeunesses, 88 (2), p. 53-69. https://www.cairn.info/revue-agora-debats-jeunesses-2021-2-page-53.htm.
    Résumé : Venus en France pour y poursuivre leurs études supérieures, les étudiants en migration internationale sont censés retourner dans leur pays après l’obtention de leur diplôme. S’il en va ainsi pour une grande part d’entre eux, une autre part, non négligeable, tend à prolonger son séjour puis à rester sur place, parfois définitivement : pour quelles raisons ? La question du « pourquoi » mérite d’être posée mais également celle du « comment ». Si les raisons de s’installer en France sont multiples, nous verrons, en lisant ce dossier, comment, au fil de leur séjour, nombre d’étudiants et d’étudiantes s’habituent à vivre en France alors que leurs liens avec leur pays d’origine se distendent…


  • Fillol Amandine, Ridde Valéry, Dumont Alexandre et Martin-Prevel Yves (2021) « Créer une communauté de pratique sur la recherche interventionnelle en santé mondiale: », Santé Publique, Vol. 33 (1) (juin 24), p. 127-136. DOI : 10.3917/spub.211.0127. https://www.cairn.info/revue-sante-publique-2021-1-page-127.htm?ref=doi.
    Résumé : Introduction : Dans le milieu francophone, mais surtout en France, la recherche interventionnelle en santé mondiale est encore peu développée de façon institutionnelle. L’institut de recherche pour le développement (IRD) est l’un des principaux acteurs publics en recherche en santé mondiale en France. Au sein de cet institut, les chercheurs publient et communiquent peu sur la recherche interventionnelle malgré le fait qu’ils en font au quotidien. C’est pourquoi, depuis quelques années, le département Santé et Sociétés de l’IRD cherche à institutionnaliser un réseau des acteurs de l’IRD en recherche interventionnelle en santé des populations. Objectif : L’objectif de cet article est d’analyser les besoins des acteurs de santé mondiale et les éléments qui permettraient de construire une communauté de pratique pour ainsi amorcer un ancrage institutionnel de la recherche interventionnelle en santé mondiale à travers la mobilisation des acteurs à l’IRD. Méthode : Une recherche qualitative a été réalisée en 2017 avec notamment la réalisation d’entretiens individuels et collectifs. Les résultats permettent d’observer : i) une définition de la RISP qui se différencie selon les participants, ii) une nécessité d’augmenter les interactions formelles et informelles pour répondre au besoin de se former et de développer le partage d’expérience, de renforcer les opportunités de rencontres et de liens interpersonnels, d’augmenter la communication et la visibilité des actions mises en œuvre), iii) une volonté des participants de progresser ensemble pour pallier certains défis inhérents à la santé mondiale tels que l’interdisciplinarité, les partenariats Nord-Sud, ou la communication avec les différents publics. Conclusion : Faire de la recherche interventionnelle en santé des populations nécessite une certaine remise en question des manières de faire de la recherche et implique donc des changements importants dans le quotidien des chercheurs. Il est indispensable d’avoir un support institutionnel pour les développer, telle que la communauté de pratique. Toutefois, l’inexistence de cette communauté de pratique trois ans après montre les défis d’opérationnalisation et de mise en œuvre d’une telle initiative.


  • Fiorentino Marion, Nishimwe Marie, Protopopescu Camelia, Iwuji Collins, Okesola Nonhlanhla, Spire Bruno, Orne-Gliemann Joanna, McGrath Nuala, Pillay Deenan, Dabis François, Larmarange Joseph, Boyer Sylvie et for the ANRS 12249 TaSP Study Group (2021) « Early ART Initiation Improves HIV Status Disclosure and Social Support in People Living with HIV, Linked to Care Within a Universal Test and Treat Program in Rural South Africa (ANRS 12249 TasP Trial) », AIDS and Behavior, 25 (4) (avril), p. 1306-1322. DOI : 10.1007/s10461-020-03101-y. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-020-03101-y.
    Résumé : We investigated the effect of early antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation on HIV status disclosure and social support in a cluster-randomized, treatment-as-prevention (TasP) trial in rural South Africa. Individuals identified HIV-positive after home-based testing were referred to trial clinics where they were invited to initiate ART immediately irrespective of CD4 count (intervention arm) or following national guidelines (control arm). We used Poisson mixed effects models to assess the independent effects of (a) time since baseline clinical visit, (b) trial arm, and (c) ART initiation on HIV disclosure (n = 182) and social support (n = 152) among participants with a CD4 count > 500 cells/mm3 at baseline. Disclosure and social support significantly improved over follow-up in both arms. Disclosure was higher (incidence rate ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.24 [1.04; 1.48]), and social support increased faster (1.22 [1.02; 1.46]) in the intervention arm than in the control arm. ART initiation improved both disclosure and social support (1.50 [1.28; 1.75] and 1.34 [1.12; 1.61], respectively), a stronger effect being seen in the intervention arm for social support (1.50 [1.12; 2.01]). Besides clinical benefits, early ART initiation may also improve psychosocial outcomes. This should further encourage countries to implement universal test-and-treat strategies.


