Publications des membres du Ceped

2022

Prépublication (preprint)


  • Fotso Arlette Simo, Johnson Cheryl, Vautier Anthony, Kouamé Konan Blaise, Diop Papa Moussa, Silhol Romain, Maheu-Giroux Mathieu, Boily Marie-Claude, Rouveau Nicolas, Doumenc-Aïdara Clémence, Baggaley Rachel, Ehui Eboi, Larmarange Joseph et Team the ATLAS (2022) « Using routine programmatic data to estimate the population-level impacts of HIV self-testing: The example of the ATLAS program in Cote d’Ivoire », medRxiv. DOI : 10.1101/2022.02.08.22270670. https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2022.02.08.22270670v1.
    Résumé : Background HIV self-testing (HIVST) is recommended by the World Health Organization as an additional HIV testing approach. Since 2019, it has been implemented in Côte d’Ivoire through the ATLAS project, including primary and secondary distribution channels. While the discreet and flexible nature of HIVST makes it appealing for users, it also makes the monitoring and estimation of the population-level programmatic impact of HIVST programs challenging. We used routinely collected data to estimate the effects of ATLAS’ HIVST distribution on access to testing, conventional testing (self-testing excluded), diagnoses, and antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiations in Côte d’Ivoire. Methods We used the ATLAS project’s programmatic data between the third quarter (Q) of 2019 (Q3 2019) and Q1 2021, in addition to routine HIV testing services program data obtained from the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief dashboard. We performed ecological time series regression using linear mixed models. Findings The results are presented for 1000 HIVST kits distributed through ATLAS. They show a negative but nonsignificant effect of the number of ATLAS HIVST on conventional testing uptake (−190 conventional tests [95% CI: −427 to 37, p=0·10]). We estimated that for 1000 additional HIVST distributed through ATLAS, +590 [95% CI: 357 to 821, p<0·001] additional individuals have accessed HIV testing, assuming an 80% HIVST utilization rate (UR) and +390 [95% CI: 161 to 625, p<0·001] assuming a 60% UR. The statistical relationship between the number of HIVST and HIV diagnoses was significant and positive (+8 diagnosis [95% CI: 0 to 15, p=0·044]). No effect was observed on ART initiation (−2 ART initiations [95% CI: −8 to 5, p=0·66]). Interpretations Social network-based HIVST distribution had a positive impact on access to HIV testing and diagnoses in Cote d’Ivoire. This approach offers a promising way for countries to assess the impact of HIVST programs. Funding Unitaid 2018-23-ATLAS Evidence before this study We searched PubMed between November 9 and 12, 2021, for studies assessing the impact of HIVST on HIV testing, ‘conventional’ testing, HIV diagnoses and ART initiation. We searched published data using the terms “HIV self-testing” and “HIV testing”; “HIV self-testing” and “traditional HIV testing” or “conventional testing”; “HIV self-testing” and “diagnosis” or “positive results”; and “HIV self-testing” and “ART initiation” or “Antiretroviral treatment”. Articles with abstracts were reviewed. No time or language restriction was applied. Most studies were individual-based randomized controlled trials involving data collection and some form of HIVST tracking; no studies were conducted at the population level, none were conducted in western Africa and most focused on subgroups of the population or key populations. While most studies found a positive effect of HIVST on HIV testing, evidence was mixed regarding the effect on conventional testing, diagnoses, and ART initiation.Added value of this study HIVST can empower individuals by allowing them to choose when, where and whether to test and with whom to share their results and can reach hidden populations who are not accessing existing services. Inherent to HIVST is that there is no automatic tracking of test results and linkages at the individual level. Without systematic and direct feedback to program implementers regarding the use and results of HIVST, it is difficult to estimate the impact of HIVST distribution at the population level. Such estimates are crucial for national AIDS programs. This paper proposed a way to overcome this challenge and used routinely collected programmatic data to indirectly estimate and assess the impacts of HIVST distribution in Côte d’Ivoire.Implications of all the available evidence Our results showed that HIVST increased the overall HIV testing uptake and diagnoses in Côte d’Ivoire without significantly reducing conventional HIV testing uptake. We demonstrated that routinely collected programmatic data could be used to estimate the effects of HIVST kit distribution outside a trial environment. The methodology used in this paper could be replicated and implemented in different settings and enable more countries to routinely evaluate HIVST programming at the population level.
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  • Gallardo Lucille, Gautier Lara, Chabrol Fanny, Traverson Lola, Oliveira Sydia et Ridde Valery (2022) « Consulting firms in the public management of epidemics. A scoping-review protocol », protocols.io. DOI : 10.17504/protocols.io.b4haqt2e. https://www.protocols.io/view/consulting-firms-in-the-public-management-of-epide-b4haqt2e.
    Résumé : The aim of this scoping review is to produce a state of knowledge about the role of private consulting firms in the public management of epidemics. The review will also identify...
    Mots-clés : ⛔ No DOI found.
Livre


  • Atlani-Duault Laetitia, ss la dir. de (2022) Les spiritualités en temps de pandémie (sous la dir.de L Atlani-Duault), Paris : Albin MIchel, 224 p. (Spiritualités). ISBN : 978-2-226-47583-1. https://www.albin-michel.fr/les-spiritualites-en-temps-de-pandemie-9782226470041.
    Résumé : Après le silence vient aujourd'hui, pour la première fois, le temps du témoignage des différentes religions et confessions de France sur la pandémie Covid19. Un témoignage de l'ensemble des leaders religieux français et d'intellectuels ancrés dans chaque communauté, qui tous dialoguent depuis le début de la pandémie avec l'anthropologue Laëtitia Atlani-Duault. La pandémie nous a rappelé le tragique de notre condition, exposée qu'elle est, non seulement à la maladie et à la mort, mais aussi à la manière dont elle s'y manifeste en inégalités, en solitudes indicibles, ou en malchances individuelles. Cependant, ce livre collectif nous montre que les religions ou, plutôt, les communautés humaines qu'elles constituent, habitées par ce tragique, sont toujours susceptibles de prendre à leur compte l'évènement qui afflige etfait peur afin de réinventer les liens de fraternité.


  • Biyela Fred O. (2022) Politique du prophétisme au Congo-Brazzaville. Hiérarchies dans l’Église de Zéphirin, Paris : Karthala, 322 p. (Les Afriques). ISBN : 978-2-8111-2967-5. https://www.karthala.com/les-afriques/3467-politique-du-prophetisme-au-congo-brazzaville-hierarchie-au-sein-de-l-eglise-de-zephirin-9782811129675.html.
    Résumé : Ce livre aborde la question du prophétisme au Congo-Brazzaville en partant de l’Église de Zéphirin qui n’a encore jamais fait l’objet d’une étude approfondie. Il montre comment cette institution gouverne ses fidèles et de quelle manière s’y recompose l’identité religieuse. En interrogeant le mécanisme de production de sujets et les modes de gouvernance d’une institution ecclésiale, il analyse les enchevêtrements réciproques des pouvoirs religieux, étatiques et lignagers aux marges de la laïcité constitutionnelle héritée de l’ancienne métropole coloniale. L’originalité de la démarche est ici de souligner l’importance du lignage, que les recherches sur les prophétismes ont peu étudié. Menée de l’intérieur de l’institution prophétique, cette étude met au jour des pratiques issues de l’histoire politique du Congo, que les acteurs religieux reproduisent dans leur Église. À travers l’analyse de ces pouvoirs imbriqués, l’ouvrage s’intéresse à la jeunesse en Afrique, aux conflits intergénérationnels et à l’émergence de nouvelles figures du politique et du religieux. Ces dernières apparaissent largement influencées par le mécanisme sorcellaire appréhendé comme langage de parenté et comme forme de gouvernementalité au sein même d’une institution religieuse qui, officiellement, est censée le conjurer. Le sorcellaire « intra-muros » est un indice privilégié des réinventions de la parenté en vertu desquelles l’Église de Zéphirin se constitue comme un nouveau lignage. Cet ouvrage constitue une plongée inédite dans la politique du prophétisme en Afrique centrale et ailleurs.

  • Charbit Yves (2022) Population et questions de développement, Londres : ISTE éditions, 320 p. (Géographie et démographie). ISBN : 978-1-78948-051-1.
    Résumé : Un des enjeux majeurs de la planète est l'interaction entre les évolutions démographiques et le développement, mais la population est-elle le problème majeur ou un facteur parmi d'autres et en particulier la pauvreté, l'analphabétisme, l'urbanisation anarchique, l'inégalité entre hommes et femmes ? Population et questions de développement analyse les relations entre les principales variables démographiques et des grandes questions de développement. Cet ouvrage, qui rassemble des contributions de spécialistes de chaque domaine, offre une présentation simple et claire des données empiriques associée à une réflexion théorique sur les implications pour le développement, qu'il s'agisse d'éducation, d'emploi, de santé, des inégalités ou du climat

  • Cicchelli Vincenzo et Octobre Sylvie (2022) K-pop, soft power et culture globale, Paris cedex 14 : Presses universitaires de France. (Hors collection). ISBN : 978-2-13-083050-4.
    Résumé : De la musique de BTS à la série Squid Game, une vague de produits culturels sud-coréens déferlent sur le monde et surprend par l'engouement qu'elle suscite. K-pop, K-drama, K-films, mais aussi bandes dessinées (manwhas), c'est ce que l'on désigne comme la Hallyu (mot chinois passé dans la langue courante pour indiquer la vague sud-coréenne de produits culturels). Cet ouvrage expose à quel point cette nouvelle vague culturelle est le fruit d'un écosystème politique et économique spécifique. Faisant suite à la domination anglo-saxonne et japonaise dans la pop culture des générations précédentes, elle constitue une forme de globalisation alternative.   Se penchant sur le cas de la réception française (particulièrement intéressant à analyser car il ne peut être imputé à des proximités culturelles préexistantes, la diaspora sud-coréenne étant quasi inexistante en France et les liens historiques entre les deux pays ténus), l'ouvrage met en évidence une caractéristique des jeunes générations : une ouverture à l'altérité culturelle, où l'esthétique règne en maître, et dont les effets façonnent l'image de ce qu'est une modernité positive, une société désirable, une identité valorisée