  • Gautier Lara, Poveda Juan-Diego, Nguengang Wakap Stéphanie, Bouchon Magali et Quesnel-Vallée Amélie (2021) « Adapting care provision and advocating for unprotected unaccompanied minors in Paris in the context of COVID-19 », Global Health Promotion (janvier 13), p. 175797592098419. DOI : 10.1177/1757975920984193. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1757975920984193.
    Résumé : Unaccompanied minors (UMs) are children under 18 who arrive on the territory of a foreign country without the care of a guardian. In many countries their access to social and health care services depends on their legal recognition as minors. For instance, in France, high rejection rates of minor status place unprotected UMs in social precarity, such that in Paris, civil society organizations (CSOs) have stepped in to offer social, medical, and psychological care to unprotected UMs. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic however, CSOs had to adapt their care provision. We review promising CSO-led initiatives to ensure continuity of care for this population. In doing so, we highlight how, by promoting UMs’ healthy behaviors in the context of the pandemic, continued social interactions between CSO members and unprotected UMs may have contributed to disease prevention among UMs. In addition, CSOs have continued to advocate for sheltering unprotected UMs, calling on public authorities to take action.


  • Gosselin Anne, Malroux Inès, Desprat Diane, Devetter François-Xavier, Memmi Sarah, Pannetier Julie, Valat Emmanuel et Melchior Maria (2021) « Prevalence of psychosocial risks among immigrants in France and associations with mental health: findings from the national French Working Conditions Survey », International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health (septembre 30). DOI : 10.1007/s00420-021-01763-2. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00420-021-01763-2.
    Résumé : Few studies examined psychosocial risks among immigrants and explored their association with mental health. Our study aims to 1) describe the prevalence of job strain and iso-strain according to migratory status and model the probability of exposure, 2) verify whether the association between job strain, iso strain and anxiety holds for all immigrant groups.


  • Gosselin Anne, Melchior Maria, Carillon Séverine, Gubert Flore, Ridde Valéry, Kohou Veroska, Zoumenou Iris, Senne Jean-Noël et Desgrées du Loû Annabel (2021) « Deterioration of mental health and insufficient Covid-19 information among disadvantaged immigrants in the greater Paris area », Journal of Psychosomatic Research (avril 30), p. 110504. DOI : 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2021.110504. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022399921001495.
    Résumé : Objectives The aim of this study is to provide information on changes in mental health among disadvantaged immigrants from Sub-Saharan Africa in the Greater Paris area and their level of information about Covid-19. Methods Prior to the Covid-19 epidemic, the Makasi community-based cohort followed 850 immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa in the Greater Paris area. Between the 1st of April and the 7th of June 2020, all participants scheduled for a follow-up survey were systematically included into an additional COVID-19-related wave of data collection (N = 100). We compared participants' type of housing, level of food insecurity, work and mental health (PHQ9) before and during the first COVID-19-related lockdown, using paired-Mc Nemar chi-2 tests. We next described their level of information on Covid-19 and policy measures, broken down by sex. Results Among the 100 participants, 68% had no legal residence permit. Food insecurity was more often reported during lockdown than before (62% vs 52%). 9% of participants had a score indicative of severe depression (PHQ9) before lockdown and 17% afterwards (p = 0.17). Only 51% knew about the possibility of asymptomatic transmission of the COVID-19 virus. Conclusions This study brings original information on a hard-to-reach population group. Our results suggest that the lockdown had a detrimental impact on various economic and mental health aspects among disadvantaged migrants residing in the Greater Paris area.
    Mots-clés : Covid-19, Immigrants, Lockdown/containment, Mental health, Social epidemiology.


  • Gosselin Anne, Melchior Maria, Desprat Diane, Devetter François-Xavier, Pannetier Julie, Valat Emmanuel et Memmi Sarah (2021) « Were immigrants on the frontline during the lockdown? Evidence from France », European Journal of Public Health (août 14), p. ckab094. DOI : 10.1093/eurpub/ckab094. https://academic.oup.com/eurpub/advance-article/doi/10.1093/eurpub/ckab094/6352235.
    Résumé : Abstract In France, immigrants’ excess of mortality was higher than natives’ during the Spring 2020 lockdown. Were immigrants in frontline jobs and more exposed to Covid-19? Based on a nationally representative survey, we model the probability to work in a frontline job according to migratory status, taking sociodemographic and occupational characteristics into account. Compared to natives (Metropolitan France), being an African immigrant was associated to higher probability to work in a frontline job [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.82 (1.23–2.71)], as well as being born in French Overseas Departments [aOR = 1.64 (1.23–2.18)], reflecting racial division of work and higher Sars-Cov-2 exposure of immigrant and minority populations.


  • Inghels Maxime, Kouassi Arsène Kra, Niangoran Serge, Bekelynck Anne, Carillon Séverine, Sika Lazare, Koné Mariatou, Danel Christine, Desgrées du Loû Annabel, Larmarange Joseph et for the research team ANRS 12323 DOD-CI (2021) « Telephone peer recruitment and interviewing during a respondent-driven sampling (RDS) survey: feasibility and field experience from the first phone-based RDS survey among men who have sex with men in Côte d’Ivoire », BMC Medical Research Methodology, 21 (1) (février 5), p. 25. DOI : 10.1186/s12874-021-01208-x. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12874-021-01208-x.
    Résumé : Many respondent-driven sampling (RDS) methodologies have been employed to investigate hard-to-reach populations; however, these methodologies present some limits. We describe a minimally investigated RDS methodology in which peer recruitment and interviewing are phone-based. The feasibility of the methodology, field experiences, validity of RDS assumptions and characteristics of the sample obtained are discussed.
    Mots-clés : Côte d’Ivoire, Men who have sex with men, Phone-based survey, Respondent-driven sampling.


  • Jones Catherine M, Gautier Lara et Ridde Valéry (2021) « A scoping review of theories and conceptual frameworks used to analyse health financing policy processes in sub-Saharan Africa », Health Policy and Planning (mai 24), p. czaa173. DOI : 10.1093/heapol/czaa173. https://academic.oup.com/heapol/advance-article/doi/10.1093/heapol/czaa173/6283520.
    Résumé : Health financing policies are critical policy instruments to achieve Universal Health Coverage, and they constitute a key area in policy analysis literature for the health policy and systems research (HPSR) field. Previous reviews have shown that analyses of policy change in low- and middle-income countries are under-theorised. This study aims to explore which theories and conceptual frameworks have been used in research on policy processes of health financing policy in sub-Saharan Africa and to identify challenges and lessons learned from their use. We conducted a scoping review of literature published in English and French between 2000 and 2017. We analysed 23 papers selected as studies of health financing policies in sub-Saharan African countries using policy process or health policy-related theory or conceptual framework ex ante. Theories and frameworks used alone were from political science (35%), economics (9%) and HPSR field (17%). Thirty-five per cent of authors adopted a ‘do-it-yourself’ (bricolage) approach combining theories and frameworks from within political science or between political science and HPSR. Kingdon’s multiple streams theory (22%), Grindle and Thomas’ arenas of conflict (26%) and Walt and Gilson’s policy triangle (30%) were the most used. Authors select theories for their empirical relevance, methodological rational (e.g. comparison), availability of examples in literature, accessibility and consensus. Authors cite few operational and analytical challenges in using theory. The hybridisation, diversification and expansion of mid-range policy theories and conceptual frameworks used deductively in health financing policy reform research are issues for HPSR to consider. We make three recommendations for researchers in the HPSR field. Future research on health financing policy change processes in sub-Saharan Africa should include reflection on learning and challenges for using policy theories and frameworks in the context of HPSR.