  • Cicchelli Vincenzo et Octobre Sylvie (2022) Youth on edge: facing global crises in multicultural french society, trad. par, Sarah-Louise Raillard, S.l. : Palgrave Macmillan, 263 p. (Studies in chlidhood and youth). ISBN : 978-3-031-11824-1.
    Résumé : This book explores disrupted youth cohesion in France within the context of multiple ongoing global economic, migratory, social, political, and security-related crises. While these trends can be observed in numerous Western societies, France provides a unique case study of various anti-cosmopolitan and anti-Enlightenment movements shaping youth conditions and reconfiguring relationships between the individual, the group, and society. The authors undertook in-depth interviews with French young people between the ages of 18 to 30 years old to inquire into how they experience "vivre ensemble" (living together) in a time of rising economic inequalities and multicultural tensions. Through these findings, they invite decision-makers, politicians, educators, and parents to propose a renewed narrative of social cohesion for youth who are not disillusioned, but deeply on edge. Mots clés : youth in society; French youth; French politics; Multiculturalism; Global crises; Globalization; youth experience

  • Quet Mathieu (2022) Flux : comment la pensée logistique gouverne le monde, Paris : Zones, 157 p. ISBN : 978-2-35522-177-4.

  • Quet Mathieu (2022) Illicit medicines in the Global South: public health access and pharmaceutical regulation, Abingdon, Oxon ; New York, NY : Routledge, 1 p. ISBN : 978-1-00-046324-8 978-1-00-319476-7.
    Résumé : "This book investigates pharmaceutical regulation and the public health issue of fake or illicit medicines in developing countries. The book analyses the evolution of pharmaceutical capitalism, showing how the entanglement of market and health interests has come to shape global regulation. Drawing on extensive fieldwork in India, Kenya and Europe, it demonstrates how large pharmaceutical companies have used the fight against fake medicines to serve their strategic interests and protect their monopolies, sometimes to the detriment of access to medicines in developing countries. The book investigates how the contemporary dynamics of pharmaceutical power in global markets have gone on to shape societies locally, resulting in more security-oriented policies. These processes highlight the key consequences of contemporary "logistical regimes" for access to health. Providing important insights on how the flows of commodities, persons, and knowledge shape contemporary access to medicines in the developing countries, this book will be of considerable interest to policy makers and regulators, and to scholars and students across sociology, science and technology studies, global health, and development studies"--
    Mots-clés : Black market, Developing countries, Drug accessibility, Drug control, Drugs, Government policy, Law and legislation, Pharmaceutical industry, Product counterfeiting, Public health, Standards.
    Note Note
    "Translation from French Edition: Impostures pharmaceutiques. Médicaments illicites et luttes pour l'accès à la santé by © Editions La Découverte, Paris, 2018."
    Note Note
    Introduction: Faith in Fakes? -- In the beginning, a conflict -- The pharmaceutical globalization -- Selling at all costs -- The regulatory turn to security -- The exercise of pharmaceutical control -- Logistic regimes and the exercise of power -- Diverting flows, contesting power
Article de revue


  • Ante-Testard Pearl Anne, Hamidouche Mohamed, Apouey Bénédicte, Baggaley Rachel, Larmarange Joseph, Benmarhnia Tarik, Temime Laura et Jean Kévin (2022) « Understanding the pathways leading to socioeconomic inequalities in HIV testing uptake in 18 sub-Saharan African countries », AIDS, 36 (12) (octobre 1), p. 1707–1716. DOI : 10.1097/QAD.0000000000003316. https://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/Fulltext/2022/10010/Understanding_the_pathways_leading_to.11.aspx.
    Résumé : Objective:  To better understand the different pathways linking socioeconomic position and HIV testing uptake in 18 sub-Saharan African countries. Design:  We used cross-sectional population-based surveys between 2010 and 2018. Methods:  Using a potential outcomes framework and the product method, we decomposed the total effect linking wealth and recent (<12 months) HIV testing into direct effects, and indirect effects, via internal (related to individual's ability to perceive need for and to seek care) or external (ability to reach, pay for and engage in healthcare) mediators to calculate the proportion mediated (PM) by each mediator. Results:  High levels of inequalities were observed in nine and 15 countries among women and men, respectively. The mediator indirect effect varied greatly across countries. The PM tended to be higher for internal than for external mediators. For instance, among women, HIV-related knowledge was estimated to mediate up to 12.1% of inequalities in Côte d’Ivoire; and up to 31.5% for positive attitudes towards people with HIV (PWH) in Senegal. For the four external mediators, the PM was systematically below 7%. Similar findings were found when repeating analyses on men for the internal mediators, with higher PM by attitudes towards PWH (up to 39.9% in Senegal). Conclusions:  Our findings suggest that wealth-related inequalities in HIV testing may be mediated by internal more than external characteristics, with important variability across countries. Overall, the important heterogeneities in the pathways of wealth-related inequalities in HIV testing illustrate that addressing inequalities requires tailored efforts and upstream interventions.


  • Arvanitis Rigas, Mouton Johann et Néron Adeline (2022) « Funding Research in Africa: Landscapes of Re-institutionalisation », Science, Technology and Society (avril 18), p. 097172182210782. DOI : 10.1177/09717218221078235. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/09717218221078235.
    Résumé : This article begins with an overview of recent and current trends in scientific output in Africa. The focus is on how global dynamics and foreign funding support are directly affecting structural aspects of scientific research. It examines the fundamental role of foreign programmes and new forms of academic cooperation in African science. This includes a discussion of multilateral or transcontinental agreements and local universities, the role of private philanthropy and public institutions, trends in domestic expenditure on research and innovation, and how these are linked to the recent positive upturn in scientific production in many African countries.

  • (2022) « L’impact de la Covid-19 sur les inégalités scolaires dans l’espace francophone », 12 (1), 110 p. https://oap.unige.ch/journals/ed/issue/view/58/22.
    Résumé : Ce numéro de la revue L’éducation en débats: analyse comparée aborde la question de l’impact de la Covid-19 sur les inégalités scolaires dans l’espace francophone. En proposant d’investiguer une problématique ancienne, celles des inégalités scolaires, au regard des conséquences de la Covid-19, la démarche permet à la fois de renseigner ces inégalités, mais aussi de mettre en exergue certaines d’entre elles. Elle permet aussi de revisiter certaines thématiques liées à l’analyse des inégalités scolaires, comme celle de l’éducation prioritaire à la lueur des conditions singulières créées par la pandémie, celle des inégalités sociales ou de genre ou encore celle observée entre établissements scolaires publics et privés.


  • Assane Igodoe Aissata et Lange Marie-France (2022) « Éditorial. L’impact de la Covid-19 sur les inégalités scolaires dans l’espace francophone », L’éducation en débats : analyse comparée, 12 (1) (juin 24), p. 1-11. DOI : 10.51186/journals/ed.2022.12-1.e865. https://oap.unige.ch/journals/ed/article/view/865.


  • Ba Mouhamadou Faly, Faye Adama, Kane Babacar, Diallo Amadou Ibra, Junot Amandine, Gaye Ibrahima, Bonnet Emmanuel et Ridde Valéry (2022) « Factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in Senegal: a mixed study », Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics (mai 11), p. 1-12. DOI : 10.1080/21645515.2022.2060020. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/21645515.2022.2060020.
    Résumé : This study was an explanatory, sequential, mixed-methods design conducted in Senegal. We collected quantitative data from December 24, 2020, to January 16, 2021, and qualitative data from February 19 to March 30, 2021. We conducted a telephone survey among a marginal quota sample of 607 people over 18 years old. We performed descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses with R software for the quantitative phase; and performed manual content analyses for the qualitative phase. We surveyed 607 people for the quantitative phase and interviewed 30 people for the qualitative phase. Individuals who hesitated or refused to be vaccinated represented 12.9% and 32.8%, respectively. Vaccine hesitancy was related to gender, living in large cities, having a poor attitude toward the vaccine, thinking that the vaccine would not help protect them from the virus, being influenced by people important to them, and lacking information from health professionals. Vaccine refusal was related to living in large cities, having a poor attitude toward the vaccine, thinking that the vaccine would not help protect them from the virus, thinking that the vaccine could endanger their health, trusting opinions of people who were important to them, and lacking information from health professionals. The results of the study show that the factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and refusal are diverse and complex. Addressing these factors will help to ensure better vaccination coverage. Governments and health authorities should intensify their efforts to promote vaccine confidence and reduce misinformation.
    Note Note
    <p>doi: 10.1080/21645515.2022.2060020</p>


  • Baisley Kathy, Orne-Gliemann Joanna, Larmarange Joseph, Plazy Melanie, Collier Dami, Dreyer Jaco, Mngomezulu Thobeka, Herbst Kobus, Hanekom Willem, Dabis Francois, Siedner Mark J. et Iwuji Collins (2022) « Early HIV treatment and survival over six years of observation in the ANRS 12249 Treatment as Prevention Trial », HIV Medicine, 23 (8) (février 26), p. 922-928. DOI : 10.1111/hiv.13263. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/hiv.13263.
    Résumé : Objectives Population-based universal test and treat (UTT) trials have shown an impact on population-level virological suppression. We followed the ANRS 12249 TasP trial population for 6 years to determine whether the intervention had longer-term survival benefits. Methods The TasP trial was a cluster-randomized trial in South Africa from 2012 to 2016. All households were offered 6-monthly home-based HIV testing. Immediate antiretroviral therapy (ART) was offered through trial clinics to all people living with HIV (PLHIV) in intervention clusters and according to national guidelines in control clusters. After the trial, individuals attending the trial clinics were transferred to the public ART programme. Deaths were ascertained through annual demographic surveillance. Random-effects Poisson regression was used to estimate the effect of trial arm on mortality among (i) all PLHIV; (ii) PLHIV aware of their status and not on ART at trial entry; and (iii) PHLIV who started ART during the trial. Results Mortality rates among PLHIV were 9.3/1000 and 10.4/1000 person-years in the control and intervention arms, respectively. There was no evidence that the intervention decreased mortality among all PLHIV [adjusted rate ratio (aRR) = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.85–1.43, p = 0.46] or among PLHIV who were aware of their status but not on ART. Among individuals who initiated ART, the intervention decreased mortality during the trial (aRR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.28–0.85, p = 0.01), but not after the trial ended. Conclusions The ‘treat all’ strategy reduced mortality among individuals who started ART but not among all PLHIV. To achieve maximum benefit of immediate ART, barriers to ART uptake and retention in care need to be addressed.
    Mots-clés : HIV, immediate antiretroviral therapy, mortality, South Africa, test and treat.


  • Becquet Valentine, Sacco Nicolás et Pardo Ignacio (2022) « Disparities in Gender Preference and Fertility: Southeast Asia and Latin America in a Comparative Perspective », Population Research and Policy Review (janvier 19). DOI : 10.1007/s11113-021-09692-1. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11113-021-09692-1.
    Résumé : A preference for sons and a sex selection against females are widespread in vast regions of the world, including a great number of Asian and East European countries. However, while a robust son bias has been widely studied in several countries of these regions, much less attention has been given to other regions, such as Latin America. The aim of this paper is to compare gender preferences in twelve selected countries of Southeast Asia and Latin America at the beginning of the twenty-first century by calculating to what extent parents adapt their fertility behaviors to ensure the birth of a preferred sex. Using census data from Integrated Public Use Microdata Series-International (IPUMS-I), derived mostly from the 2010 round, we compute parity progression ratios with the Kaplan–Meier estimator and estimate Cox regressions to include control variables. The results focus on the probability of having a third child and show that a mixed composition of children (one boy and one girl) is the most widespread preference, except in Vietnam, where a heavy son preference can still be observed. The least preferred outcome varies between regions and countries, but it is most often two daughters.
    Mots-clés : Fertility, Gender preference, Latin America, Southeast Asia.

  • Berthod Delphine, Alvarez Dara, Perozziello Anne, Chabrol Fanny et Lucet Jean-Christophe (2022) « Are there reasons behind high Handrub consumption? A French National in-depth qualitative assessment », Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, 11 (1) (février 23), p. 42. DOI : 10.1186/s13756-022-01074-2.
    Résumé : BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene (HH) is the most important measure for preventing healthcare-associated infections. A significant correlation between alcohol-based handrub consumption (AHRC) and observed HH compliance rates has been established. In France, publicly reported AHRC displayed a large heterogeneity across healthcare facilities (HCFs). We aimed to describe programmes for promoting HH in the top and medium AHRC scorers and to assess factors and drivers leading to a high AHRC score in a panel of French HCFs. METHODS: We performed a nationwide qualitative comparative case study based on in-depth semi-structured interviews in 16 HCFs with high, 4-year AHRC scores, and a sample of seven university hospitals (UHs) with medium AHRC scores. Infection Prevention and Control Team (IPC) members (n = 62), quality managers/chief executive officers (n = 23) and frontline workers (n = 6) were interviewed, using a grounded theory approach and an iterative thematic approach. RESULTS: Ninety-one interviews were performed. There was a large heterogeneity in IPC structures and objectives, with specific patterns associated with high AHRC that were more organisational than technical. Four areas emerged: (1) strong cohesive team structure with supportive and outcome-oriented work attitude, (2) IPC structure within the organization, (3) active support from the institution, (4) leadership and role model. Among high AHRC scorers, a good core IPC organisation, a proactive and flexible management, a frequent presence in the clinical wards, and working in a constructive safety climate were prominent. CONCLUSION: We highlighted that IPC structure and activity is heterogeneous, with organisational and behavioural characteristics associated with high AHRC score. Beyond technical challenge, our work underlines the importance of strong structure of the IPC and behavioural approaches in implementing key IPC programmes.
    Mots-clés : Cross infection, Education, France, Hand disinfection, Health knowledge, attitude practice, Health personnel, Prevention and control, Qualitative research, Standards.


  • Bertuzzi Leticia, El Aarbaoui Tarik, Heron Mégane, Gosselin Anne, Roy-de-Lachaise Laurine, Fossi Larissa, Della Corte Francesco, Vignier Nicolas, Melchior Maria, Schreiber Merritt, Vandentorren Stephanie et Vuillermoz Cécile (2022) « Longitudinal survey on the Psychological Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Healthcare Workers (PsyCOVer) in France: study protocol », BMJ Open, 12 (1) (janvier), p. e053009. DOI : 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-053009. https://bmjopen.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/bmjopen-2021-053009.
    Résumé : Introduction In the pandemic, healthcare professionals face even higher levels of stress. It is therefore a priority to estimate the impact of the pandemic on mental health and to propose targeted strategies to improve resilience. The aims of the study were to (1) assess the mental health of healthcare professionals working with patients with COVID-19 and identify social determinants that may increase the risk of negative outcomes; and (2) test the effectiveness of an intervention to improve the resilience of healthcare professionals in France. Methods and analysis To evaluate the first objective, a national longitudinal study will be carried out among healthcare professionals working with patients with COVID-19. Participants will be recruited via an internet link that will be widely disseminated on social media, mailing lists, medical boards and French medical journals. Primary outcomes are mental health distress/symptoms and resilience. Secondary outcomes are burnout, social and occupational supports and substance use. To meet the second objective, an interventional study will be conducted. The main outcome is the effectiveness of the PsySTART-Responder and the Anticipate.Plan.Deter program. Qualitative analyses will be conducted to understand the strategies used to cope with the pandemic. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol was approved by the Sorbonne Université Ethical Committee (No 2020-CER-2020-27) and was declared to French Commission on Information Technology and Liberties, CNIL (N°2222413, 20-05-2021). The results of this study will provide a better understanding of mental health and social inequalities in mental health among healthcare professionals working in the pandemic; data about the effectiveness of the PsySTART-Responder and the Anticipate.Plan.Deter interventional program in France.


  • Boulay Sébastien (2022) « Rétention ou transmission de savoir-faire dans l’Ouest saharien (Mauritanie, Sahara Occidental) ? Entre urgence patrimoniale, émancipation sociale et souveraineté nationale », Ethnologie française, 52 (1) (février 22), p. 51-66. DOI : 10.3917/ethn.221.0051. https://www.cairn.info/revue-ethnologie-francaise-2022-1-page-51.htm?ref=doi.
    Résumé : En partant de deux initiatives originales de sauvegarde entreprises par des poètes et en partenariat avec des institutions publiques, le texte examine les enjeux mémoriels, sociaux et politiques autour de la détention et de la transmission de savoir-faire dans l’Ouest saharien (Mauritanie et Sahara Occidental), dans un contexte de fortes compétitions régionales entre États-nations et de mutation des modes de vie.


  • Bousmah Marwân-al-Qays, Iwuji Collins, Okesola Nonhlanhla, Orne-Gliemann Joanna, Pillay Deenan, Dabis François, Larmarange Joseph et Boyer Sylvie (2022) « Costs and economies of scale in repeated home-based HIV counselling and testing: Evidence from the ANRS 12249 treatment as prevention trial in South Africa », Social Science & Medicine, 305 (juillet 1), p. 115068. DOI : 10.1016/j.socscimed.2022.115068. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277953622003744.
    Résumé : Universal HIV testing is now recommended in generalised HIV epidemic settings. Although home-based HIV counselling and testing (HB-HCT) has been shown to be effective in achieving high levels of HIV status awareness, little is still known about the cost implications of universal and repeated HB-HCT. We estimated the costs of repeated HB-HCT and the scale economies that can be obtained when increasing the population coverage of the intervention. We used primary data from the ANRS 12249 Treatment as Prevention (TasP) trial in rural South Africa (2012–2016), whose testing component included six-monthly repeated HB-HCT. We relied on the dynamic system generalised method of moments (GMM) approach to produce unbiased short- and long-run estimates of economies of scale, using the number of contacts made by HIV counsellors for HB-HCT as the scale variable. We also estimated the mediating effect of the contact quality – measured as the proportion of HIV tests performed among all contacts eligible for an HIV test – on scale economies. The mean cost (standard deviation) of universal and repeated HB-HCT was $24.2 (13.7) per contact, $1694.3 (1527.8) per new HIV diagnosis, and $269.2 (279.0) per appropriate referral to HIV care. The GMM estimations revealed the presence of economies of scale, with a 1% increase in the number of contacts for HB-HCT leading to a 0.27% decrease in the mean cost. Our results also suggested a significant long-run relationship between mean cost and scale, with a 1% increase in the scale leading to a 0.36% decrease in mean cost in the long run. Overall, we showed that significant cost savings can be made from increasing population coverage. Nevertheless, there is a risk that this gain is made at the expense of quality: the higher the quality of HB-HCT activities, the lower the economies of scale.
    Mots-clés : AIDS/HIV, Clinical trials, Cost of care, Economies of scale, Interventions, Prevention, South Africa.