  • Kabbanji Lama (2021) « Enquête sonore des 20 premiers jours de l’intifada d’octobre 2019 au Liban », Ethnologie francaise, 51 (2) (août 18), p. 239-254. DOI : 10.3917/ethn.212.0239. https://www.cairn.info/revue-ethnologie-francaise-2021-2-page-239.htm.
    Résumé : « Tous veut dire tous ». Ce slogan a uni en 2019 plus de la moitié de la population libanaise dans la rue contre l’oligarchie au pouvoir, au-delà des clivages confessionnels, régionaux ou de classe. Cet article propose une exploration sonore des vingt premiers jours de l’intifada du 17 octobre. L’enquête sonore est proposée comme approche méthodologique permettant l’exploration d’un mouvement social à ses débuts. Les enregistrements sonores permettent à la fois de capter, de faire revivre, et d’analyser les ambiances et les émotions sur le vif puis de zoomer sur les mots de la révolte : discours, interactions, slogans. Au fil des enregistrements se dévoile le rôle clé des jeunes générations ainsi que le répertoire discursif que celles-ci mobilisent pour expliquer leur révolte : le refus de l’exil, l’accès à une éducation publique, gratuite et de qualité ainsi qu’à une offre de travail locale. Cette approche permet de préciser certaines dynamiques sociales qui sous-tendent l’intifada d’octobre, notamment la rencontre entre les classes rendue possible par la crise du système capitaliste au Liban, et les espoirs que cette rencontre a suscités.


  • Kameda Koichi, Barbeitas Mady, Caetano Rosângela, Löwy Ilana, Oliveira Ana Claudia Dias de, Corrêa Marilena Cordeiro Dias Villela et Cassier Maurice (2021) « Testing COVID-19 in Brazil: fragmented efforts and challenges to expand diagnostic capacity at the Brazilian Unified National Health System », Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 37 (3), p. e00277420. DOI : 10.1590/0102-311x00277420. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-311X2021000306001&tlng=en.
    Résumé : Abstract: Since the first recorded case of COVID-19 on February 26, 2020, Brazil has seen an exponential growth in the number of cases and deaths. The national testing approach has been insufficient to correctly use this tool in the support of containing the epidemic in the country. In this communication, we discuss efforts and challenges to scale-up COVID-19 testing at the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS). This communication presents the initial results of the research project created to investigate the political, industrial, technological, and regulatory aspects that may affect the diagnostic and testing capacity for COVID-19 in Brazil. The paper draws on the review of academic literature, media publication, and collection of public data on tests purchase and regulation. It enlists initiatives to enhance PCR testing, national production and development of technologies, as well as regulatory measures to fast-track new tests. Our analysis indicates some points of reflection. Firstly, the lack of a consistent national strategy to fight COVID-19 exarcebated supply problems of diagnostic components. If the country was eventually able to circumvent this situation, it still faces a more structural dependency on the importation of diagnostic components. Secondly, the discontinued funding and distribution of tests may have implied health policy fragmentation and the growing importance of local governments and non-state actors to fighting the epidemics within SUS. Finally, initiatives established since the second semester of 2020 have expanded the testing capacity at SUS. However, it has not been sufficient to control the progress of the epidemic in the country. , Resumen: Desde que se registró el primer caso de COVID-19 el 26 de febrero de 2020, Brasil ha visto un crecimiento exponencial en el número de casos y muertes. La estrategia nacional para preconizar el test de diagnóstico ha sido insuficiente en el uso correcto de esta herramienta, con el fin de ayudar a contener la epidemia en el país. Se presentó los esfuerzos y los desafíos para ampliar la realización de pruebas de COVID-19 en el Sistema Único de Salud brasileño (SUS). Este artículo presenta los resultados iniciales del proyecto de investigación sobre los aspectos políticos, industriales, tecnológicos y regulatorios que pueden afectar la capacidad de diagnóstico para la COVID-19 en Brasil. El grupo de investigación realizó una revisión de la literatura académica, medios de comunicación y recogida de datos públicos respecto a la adquisición de tests y su regulación. Se haz referencia a iniciativas para promover la realización de pruebas de PCR, la producción nacional y el desarrollo de tecnologías, así como las medidas regulatorias fast-track para nuevas pruebas. Nuestro análisis indica algunos puntos de reflexión. Primero, la falta de una estrategia nacional consistente para luchar contra la COVID-19 que exacerbó los problemas de sumistro de los componentes de diagnóstico en un primer momento. Se solucionó posteriormente esta situación, aunque se coloque nuevamente en pauta la dependencia estructural del país en la importación de insumos de salud estratégicos. Segundo, la financiación y la distribución de tests de forma descontinuada pueden indicar la fragmentación de la política de salud, así como los gobiernos estaduales, municipales, y atores no estatales asumiendo un rol preponderante en acciones de combate a la epidemia en el SUS. En último, las iniciativas establecidas en el segundo semestre del 2020 contribuyeron para ampliar la capacidad de realización de tests moleculares en el SUS. Sin embargo, esa capacidad no fue suficiente para controlar la epidemia en Brasil. , Resumo: Desde que o primeiro caso de COVID-19 no Brasil foi notificado, em 26 de fevereiro de 2020, o país assiste a um crescimento exponencial no número de casos e mortes. A estratégia nacional de testagem tem sido insuficiente para usar essa ferramenta corretamente no apoio à contenção da epidemia no país. O artigo discute os esforços e desafios para escalonar a testagem para COVID-19 no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). O texto apresenta os resultados iniciais de um projeto de pesquisa sobre os aspectos políticos, industriais, tecnológicos e regulatórios que podem afetar a capacidade diagnóstica e de testagem para COVID-19 no Brasil. O estudo se apoia em revisão da literatura cientifica, artigos publicados na mídia e coleta de dados públicos sobre a compra e regulamentação de testes. O texto faz referência a iniciativas para ampliar a testagem de PCR, a produção nacional e o desenvolvimento de tecnologias, além de medidas regulatórias fast-track para novos testes. Nossa análise sugere alguns pontos para reflexão. Primeiro, a falta de uma estratégia nacional consistente para combater a COVID-19 agravou os problemas de fornecimento de reagentes de diagnostico num primeiro momento. Esta situação foi posteriormente resolvida, embora coloque novamente em pauta a dependência estrutural do país na importação de insumos de saúde estratégicos. Em segundo lugar, financiamento e a distribuição de testes, que ocorreram de forma descontinuada, podem indicar a fragmentação da política sanitária, assim como o papel de governos estaduais, municipais e atores não estatais no combate à epidemia no âmbito do SUS. Por último, iniciativas estabelecidas no segundo semestre de 2020 contribuíram para ampliar a capacidade de testagem molecular no SUS. Contudo, essa capacidade não foi suficiente para controlar a epidemia no Brasil.