  • Cambon Linda, Castel Patrick, Couteron Jean-Pierre, El Ghozi Laurent, Gerbaud Laurent, Girard Vincent, Habold Daniel, Kepenekian George, Ménard Didier, Nouguez Étienne, Ridde Valéry et Satilmis Laetitia (2022) « Passer d’une politique de santé publique à une santé publique politique : proposition du groupe miroir pour un virage paradigmatique », Santé Publique, 34 (1), p. 5-8. DOI : 10.3917/spub.221.0005. https://www.cairn.info/revue-sante-publique-2022-1-page-5.htm.
    Résumé : En 2021, le Professeur Franck Chauvin a remis à Olivier Véran un rapport [1] destiné à redessiner la santé publique. Dans le cadre de cette mission, un groupe appelé « miroir » [2] a été constitué afin d’apporter une expertise pluridisciplinaire au Collège de la mission. Ce groupe a listé un certain nombre d’enjeux et de préconisations pour y répondre. Ces dernières convergeaient vers la nécessité de penser différemment l’action en santé publique en se focalisant, non pas sur les individus et leur manière d’agir et de penser la santé, mais sur les causes structurelles de sa construction, de son amélioration ou de sa dégradation. Certaines ont été retenues, d’autres non ou partiellement. Ce texte propose de partager, en complément de ce rapport, ce qui semblait, du point de vue du groupe miroir, comme fondamental à une santé publique moderne, efficace et équitable.


  • Carillon Séverine, Chabrol Fanny, Couderc Mathilde et Girard Gabriel (2022) « L’art de captiver, de transmettre et de fédérer », Anthropologie & Santé. Revue internationale francophone d'anthropologie de la santé, 24 bis (hors-série) (juin 13). DOI : 10.4000/anthropologiesante.11349. https://journals.openedition.org/anthropologiesante/11349.
    Résumé : Quelques mots avant de retracer nos rencontres avec Sandrine Musso. Ce texte est issu d’un processus collectif d’écriture qui nous a semblé judicieux – compte tenu de la communauté d’expérience « générationnelle » et intellectuelle sur laquelle il s’appuie – mais qui nous paraît aussi un beau reflet de cet art qu’avait Sandrine de faire du lien entre les personnes. Si nos trajectoires se sont croisées au tournant des années 2010, nous (les quatre co-auteur·e·s) avons cheminé chacun·e dans des...


  • Chamas Claudia, Barbeitas Mady Malheiros, Correa Marilena, Kameda Koichi, de Oliveira Ana Claudia Dias et Villarinho Luiz (2022) « Innovation in diagnostics: addressing gaps in low- and middle-income countries », Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 100 (8) (août 1), p. 467-467A. DOI : 10.2471/BLT.22.288313. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9306385/.


  • Chaudat Philippe (2022) « Cachez ce buveur que je ne saurais voir ! : Entre visibilité et invisibilité, la spatialisation du monde des bars à Meknès (Maroc) », Revue des mondes musulmans et de la Méditerranée, 151 (septembre 12), p. 199-216. DOI : 10.4000/remmm.18048. http://journals.openedition.org/remmm/18048.
    Résumé : Au Maroc, l’alcool est interdit aux musulmans, et pourtant les bars et certains restaurants proposent cette marchandise à des consommateurs qui sont des musulmans. Pour pouvoir vendre de l’alcool, ces commerces organisent, selon des modalités qui leur sont propres, leur espace et leurs pratiques pour les rendre invisibles, tandis que les clients, de leur côté, masquent leurs usages de cette marchandise. L’espace des bars et des restaurants servant de l’alcool se distingue alors des autres espaces commerciaux tout en étant comparable aux espaces d’habitation. Il ne relève ni du privé, ni du public, mais constitue une des multiples sphères d’échanges présentes autour de l’alcool, qui réunies forment alors un « monde » à part, coexistant avec d’autres mondes. Mots-clés : Alcool, espace, Maroc, espace privé, espace public, intime, sphères d’échanges, mondes Keywords: Alcohol, spatialization, Morocco, private space, public space, intimate, spheres of exchange, worlds


  • Chaudat Philippe et Leservoisier Olivier (2022) « De l’apprentissage du terrain au terrain comme apprentissage. L’expérience d’une pédagogie inversée », Emulations - Revue de sciences sociales, 39-40 (avril 1), p. 31-50. DOI : 10.14428/emulations.039-40.02. https://ojs.uclouvain.be/index.php/emulations/article/view/chaudat.
    Résumé : Partant d’une expérience de plusieurs années d’encadrement de stages de terrain en ethnologie, cet article propose une réflexion sur les enjeux et les modalités de l’apprentissage de l’enquête ethnographique, tant du point de vue des enseignants que de celui des étudiants. Il s’interroge à la fois sur les recompositions que cet apprentissage a pu connaître au fil des ans et sur les transformations que celui-ci engendre dans les pratiques pédagogiques. L’examen des conditions d’enseignement de l’enquête de terrain conduit ainsi à analyser les effets d’une pédagogie inversée, tout en rendant compte de la portée heuristique du dialogue entre des dispositifs pédagogiques (enseignement et stage) complémentaires et essentiels dans la formation à la recherche par la recherche.


  • Chavez Henry, Albornoz María Belén et Martín Fernando (2022) « ‘Big data’ Research: A Bibliometric Analysis of the Scopus Database, 2009–2019 », Journal of Scientometric Research, 11 (1), p. 64-78. DOI : 10.5530/jscires.11.1.7. https://www.jscires.org/article/485.
    Résumé : Scopus-database publications containing the keyword ‘big data’ have skyrocketed from 30 (2009) to almost 16,000 (2019). This trend reveals this field’s importance across disciplines and contexts. Previous works have analysed the emergence and characteristics of scientific research on ‘big data’ but need updating. We undertook a bibliometric analysis of over 73,000 such 2009–2019 publications. This data helped to identify the primary trends, subjects, networks and institutions publishing on big data worldwide and explain the relations and differences between scientific communities working on this subject in central and peripheral countries. Furthermore, this research highlights Chinese researchers’ and institutions’ prominence in this field alongside the influence of American contributions, which are most frequently cited. The emergence of dynamic poles of scientific production in middle-income countries in Asia, Africa and South America are also studied. Despite the dynamism of the field, about 2% of the articles account for 40% of the field’s citations, while 42% have no citations. Originating in computer science and engineering, big data research is increasingly becoming interdisciplinary. Keyword trends over time also show a shift from technical and prospective concerns towards (1) methodological and practical issues and (2) the development of AI and machine learning techniques. These indicators present differences between countries with varying geo-economic conditions. Collaboration networks have rapidly grown with the US and China as the main nodes and European countries as intermediaries in the circulation of this topic. Although still rare, there are some signs of South-South collaboration between Latin America, Africa and Asia.
    Mots-clés : Bibliometrics, Big data, Global South, Knowledge Circulation, Scientific networks.


  • Cicchelli Vincenzo et Octobre Sylvie (2022) « Republican Universalism at the Test of French Multicultural Society: Cultural Diversity and Social Cohesion According to Young People », Populism (septembre 6), p. 1-25. DOI : 10.1163/25888072-bja10039. https://brill.com/view/journals/popu/aop/article-10.1163-25888072-bja10039/article-10.1163-25888072-bja10039.xml.
    Résumé : While the trial of modernity and its legacies, the rise of anti-universalistic discourses, and the temptations of identitarian closures are common Western trends, this paper will specifically focus on the French case, as its republican assimilationist model has been very much infused with universalism and endures many tensions facing multicultural society. By focusing on the arguments mobilized by young French adults to solve the tensions between republican universalism and national particularism, as well as envisioning social cohesion, we analyze their narratives and shed light on four “spirits”: Homo Nationalis, embodying a nationalistic passion for the homeland; Homo Civicus, expressing deep commitment to the res publica and the common good; Homo Culturalis, demanding recognition of minority cultures; and Homo Pontifex (the “bridge builder”), encouraging cosmopolitanism and a love of humanity.


  • Clech Lucie, Meister Sofia, Belloiseau Maeva, Benmarhnia Tarik, Bonnet Emmanuel, Casseus Alain, Cloos Patrick, Dagenais Christian, De Allegri Manuela, du Loû Annabel Desgrées, Franceschin Lucas, Goudet Jean-Marc, Henrys Daniel, Mathon Dominique, Matin Mowtushi, Queuille Ludovic, Sarker Malabika, Turenne Charlotte Paillard et Ridde Valéry (2022) « Healthcare system resilience in Bangladesh and Haiti in times of global changes (climate-related events, migration and Covid-19): an interdisciplinary mixed method research protocol », BMC Health Services Research, 22 (1) (décembre), p. 340. DOI : 10.1186/s12913-021-07294-3. https://bmchealthservres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12913-021-07294-3.
    Résumé : Abstract Background Since climate change, pandemics and population mobility are challenging healthcare systems, an empirical and integrative research to studying and help improving the health systems resilience is needed. We present an interdisciplinary and mixed-methods research protocol, ClimHB, focusing on vulnerable localities in Bangladesh and Haiti, two countries highly sensitive to global changes. We develop a protocol studying the resilience of the healthcare system at multiple levels in the context of climate change and variability, population mobility and the Covid-19 pandemic, both from an institutional and community perspective. Methods The conceptual framework designed is based on a combination of Levesque’s Health Access Framework and the Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office’s Resilience Framework to address both outputs and the processes of resilience of healthcare systems. It uses a mixed-method sequential exploratory research design combining multi-sites and longitudinal approaches. Forty clusters spread over four sites will be studied to understand the importance of context, involving more than 40 healthcare service providers and 2000 households to be surveyed. We will collect primary data through questionnaires, in-depth and semi-structured interviews, focus groups and participatory filming. We will also use secondary data on environmental events sensitive to climate change and potential health risks, healthcare providers’ functioning and organisation. Statistical analyses will include event-history analyses, development of composite indices, multilevel modelling and spatial analyses. Discussion This research will generate inter-disciplinary evidence and thus, through knowledge transfer activities, contribute to research on low and middle-income countries (LMIC) health systems and global changes and will better inform decision-makers and populations.


  • Coulibaly Abdourahmane, Touré Laurence, Zinszer Kate et Ridde Valéry (2022) « La résilience de l’hôpital du Mali face à la Covid-19 dans un contexte de pénuries », Santé Publique, Prépublication, p. 935-945. DOI : 10.3917/spub.pr1.0935. https://www.cairn.info/revue-sante-publique-2022-0-page-935.htm.
    Résumé : Objectif : L’objectif de cette recherche était de rendre compte des stratégies de résilience mobilisées par l’Hôpital du Mali face à la maladie à coronavirus (COVID-19).Méthode : Les données collectées ont concerné une période correspondant aux premiers mois de gestion de la pandémie à l’hôpital (avril - juillet 2020). Au total, 32 entretiens semi-directifs et 53 séances d’observation ont été réalisés. Les analyses se sont appuyées sur un cadre conceptuel et ont été menées selon l’approche déductive.Résultats : Les résultats montrent que, face aux multiples effets de la COVID-19 tels que l’aggravation de la pénurie du personnel et de la charge de travail, le besoin de créer des infrastructures dédiées, la baisse drastique des recettes liée à la baisse de fréquentation de l’hôpital, le personnel a mis en place de multiples stratégies (ex. réduction ou report de certaines dépenses, réquisition de bâtiment, recrutements de contractuels et le redéploiement du personnel fonctionnaire). La mise en place de ces stratégies a globalement permis de maintenir l’accès aux soins des patients, même si les restrictions ont été nombreuses pour les patients non COVID-19. L’hôpital a été en mesure de s’inscrire dans une résilience absorptive.Conclusion : Cette recherche qualitative a permis une meilleure compréhension des faits liés à la gestion de la COVID-19 en milieu hospitalier, et notamment de sa résilience. Les leçons tirées de la recherche devraient permettre de concevoir, à l’avenir, des réponses plus adaptées et plus efficaces pour faire face aux pandémies.


  • De Araujo Oliveira Sydia Rosana, Soares Sampaio Aletheia, Vasconcelos Ana Lucia, Cazarin Gisele, Zacarias Amanda, Furtado Betise, Andrade Andréa Carla, Paz de Sousa Karla Myrelle et Ridde Valéry (2022) « Mise en œuvre de la capacité de réponse à la Covid-19 dans un hôpital au Brésil: », Santé Publique, Prépublication (mars 23), p. 1h-8. DOI : 10.3917/spub.pr1.0008. https://www.cairn.info/revue-sante-publique-2022-0-page-1h.htm?ref=doi.


  • De Beaudrap Pierre, Mouté Charles, Pasquier Estelle, Tchoumkeu Alice, Temgoua Carole Dongmo, Zerbo Aida, Mac-Seing Muriel et Beninguisse Gervais (2022) « Burden of and risk factors for sexual violence among women with and without disabilities in two sub-Saharan African countries », Global Health Action, 15 (1) (décembre 31), p. 2077904. DOI : 10.1080/16549716.2022.2077904. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/16549716.2022.2077904.
    Résumé : BACKGROUND Available data suggest that women with disabilities have an increased risk of sexual violence, but little is known about the situation of those women living in resource-limited settings. OBJECTIVES To assess the burden and examine the drivers of sexual violence among women with disabilities. METHODS This is a pooled analysis of two population-based surveys conducted in Cameroon and Burundi. Adults with and without disabilities were randomly recruited from the general population. Structured interviews were conducted at both sites to collect data on participants’ functional limitations, life-course history of sexual violence, education, employment, and resources. Only women with disabilities whose impairments started before the age of 10 years (n = 359) and women without disabilities (n = 720) are included in this analysis. The age-adjusted prevalence of violence was computed, and risk factors were assessed using a discrete survival regression and mediation analysis. RESULTS At both sites, the participants with disabilities had a lower education level and had an increased risk of food insecurity. The pooled age-adjusted prevalence of lifetime sexual violence was 19.8% (95%CI:15.3–24.3) among women with disabilities and 11.7% (95%CI:9.3–14.1) among those without disabilities (ORap: 2.0, 95%CI:1.4–2.8). Women with cognitive limitations and those with visual impairments had the highest risk of sexual violence (ORap: 3.5 (95%CI:2.0–6.3) and 2.7 (95%CI:1.4–5.0), respectively). Over the life course, the risk of sexual violence was especially high among women with disabilities who had lived with an intimate partner before the age of 25 years (p < 0.001). Education level mediated approximately one-third of the total association between disability and sexual violence (p = 0.001). There was no evidence of an indirect effect through food insecurity. CONCLUSION This study provides evidence of the high burden of sexual violence among women with disabilities who live in urban African contexts. The social environment and access to education may be key contributors to this vulnerability.


  • Diallo Amadou Ibra, Faye Adama, Tine Jean Augustin Diègane, Ba Mouhamadou Faly, Gaye Ibrahima, Bonnet Emmanuel, Traoré Z. et Ridde Valery (2022) « Factors associated with the acceptability of government measures to address COVID-19 in Senegal », Revue d'Épidémiologie et de Santé Publique (mars), p. S0398762022002930. DOI : 10.1016/j.respe.2022.03.123. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0398762022002930.
    Résumé : Introduction : Three months after the first appearance of the new coronavirus (COVID 19), Senegal recorded its first case on March 2, 2020. Faced with this pandemic, the State reacted quickly with public measures : instituting a curfew, placing a ban on travel between regions, and closing shops and places of worship. This research aims to study the acceptability of these non-pharmaceutical measures by the Senegalese population. Method : This study was a cross-sectional and analytical survey conducted in June and July 2020 among Senegalese over 18 years old. Sampling by the representative quota method was distributed proportionally to age, gender and region. We constructed the questionnaire using the theoretical framework of acceptability of health interventions. Through a telephone call center synchronised to an internet server, we collected data on personal characteristics, knowledge of the disease, trust in information sources, trust in government, concern about the pandemic, and the seven dimensions of acceptability. We performed descriptive analysis and structural equation with R software version 4.0.2. Results : This study included a total of 813 individuals. The average age was 34.7 years ( ± 14.2 years). They were predominantly male (54.6 %), with no education (42.6 %). The increased level of knowledge of the disease was associated with confidence in national media information sources provided by the administrative and health authorities (β=0.11**). The increase in the level of trust in the government in response to COVID-19 was positively related to the acceptability of curfew (β=0.16***), travel ban between regions (β=0.11***), and closure of places of worship (β=0.1**) and markets (β=0.09**). Conclusion : In Senegal, the acceptability of the measures depended on knowledge of the disease, perception of the risk of the disease, and trust in the government. There is a need to strengthen awareness and risk communication of COVID-19. Keywords Social acceptabilityGovernment measuresCOVID-19Senegal


  • Fillol Amandine, McSween-Cadieux Esther, Ventelou Bruno, Larose Marie-Pier, Kanguem Ulrich Boris Nguemdjo, Kadio Kadidiatou, Dagenais Christian et Ridde Valéry (2022) « When the messenger is more important than the message: an experimental study of evidence use in francophone Africa », Health Research Policy and Systems, 20 (1) (mai 26), p. 57. DOI : 10.1186/s12961-022-00854-x. https://health-policy-systems.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12961-022-00854-x.
    Résumé : Abstract Background Epistemic injustices are increasingly decried in global health. This study aims to investigate whether the source of knowledge influences the perception of that knowledge and the willingness to use it in francophone African health policy-making context. Methods The study followed a randomized experimental design in which participants were randomly assigned to one of seven policy briefs that were designed with the same scientific content but with different organizations presented as authors. Each organization was representative of financial, scientific or moral authority. For each type of authority, two organizations were proposed: one North American or European, and the other African. Results The initial models showed that there was no significant association between the type of authority or the location of the authoring organization and the two outcomes (perceived quality and reported instrumental use). Stratified analyses highlighted that policy briefs signed by the African donor organization (financial authority) were perceived to be of higher quality than policy briefs signed by the North American/European donor organization. For both perceived quality and reported instrumental use, these analyses found that policy briefs signed by the African university (scientific authority) were associated with lower scores than policy briefs signed by the North American/European university. Conclusions The results confirm the significant influence of sources on perceived global health knowledge and the intersectionality of sources of influence. This analysis allows us to learn more about organizations in global health leadership, and to reflect on the implications for knowledge translation practices. , Résumé Contexte Les injustices épistémiques sont de plus en plus décriées dans le domaine de la santé mondiale. Cette étude vise à déterminer si la source des connaissances influence la perception de ces connaissances et la volonté de les utiliser. Méthodes L’étude suit un devis expérimental randomisé dans lequel les participant·es ont été assigné·es au hasard à l'une des sept notes politiques conçues avec le même contenu scientifique, mais avec différentes organisations présentées comme autrices. Chaque organisation était représentative d'une autorité financière, scientifique ou morale. Pour chaque type d'autorité, deux organisations étaient proposées : l'une nord-américaine ou européenne, l'autre africaine. Résultats Les résultats montrent que le type d’autorité et la localisation des organisations autrices ne sont pas significativement associés à la qualité perçue et à l’utilisation instrumentale déclarée. Toutefois, des interactions entre le type d’autorité et la localisation étaient significatives. Ainsi, les analyses stratifiées ont mis en évidence que pour la qualité perçue, les notes de politique signées par l'organisme bailleur (autorité financière) africain obtenaient de meilleurs scores que les notes de politique signées par l’organisme bailleur nord-américain / européen. Tant pour la qualité perçue que pour l'utilisation instrumentale déclarée, ces analyses stratifiées ont révélé que les notes de politique signées par l'université africaine (autorité scientifique) étaient associées à des scores plus faibles que les notes de politique signées par l'université nord-américaine/européenne. Interprétation Les résultats confirment l'influence significative des sources sur la perception des connaissances en santé mondiale et rappellent l’intersectionnalité de l’influence des sources d’autorité. Cette analyse nous permet à la fois d'en apprendre davantage sur les organisations qui dominent la scène de la gouvernance mondiale en santé et de réfléchir aux implications pour les pratiques d'application des connaissances.