  • Kameda Koichi, Kelly Ann H, Lezaun Javier et Löwy Ilana (2021) « Imperfect diagnosis: The truncated legacies of Zika testing », Social Studies of Science (août 31), p. 030631272110354. DOI : 10.1177/03063127211035492. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/03063127211035492.
    Résumé : When the Zika virus burst onto the international scene in the second half of 2015, the development of diagnostic tools was seen as an urgent global health priority. Diagnostic capacity was restricted to a small number of reference laboratories, and none of the few available molecular or serological tests had been validated for extensive use in an outbreak setting. In the early weeks of the crisis, key funders stepped in to accelerate research and development efforts, and the WHO took responsibility for steering diagnostic standardization, a role it had successfully played during the West Africa Ebola virus outbreak. Yet when the WHO declared the end of the Zika Public Health Emergency of International Concern in November 2016, diagnostic capacity remained patchy, and few tools were available at the scale required in the countries that bore the brunt of the epidemic, particularly Brazil. This article analyses the limited impact of global R&D efforts on the availability of Zika diagnostic options where they were most needed and for those most vulnerable: women who might have been exposed to the virus during their pregnancy and children born with suspected congenital Zika syndrome. The truncated legacies of testing during the Zika crisis reveal some of the fault lines in the global health enterprise, particularly the limits of ‘emergency R&D’ to operate in geopolitical contexts that do not conform to the ideal type of a humanitarian crisis, or to tackle technical issues that are inextricably linked to domestic struggles over the scope and distribution of biological citizenship. Diagnostic shortcomings, we argue, lie at the heart of the stunning transformation, in less than two years, in the status of Zika: from international public health emergency to neglected disease.