  • Floersheim Charlotte (2022) « Quand la relation donne une direction », Anthropologie & Santé. Revue internationale francophone d'anthropologie de la santé, 24 bis (hors-série) (mai 15). DOI : 10.4000/anthropologiesante.11029. https://journals.openedition.org/anthropologiesante/11029.
    Résumé : Rencontre Femmes Plus, planning familial, Marseille Milieu des années 2010, un printemps ou un automne, je ne sais plus, je participe à l’organisation d’une des journées du collectif inter-associatif marseillais, Femmes Plus. Le temps d’un samedi, sans enfant, environ quatre fois par an, ce collectif réunit des femmes séropositives de la région. Ces journées mélangent temps de réflexion, ateliers autour de la maladie, du bien-être, de la vie avec le VIH. Elles se déroulent à Marseille dans le...


  • Floersheim Charlotte, Musso Sandrine, Eubanks August, Douine Maylis, Spire Bruno, Sagaon-Teyssier Luis, Parriault Marie Claire, Girard Gabriel et Mosnier Emilie (2022) « What can lead to late diagnosis of HIV in an illegal gold mining environment? A qualitative study at the French Guiana’s border with Brazil », BMJ Open, 12 (9) (septembre 1), p. e061237. DOI : 10.1136/bmjopen-2022-061237. https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/12/9/e061237.
    Résumé : Objective The present study aimed to understand what factors can lead to late HIV diagnosis of illegal gold miners at French Guiana’s border with Brazil. Design An exploratory qualitative study with in-depth interviews and observations was conducted between November 2019 and February 2020. Setting The study was conducted in the main medical healthcare service and two non-governmental organisation premises in the Oyapock border region, which is a supply area for illegal gold mining sites. Participants Fifteen people living with HIV diagnosed with CD4 count <350 cells 106/L were interviewed. Seven women and eight men participated; they were between 31 and 79 years old, and the median time since HIV diagnosis was 6 years. Eight had links to illegal gold mining. Findings Three key themes for late HIV diagnosis emerged: (1) the presence of economic and political structural factors which constitute risks for this illegal activity, specifically the repression of gold mining sites by French Armed Forces and the distance from healthcare facilities; (2) representations of the body and health, related to the living conditions of this population; prioritisation of health emergencies and long-term self-medication; and (3) gender roles shaping masculinity and heterosexuality contributing to a perception of not being at risk of HIV and delaying testing. Conclusion This study highlights structural, group-based and individual factors that reduce access to HIV testing and healthcare in general for a population of migrant workers in an illegal gold mining area. Faced with harsh living conditions and state repression, these workers develop a vision of health which prioritises the functionality of the body. Associated with gender roles which are partly shaped both by the mining activity and its geographical location, this vision can lead to late HIV diagnosis.
    Mots-clés : Epidemiology, HIV & AIDS, Public health.


  • Gagnon-Dufresne Marie-Catherine, Gautier Lara, Beaujoin Camille, Lamothe Ashley Savard, Mikanagu Rachel, Cloos Patrick, Ridde Valéry et Zinszer Kate (2022) « Considering social inequalities in health in large-scale testing for COVID-19 in Montréal: a qualitative case study », BMC Public Health, 22 (1), p. 749. DOI : 10.1186/s12889-022-13163-3. https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-022-13163-3.
    Résumé : Abstract Background Evidence continues to demonstrate that certain marginalised populations are disproportionately affected by COVID-19. While many studies document the impacts of COVID-19 on social inequalities in health, none has examined how public health responses to the pandemic have unfolded to address these inequities in Canada. The purpose of our study was to assess how social inequalities in health were considered in the design and planning of large-scale COVID-19 testing programs in Montréal (Québec, Canada). Methods Part of the multicountry study HoSPiCOVID, this article reports on a qualitative case study of large-scale testing for COVID-19 in Montréal. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 19 stakeholders involved in planning large-scale testing or working with vulnerable populations during the pandemic. We developed interview guides and a codebook using existing literature on policy design and planning, and analysed data deductively and inductively using thematic analysis in NVivo. Results Our findings suggest that large-scale COVID-19 testing in Montréal did not initially consider social inequalities in health in its design and planning phases. Considering the sense of urgency brought by the pandemic, participants noted the challenges linked to the uptake of an intersectoral approach and of a unified vision of social inequalities in health. However, adaptations were gradually made to large-scale testing to improve its accessibility, acceptability, and availability. Actors from the community sector, among others, played an important role in supporting the health sector to address the needs of specific subgroups of the population. Conclusions These findings contribute to the reflections on the lessons learned from COVID-19, highlighting that public health programs must tackle structural barriers to accessing healthcare services during health crises. This will be necessary to ensure that pandemic preparedness and response, including large-scale testing, do not further increase social inequalities in health.


  • Gautier Lara, Nguengang Wakap Stéphanie, Verrier Florian, da Silva Miranda Érica, Négré Victoria, Hamza Jalel, Poveda Juan-Diego et Bouchon Magali (2022) « Responding to Increasing Health and Social Needs of Unprotected Unaccompanied Minors in Paris in the Context of COVID-19: A Mixed Methods Case Study », Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies (janvier 19), p. 1-20. DOI : 10.1080/15562948.2022.2027057. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15562948.2022.2027057.
    Résumé : Unaccompanied minors (UMs) are children under the age of 18 who settle in a foreign country without a legal representative. In France, many UMs are left unprotected from child welfare services because assessment systems evaluate that they are not minors. In Paris, the non-governmental organization Médecins du Monde (MdM) offers unprotected UMs medical, psychological, and social care. In March 2020, the lockdown policy to contain COVID-19 constrained MdM to adapt its care provision model. This case study sought to answer the following question: how did volunteers and employees of MdM respond to the social and health needs of unprotected UMs during the spring 2020 lockdown in Paris? We analyzed a cohort of 58 UMs for eight weeks of lockdown using secondary quantitative data. We further explored the UMs’ needs and the experience of phone consultations, through 15 interviews with MdM’s program volunteers and employees. Time series showed a steady increase in UMs’ needs. The program’s adapted care provision likely contributed to reducing UMs’ feeling of isolation. It also had several negative consequences for unprotected UMs, volunteers, employees, and Médecins du Monde’s institution. This study highlights the role of non-governmental organizations in providing a particularly vulnerable migrant population – unprotected UMs – care and support, despite operational challenges in crisis times.
    Mots-clés : care provision, COVID-19 pandemic, France, mixed methods study, Unaccompanied Minors.

  • Gosselin Anne, Malroux Inès, Desprat Diane, Devetter François-Xavier, Memmi Sarah, Pannetier Julie, Valat Emmanuel et Melchior Maria (2022) « Prévalence des risques psychosociaux au travail et santé mentale parmi les immigrés et descendants d’immigrés : résultats de l’enquête nationale Conditions de Travail-Risques psychosociaux 2016 », Bull Epidémiol Hebd, 7, p. 141-9. http://beh.santepubliquefrance.fr/beh/2022/7/2022_7_2.html.
    Résumé : Objectifs – Peu d’études se sont penchées sur les risques psychosociaux parmi les immigrés et les descendants d’immigrés et leur association avec la santé mentale. Notre étude a pour objectif : 1) de décrire la prévalence de deux indicateurs qui recouvrent les dimensions d’exigence psychologique, de latitude décisionnelle et d’isolement au travail : le job strain (tension au travail : faible latitude/forte demande) et l’iso-strain (combinaison d’une situation de job strain et d’un faible soutien social) selon le statut migratoire et modéliser la probabilité d’être exposé ; 2) vérifier que les associations entre le job strain, l’iso-strain et l’anxiété sont similaires pour tous les groupes (immigrés, descendants d’immigrés). Méthodes – Nous avons utilisé l’enquête nationale transversale Conditions de Travail-Risques Psychosociaux 2016 (N=24 640). L’anxiété a été mesurée par le score GAD-Mini, outil diagnostique pour repérer le trouble anxieux généralisé. Les prévalences du job strain et de l’iso-strain ont été décrites selon le statut migratoire et le sexe. Des régressions de Poisson ont été utilisées pour modéliser la probabilité d’être exposé au job strain et à l’iso-strain. La prévalence de l’anxiété a été ensuite décrite selon le statut migratoire et le sexe. Dans chaque groupe de population, nous modélisons la probabilité de l’anxiété en fonction des caractéristiques sociodémographiques, des antécédents de santé mentale et de l’expérience du job strain ou de l’iso-strain. Résultats – Les prévalences de risques psychosociaux varient fortement selon le statut migratoire, avec des immigrés plus exposés que la population majoritaire (ni immigrée, ni descendante d’immigrés). Après ajustement, être un immigré d’Afrique reste associé au job strain (ratio incidence risque ajusté : IRRa=1,21 ; IC95%: [0,99-1,47]), et être un descendant d’immigré d’Afrique à l’iso-strain (IRRa=1,33 [1,05-1,69]). La prévalence de l’anxiété était particulièrement haute parmi les descendants d’immigrés d’Afrique (12%). Dans cette population, le job strain et l’iso-strain étaient associés à l’anxiété (IRRa job strain=2,70 [1,22-6,01] ; IRRa iso-strain=4,26 [2,29-7,92]). Conclusion – Dans la lignée des travaux internationaux, notre étude montre que les immigrés et descendants d’immigrés sont particulièrement exposés au job strain et à l’iso-strain, ce qui pourrait contribuer à détériorer leur santé mentale.
    Mots-clés : ⛔ No DOI found.