  • Kameda Koïchi et Kessel Nils (2021) « Quels consensus ?: La sécurité transfusionnelle en Allemagne et au Brésil », Cahiers Droit, Sciences & Technologies, 12 (mai 31), p. 97-115. DOI : 10.4000/cdst.3483. http://journals.openedition.org/cdst/3483.
    Résumé : Le présent article s’intéresse à l’émergence du consensus sur l’introduction du dépistage génomique viral (DGV ou nucleic acid based test - NAT) dans deux pays, l’Allemagne et le Brésil. L’introduction du DGV vers la fin des années 1990 en Europe puis une décennie plus tard au Brésil s’inscrit ainsi dans un ensemble de processus transnationaux : une menace virale identifiée, la disponibilité d’un ensemble de technologies mobilisant la polymerase-chain-réaction (PCR) ainsi que des normes scientifiques, technologiques et juridiques internationales relatives à la production et à la circulation du sang et à la transfusion de ses produits dérivés. L’article poursuit trois objectifs : d’abord il vise à décrire les formes et les contenus des consensus qui ont émergé dans les deux pays respectifs. Puis, nous nous intéressons à la manière dont le consensus est le résultat d’une coopération étroite entre acteurs établis. Enfin, en prolongement des questionnements de Marie-Angèle Hermitte, cet article analyse comment les processus « technoscientifiques » (Dominique Pestre) et l’évolution du droit sont intriqués et s’influencent mutuellement dans l’émergence d’un consensus.


  • Kouassi Arsène Kra, Colin Géraldine, Diop Papa Moussa, Simo Fotso Arlette, Rouveau Nicolas, Hervé Kouakou Kouamé, Geoffroy Olivier, Diallo Bakary, Kabemba Odé Kanku, Dieng Baidy, Diallo Sanata, Vautier Anthony, Larmarange Joseph et ATLAS Team (2021) « Introducing and Implementing HIV Self-Testing in Côte d'Ivoire, Mali, and Senegal: What Can We Learn From ATLAS Project Activity Reports in the Context of the COVID-19 Crisis? », Frontiers in Public Health (juillet 20), p. 1-14. DOI : 10.3389/fpubh.2021.653565. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpubh.2021.653565/full.
    Résumé : Background: The ATLAS program promotes and implements HIVST in Côte d’Ivoire, Mali, and Senegal. Priority groups include members of key populations – female sex workers (FSW), men having sex with men (MSM), and people who use drugs (PWUD) – and their partners and relatives. HIVST distribution activities, which began in mid-2019, were impacted in early 2020 by the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This article, focusing only on outreach activities among key populations, analyzes quantitative and qualitative program data collected during implementation to examine temporal trends in HIVST distribution and their evolution in the context of the COVID-19 health crisis. Specifically, we investigated the impact on, the adaptation of, and the disruption of field activities. Results: In all three countries, the pre-COVID-19 period was marked by a gradual increase in HIVST distribution. The period corresponding to the initial emergency response (March-May 2020) witnessed an important disruption of activities: a total suspension in Senegal, a significant decline in Côte d’Ivoire, and a less pronounced decrease in Mali. Secondary distribution was also negatively impacted. Peer educators showed resilience and adapted by relocating from public to private areas, reducing group sizes, moving night activities to the daytime, increasing the use of social networks, integrating hygiene measures, and promoting assisted HIVST as an alternative to conventional rapid testing. From June 2020 onward, with the routine management of the COVID-19 pandemic, a catch-up phenomenon was observed with the resumption of activities in Senegal, the opening of new distribution sites, a rebound in the number of distributed HIVST kits, a resurgence in larger group activities, and a rebound in the average number of distributed HIVST kits per primary contact. Conclusions: Although imperfect, the program data provide useful information to describe changes in the implementation of HIVST outreach activities over time. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on HIVST distribution among key populations was visible in the monthly activity reports. Focus groups and individual interviews allowed us to document the adaptations made by peer educators, with variations across countries and populations. These adaptations demonstrate the resilience and learning capacities of peer educators and key populations.
    Mots-clés : Côte d'Ivoire, COVID-19, HIV self-testing, Key populations, Mali, Senegal, West Africa.
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