  • Gosselin Anne, Warszawski Josiane, Bajos Nathalie et for the EpiCov Study Group (2022) « Higher risk, higher protection. COVID-19 risk among immigrants in France: results from the population-based EpiCov survey », European Journal of Public Health (avril 27), p. ckac046. DOI : 10.1093/eurpub/ckac046. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckac046.
    Résumé : Immigrants and ethnic/racialized minorities have been identified as being at higher risk of COVID-19 infection, but few studies report on their exposures and prevention behaviours. This study aims to examine the social distribution of COVID-19 exposure (overcrowding, working outside the home, use of public transport to go to work) and prevention behaviours (use of face masks, washing hands, respect for physical distance) in France during the first wave of the epidemic.We used the EpiCov population-based survey from a random sample of individuals aged 15 years or more. We determined the distribution of the self-reported outcomes according to migratory status and sex, using chi2 tests. We modelled the probability of outcomes with logistic regression. Finally, we focused the analysis on the Greater Paris area and accounted for neighbourhood characteristics.A total of 111,824 participants were included in the study. Overall, immigrant groups from non-European countries were more exposed to COVID-19-related factors and more respectful of prevention measures. The probability of overcrowding and the use of public transport was higher for immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa (aOR=3.71 [3.19;4.32], aOR=6.36 [4.86; 8.32]) than for the majority population. Immigrant groups were less likely to have a non-systematic use of face masks and to breach physical distancing than the majority population (for immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa, aOR=0.32 [0.28; 0.37] and aOR=0.71 [0.61; 0.81], respectively). Living in a neighbourhood with a higher share of immigrants was associated with higher exposure and better prevention behaviours.In France, immigrants had a higher exposure to COVID-19-related factors and more systematic prevention behaviours.


  • Guilmoto Christophe Z. (2022) « An alternative estimation of the death toll of the Covid-19 pandemic in India », éd. par Bernardo Lanza Queiroz, PLOS ONE, 17 (2) (février 16), p. e0263187. DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0263187. https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0263187.
    Résumé : The absence of reliable registration of Covid-19 deaths in India has prevented proper assessment and monitoring of the coronavirus pandemic. In addition, India’s relatively young age structure tends to conceal the severity of Covid-19 mortality, which is concentrated in older age groups. In this paper, we present four different demographic samples of Indian populations for which we have information on both their demographic structures and death outcomes. We show that we can model the age distribution of Covid-19 mortality in India and use this modeling to estimate Covid-19 mortality in the country. Our findings point to a death toll of approximately 3.2–3.7 million persons by early November 2021. Once India’s age structure is factored in, these figures correspond to one of the most severe cases of Covid-19 mortality in the world. India has recorded after February 2021 the second outbreak of coronavirus that has affected the entire country. The accuracy of official statistics of Covid-19 mortality has been questioned, and the real number of Covid-19 deaths is thought to be several times higher than reported. In this paper, we assembled four independent population samples to model and estimate the level of Covid-19 mortality in India. We first used a population sample with the age and sex of Covid-19 victims to develop a Gompertz model of Covid-19 mortality in India. We applied and adjusted this mortality model on two other national population samples after factoring in the demographic characteristics of these samples. We finally derive from these samples the most reasonable estimate of Covid-19 mortality level in India and confirm this result using a fourth population sample. Our findings point to a death toll of about 3.2–3.7 million persons by late May 2021. This is by far the largest number of Covid-19 deaths in the world. Once standardized for age and sex structure, India’s Covid-19 mortality rate is above Brazil and the USA. Our analysis shows that existing population samples allow an alternative estimation of deaths due to Covid-19 in India. The results imply that only one out of 7–8 deaths appear to have been recorded as a Covid-19 death in India. The estimates also point to a very high Covid-19 mortality rate, which is even higher after age and sex standardization. The magnitude of the pandemic in India requires immediate attention. In the absence of effective remedies, this calls for a strong response based on a combination of non-pharmaceutical interventions and the scale-up of vaccination to make them accessible to all, with an improved surveillance system to monitor the progression of the pandemic and its spread across India’s regions and social groups.


  • Inghels Maxime, Kane Ros, Lall Priya, Nelson David, Nanyonjo Agnes, Asghar Zahid, Ward Derek, McCranor Tracy, Kavanagh Tony, Hogue Todd, Phull Jaspreet et Tanser Frank (2022) « Ethnicity and risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection among the healthcare workforce: Results of a retrospective cohort study in rural United Kingdom », International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 122 (septembre), p. 115-122. DOI : 10.1016/j.ijid.2022.05.013. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1201971222002818.
    Résumé : Background The reason why Black and South Asian healthcare workers are at a higher risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection remain unclear. We aimed to quantify the risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection among healthcare staff who belong to the ethnic minority and elucidate pathways of infection. Methods A one-year follow-up retrospective cohort study has been conducted among National Health Service employees who were working at 123 facilities in Lincolnshire, UK. Results Overall, 13,366 professionals were included. SARS-CoV-2 incidence per person-year was 5.2% (95% CI: 3.6–7.6%) during the first COVID-19 wave (January–August 2020) and 17.2% (13.5–22.0%) during the second wave (September 2020–February 2021). Compared with White staff, Black and South Asian employees were at higher risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection during both the first wave (hazard ratio, HR 1.58 [0.91–2.75] and 1.69 [1.07–2.66], respectively) and the second wave (HR 2.09 [1.57–2.76] and 1.46 [1.24–1.71]). Higher risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection persisted even after controlling for age, sex, pay grade, residence environment, type of work, and time exposure at work. Higher adjusted risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection were also found among lower-paid health professionals. Conclusion Black and South Asian health workers continue to be at higher risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection than their White counterparts. Urgent interventions are required to reduce SARS-CoV-2 infection in these ethnic groups. Keywords SARS-CoV-2 COVID-19 Risk factors Ethnicity Health profession United Kingdom


  • Inghels Maxime, Kim Hae-Young, Tanser Frank, Hettema Anita, McMahon Shannon A., Oldenburg Catherine E., Matse Sindy, Kohler Stefan, Geldsetzer Pascal et Bärnighausen Till (2022) « PrEP uptake and delivery setting preferences among clients visiting six healthcare facilities in Eswatini », AIDS and Behavior (avril 16). DOI : 10.1007/s10461-022-03646-0. https://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10461-022-03646-0.
    Résumé : Abstract Due to the high HIV incidence among the general population of Eswatini, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV-exposed individuals is recommended. However, little is known about PrEP uptake and preferences in PrEP delivery healthcare setting among the general population. We conducted a secondary analysis of a randomized trial that aimed to increase PrEP uptake. All clients eligible for PrEP in one of six public-sector healthcare facilities in Eswatini were included. PrEP uptake was stratified by initial reason for visit (e.g. outpatient). Preferences in PrEP delivery setting were collected among those clients who initiated PrEP. A total of 1782 clients had their HIV acquisition risk assessed. Of these, 72% (1277/1782) were considered at risk by healthcare providers and, among them, 40% (517/1277) initiated PrEP. Uptake was higher among clients visiting specifically to initiate PrEP (93%), followed by HIV testing visits (45.8%) and outpatient visits (40%). Among those who initiated PrEP, preferred delivery settings were outpatient services (31%), HIV testing services (26%), family planning (21%) and antenatal services (14%). Men or those at high risk of HIV acquisition were more likely to prefer HIV testing and outpatient services, while young women were more likely to visit and express a preference for antenatal and family planning services. Outpatient services and HIV testing services could be preferable choices for PrEP delivery integration, due to the high PrEP uptake and delivery setting preferences of the populations who use these services. Antenatal and family planning could also be considered with a view to targeting the youngest women. , Resumen Debido a la alta incidencia del VIH entre la población general de Eswatini, se recomienda la profilaxis previa a la exposición (PrEP) para las personas expuestas al VIH. Sin embargo, se sabe poco sobre la aceptación de la PrEP y las preferencias en el ámbito de la atención sanitaria de la PrEP entre la población general. Se realizó un análisis secundario de un ensayo clínico que pretendía aumentar la aceptación de la PrEP. Se incluyó a todos los clientes elegibles para la PrEP en uno de los seis centros sanitarios del sector público de Eswatini. La aceptación de la PrEP se estratificó según el motivo inicial de la visita (por ejemplo, paciente externo). Se recogieron las preferencias en el entorno de administración de la PrEP entre aquellos clientes que iniciaron la PrEP. Se evaluó el riesgo de adquisición del VIH de un total de 1.782 clientes (de 2.238 contactados, el 80%). De ellos, el 72% (1277/1782) fueron considerados de riesgo por los profesionales sanitarios y, entre ellos, el 40% (517/1277) iniciaron la PrEP. El consumo fue mayor entre los clientes que acudieron específicamente para iniciar la PrEP (93%), seguido de las visitas para realizar la prueba del VIH (45,8%) y las visitas ambulatorias (40%). Entre los que iniciaron la PrEP, los entornos de prestación preferidos fueron los servicios ambulatorios (31%), los servicios de pruebas del VIH (26%), la planificación familiar (21%) y los servicios prenatales (14%). Los hombres o las personas con alto riesgo de contraer el VIH tenían más probabilidades de preferir las pruebas del VIH y los servicios ambulatorios, mientras que las mujeres jóvenes tenían más probabilidades de acudir a los servicios prenatales y de planificación familiar y expresar su preferencia por ellos. Los servicios ambulatorios y los servicios de pruebas del VIH podrían ser opciones preferibles para la integración de la entrega de la PrEP, debido a la alta aceptación de la PrEP y a las preferencias del entorno de entrega de las poblaciones que utilizan estos servicios. Los servicios prenatales y de planificación familiar también podrían considerarse con vistas a dirigirse a las mujeres más jóvenes.


  • Inghels Maxime, Kouassi Arsène Kra, Niangoran Serge, Bekelynck Anne, Carilon Séverine, Sika Lazare, Koné Mariatou, Danel Christine, Degrées du Loû Annabel et Larmarange Joseph (2022) « Preferences and access to community-based HIV testing sites among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Côte d’Ivoire », BMJ Open, 12 (6) (juin), p. e052536. DOI : 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-052536. https://bmjopen.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/bmjopen-2021-052536.
    Résumé : Objective Measuring access and preferences to Men who have Sex with Men focused community-based HIV testing sites (MSM-CBTS) in Côte d’Ivoire. Design A respondent-driven sampling telephone survey. Setting National survey conducted in 2018 in Côte d’Ivoire. Participants 518 MSM aged over 18 years old. Primary and secondary outcome measures Knowledge, practices, satisfaction and preferences regarding MSM-CBTS. Factors associated with MSM-CTBS access or knowledge and with HIV testing venue preferences were examined. Results Only half of the respondents (47%) reported knowing of an MSM-CBTS. Of these, 79% had already attended one. Both knowing of and ever visiting an MSM-CBTS were significantly associated with a higher number of HIV tests performed in the past 12 months and having disclosed sexual orientation to one family member. In terms of preferences, 37% of respondents said they preferred undifferentiated HIV testing sites (ie, ‘all patients’ HIV testing sites), 34% preferred MSM-CBTS and 29% had no preference. Those who reported being sexually attracted to women, being bisexual and those who did not know an MSM non-governmental organisation were less likely to prefer MSM-CBTS. MSM who preferred undifferentiated HIV testing sites mentioned the lack of discretion and anonymity of community-based sites and the desire to avoid the gaze of others. Conclusion Community-based HIV testing is well suited for MSM who identify as homosexual and those close to the MSM community, while maintaining undifferentiated HIV testing is essential for others. Both types of activities need to be maintained and developed. Healthcare professionals in undifferentiated HIV testing sites need to be properly trained in the non-judgemental reception of MSM.


  • Inghels Maxime, Kouassi Arsène Kra, Niangoran Serge, Bekelynck Anne, Carilon Séverine, Sika Lazare, Koné Mariatou, Danel Christine, Loû Annabel Degrées du, Larmarange Joseph et for the research team ANRS 12323 DOD-CI (2022) « Preferences and access to community-based HIV testing sites among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Côte d’Ivoire », BMJ Open, 12 (6) (juin), p. e052536. DOI : 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-052536. https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/12/6/e052536.
    Résumé : Objective Measuring access and preferences to Men who have Sex with Men focused community-based HIV testing sites (MSM-CBTS) in Côte d’Ivoire. Design A respondent-driven sampling telephone survey. Setting National survey conducted in 2018 in Côte d’Ivoire. Participants 518 MSM aged over 18 years old. Primary and secondary outcome measures Knowledge, practices, satisfaction and preferences regarding MSM-CBTS. Factors associated with MSM-CTBS access or knowledge and with HIV testing venue preferences were examined. Results Only half of the respondents (47%) reported knowing of an MSM-CBTS. Of these, 79% had already attended one. Both knowing of and ever visiting an MSM-CBTS were significantly associated with a higher number of HIV tests performed in the past 12 months and having disclosed sexual orientation to one family member.In terms of preferences, 37% of respondents said they preferred undifferentiated HIV testing sites (ie, ‘all patients’ HIV testing sites), 34% preferred MSM-CBTS and 29% had no preference.Those who reported being sexually attracted to women, being bisexual and those who did not know an MSM non-governmental organisation were less likely to prefer MSM-CBTS. MSM who preferred undifferentiated HIV testing sites mentioned the lack of discretion and anonymity of community-based sites and the desire to avoid the gaze of others. Conclusion Community-based HIV testing is well suited for MSM who identify as homosexual and those close to the MSM community, while maintaining undifferentiated HIV testing is essential for others. Both types of activities need to be maintained and developed. Healthcare professionals in undifferentiated HIV testing sites need to be properly trained in the non-judgemental reception of MSM.
    Mots-clés : HIV & AIDS, International health services, SEXUAL MEDICINE.


  • Jessani Nasreen S., Williamson R. Taylor, Choonara Shakira, Gautier Lara, Hoe Connie, Jafar Sakeena K., Khalid Ahmad Firas, Rodríguez Salas Irene, Turcotte-Tremblay Anne-Marie et Rodríguez Daniela C. (2022) « Evidence attack in public health: Diverse actors’ experiences with translating controversial or misrepresented evidence in health policy and systems research », Global Public Health (janvier 7), p. 1-17. DOI : 10.1080/17441692.2021.2020319. https://doi.org/10.1080/17441692.2021.2020319.
    Résumé : Bringing evidence into policy and practice discussions is political; more so when evidence from health studies or programme data are deemed controversial or unexpected, or when results are manipulated and misrepresented. Furthermore, opinion and misinformation in recent years has challenged our notions about how to achieve evidence-informed decision-making (EIDM). Health policy and systems (HPS) researchers and practitioners are battling misrepresentation that only serves to detract from important health issues or, worse, benefit powerful interests. This paper describes cases of politically and socially controversial evidence presented by researchers, practitioners and journalists during the Health Systems Research Symposium 2020. These cases cut across global contexts and range from public debates on vaccination, comprehensive sexual education, and tobacco to more inward debates around performance-based financing and EIDM in refugee policy. The consequences of engaging in controversial research include threats to commercial profit, perceived assaults on moral beliefs, censorship, fear of reprisal, and infodemics. Consequences for public health include research(er) hesitancy, contribution to corruption and leakage, researcher reflexivity, and ethical concerns within the HPS research and EIDM fields. Recommendations for supporting researchers, practitioners and advocates include better training and support structures for responding to controversy, safe spaces for sharing experiences, and modifying incentive structures.
    Mots-clés : censorship, controversy, Evidence-informed decision-making, health policy and systems research, infodemic, knowledge translation, misinformation.


  • Joxe Ludovic (2022) « Le capital de mobilité : un capital bourdieusien ? L’expérience des membres de Médecins sans frontières », Espaces et societes, 184-185 (1) (avril 26), p. 115-130. DOI : 10.3917/esp.184.0115. https://www.cairn.info/revue-espaces-et-societes-2022-1-page-115.htm?modal=share-tap&tap=508atbn7daj5b.


  • Ky-Zerbo Odette, Desclaux Alice, Boye Sokhna, Vautier Anthony, Rouveau Nicolas, Kouadio Brou Alexis, Fotso Arlette Simo, Pourette Dolorès, Maheu-Giroux Mathieu, Sow Souleymane, Camara Cheick Sidi, Doumenc-Aïdara Clémence, Keita Abdelaye, Boily Marie Claude, Silhol Romain, d’Elbée Marc, Bekelynck Anne, Gueye Papa Alioune, Diop Papa Moussa, Geoffroy Olivier, Kamemba Odé Kanku, Diallo Sanata, Ehui Eboi, Ndour Cheick Tidiane, Larmarange Joseph et for the ATLAS team (2022) « Willingness to use and distribute HIV self-test kits to clients and partners: A qualitative analysis of female sex workers’ collective opinion and attitude in Côte d’Ivoire, Mali, and Senegal », Women's Health, 18 (avril 17), p. 1-11. DOI : 10.1177/17455057221092268. https://doi.org/10.1177/17455057221092268.
    Résumé : Background:In West Africa, female sex workers are at increased risk of HIV acquisition and transmission. HIV self-testing could be an effective tool to improve access to and frequency of HIV testing to female sex workers, their clients and partners. This article explores their perceptions regarding HIV self-testing use and the redistribution of HIV self-testing kits to their partners and clients.Methods:Embedded within ATLAS, a qualitative study was conducted in Côte-d?Ivoire, Mali, and Senegal in 2020. Nine focus group discussions were conducted. A thematic analysis was performed.Results:A total of 87 participants expressed both positive attitudes toward HIV self-testing and their willingness to use or reuse HIV self-testing. HIV self-testing was perceived to be discreet, confidential, and convenient. HIV self-testing provides autonomy from testing by providers and reduces stigma. Some perceived HIV self-testing as a valuable tool for testing their clients who are willing to offer a premium for condomless sex. While highlighting some potential issues, overall, female sex workers were optimistic about linkage to confirmatory testing following a reactive HIV self-testing. Female sex workers expressed positive attitudes toward secondary distribution to their partners and clients, although it depended on relationship types. They seemed more enthusiastic about secondary distribution to their regular/emotional partners and regular clients with whom they had difficulty using condoms, and whom they knew enough to discuss HIV self-testing. However, they expressed that it could be more difficult with casual clients; the duration of the interaction being too short to discuss HIV self-testing, and they fear violence and/or losing them.Conclusion:Overall, female sex workers have positive attitudes toward HIV self-testing use and are willing to redistribute to their regular partners and clients. However, they are reluctant to promote such use with their casual clients. HIV self-testing can improve access to HIV testing for female sex workers and the members of their sexual and social network.
    Mots-clés : ATLAS, female sex workers, HIV self-testing, partners, perception, secondary distribution, West Africa.

  • Lange Marie-France (2022) « L’impact de la Covid-19 sur les systèmes scolaires des pays africains francophones », Questions internationales, 115 (septembre 13), p. 97-99. https://www.vie-publique.fr/catalogue/286151-lafrique-atouts-et-perils.

  • Lefort-Rieu Claire (2022) « Increasing or diverting control? Refugee self-reliance, political stakes, and international aid to forcibly displaced people in Cameroon », Routed Magazine, Oxford Migration Conference 2022 Special Issue (juin 4), p. [en ligne]. https://www.routedmagazine.com/omc22-politics-aid-displaced-cameroon.
  • Lefort-Rieu Claire (2022) « Utiliser la santé pour promouvoir la paix : entre illusions et politisation », Diplômées - Les Routes de la Soie éditions, 282-283, p. 49-62.
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