Publications des membres du Ceped



  • Atlani-Duault Laetitia, ss la dir. de (2022) Les spiritualités en temps de pandémie (sous la L Atlani-Duault), Paris : Albin MIchel, 224 p. (Spiritualités). ISBN : 978-2-226-47583-1.
    Résumé : Après le silence vient aujourd'hui, pour la première fois, le temps du témoignage des différentes religions et confessions de France sur la pandémie Covid19. Un témoignage de l'ensemble des leaders religieux français et d'intellectuels ancrés dans chaque communauté, qui tous dialoguent depuis le début de la pandémie avec l'anthropologue Laëtitia Atlani-Duault. La pandémie nous a rappelé le tragique de notre condition, exposée qu'elle est, non seulement à la maladie et à la mort, mais aussi à la manière dont elle s'y manifeste en inégalités, en solitudes indicibles, ou en malchances individuelles. Cependant, ce livre collectif nous montre que les religions ou, plutôt, les communautés humaines qu'elles constituent, habitées par ce tragique, sont toujours susceptibles de prendre à leur compte l'évènement qui afflige etfait peur afin de réinventer les liens de fraternité.

  • Quet Mathieu (2022) Flux : comment la pensée logistique gouverne le monde, Paris : Zones, 157 p. ISBN : 978-2-35522-177-4.

  • Quet Mathieu (2022) Illicit medicines in the Global South: public health access and pharmaceutical regulation, Abingdon, Oxon ; New York, NY : Routledge, 1 p. ISBN : 978-1-00-046324-8 978-1-00-319476-7.
    Résumé : "This book investigates pharmaceutical regulation and the public health issue of fake or illicit medicines in developing countries. The book analyses the evolution of pharmaceutical capitalism, showing how the entanglement of market and health interests has come to shape global regulation. Drawing on extensive fieldwork in India, Kenya and Europe, it demonstrates how large pharmaceutical companies have used the fight against fake medicines to serve their strategic interests and protect their monopolies, sometimes to the detriment of access to medicines in developing countries. The book investigates how the contemporary dynamics of pharmaceutical power in global markets have gone on to shape societies locally, resulting in more security-oriented policies. These processes highlight the key consequences of contemporary "logistical regimes" for access to health. Providing important insights on how the flows of commodities, persons, and knowledge shape contemporary access to medicines in the developing countries, this book will be of considerable interest to policy makers and regulators, and to scholars and students across sociology, science and technology studies, global health, and development studies"--
    Mots-clés : Black market, Developing countries, Drug accessibility, Drug control, Drugs, Government policy, Law and legislation, Pharmaceutical industry, Product counterfeiting, Public health, Standards.
    Note Note
    "Translation from French Edition: Impostures pharmaceutiques. Médicaments illicites et luttes pour l'accès à la santé by © Editions La Découverte, Paris, 2018."
    Note Note
    Introduction: Faith in Fakes? -- In the beginning, a conflict -- The pharmaceutical globalization -- Selling at all costs -- The regulatory turn to security -- The exercise of pharmaceutical control -- Logistic regimes and the exercise of power -- Diverting flows, contesting power
Article de revue

  • Arvanitis Rigas, Mouton Johann et Néron Adeline (2022) « Funding Research in Africa: Landscapes of Re-institutionalisation », Science, Technology and Society (avril 18), p. 097172182210782. DOI : 10.1177/09717218221078235.
    Résumé : This article begins with an overview of recent and current trends in scientific output in Africa. The focus is on how global dynamics and foreign funding support are directly affecting structural aspects of scientific research. It examines the fundamental role of foreign programmes and new forms of academic cooperation in African science. This includes a discussion of multilateral or transcontinental agreements and local universities, the role of private philanthropy and public institutions, trends in domestic expenditure on research and innovation, and how these are linked to the recent positive upturn in scientific production in many African countries.

  • Ba Mouhamadou Faly, Faye Adama, Kane Babacar, Diallo Amadou Ibra, Junot Amandine, Gaye Ibrahima, Bonnet Emmanuel et Ridde Valéry (2022) « Factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in Senegal: a mixed study », Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics (mai 11), p. 1-12. DOI : 10.1080/21645515.2022.2060020.
    Résumé : This study was an explanatory, sequential, mixed-methods design conducted in Senegal. We collected quantitative data from December 24, 2020, to January 16, 2021, and qualitative data from February 19 to March 30, 2021. We conducted a telephone survey among a marginal quota sample of 607 people over 18 years old. We performed descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses with R software for the quantitative phase; and performed manual content analyses for the qualitative phase. We surveyed 607 people for the quantitative phase and interviewed 30 people for the qualitative phase. Individuals who hesitated or refused to be vaccinated represented 12.9% and 32.8%, respectively. Vaccine hesitancy was related to gender, living in large cities, having a poor attitude toward the vaccine, thinking that the vaccine would not help protect them from the virus, being influenced by people important to them, and lacking information from health professionals. Vaccine refusal was related to living in large cities, having a poor attitude toward the vaccine, thinking that the vaccine would not help protect them from the virus, thinking that the vaccine could endanger their health, trusting opinions of people who were important to them, and lacking information from health professionals. The results of the study show that the factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and refusal are diverse and complex. Addressing these factors will help to ensure better vaccination coverage. Governments and health authorities should intensify their efforts to promote vaccine confidence and reduce misinformation.
    Note Note
    <p>doi: 10.1080/21645515.2022.2060020</p>

  • Baisley Kathy, Orne-Gliemann Joanna, Larmarange Joseph, Plazy Melanie, Collier Dami, Dreyer Jaco, Mngomezulu Thobeka, Herbst Kobus, Hanekom Willem, Dabis Francois, Siedner Mark J. et Iwuji Collins (2022) « Treat-all strategy and long-term survival among people living with HIV in South Africa: Results after 6 years of observation in the ANRS 12249 treatment as prevention trial », HIV Medicine (février 26), p. 1-7. DOI : 10.1111/hiv.13263.
    Résumé : Objectives Population-based universal test and treat (UTT) trials have shown an impact on population-level virological suppression. We followed the ANRS 12249 TasP trial population for 6 years to determine whether the intervention had longer-term survival benefits. Methods The TasP trial was a cluster-randomized trial in South Africa from 2012 to 2016. All households were offered 6-monthly home-based HIV testing. Immediate antiretroviral therapy (ART) was offered through trial clinics to all people living with HIV (PLHIV) in intervention clusters and according to national guidelines in control clusters. After the trial, individuals attending the trial clinics were transferred to the public ART programme. Deaths were ascertained through annual demographic surveillance. Random-effects Poisson regression was used to estimate the effect of trial arm on mortality among (i) all PLHIV; (ii) PLHIV aware of their status and not on ART at trial entry; and (iii) PHLIV who started ART during the trial. Results Mortality rates among PLHIV were 9.3/1000 and 10.4/1000 person-years in the control and intervention arms, respectively. There was no evidence that the intervention decreased mortality among all PLHIV [adjusted rate ratio (aRR) = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.85–1.43, p = 0.46] or among PLHIV who were aware of their status but not on ART. Among individuals who initiated ART, the intervention decreased mortality during the trial (aRR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.28–0.85, p = 0.01), but not after the trial ended. Conclusions The ‘treat all’ strategy reduced mortality among individuals who started ART but not among all PLHIV. To achieve maximum benefit of immediate ART, barriers to ART uptake and retention in care need to be addressed.
    Mots-clés : HIV, immediate antiretroviral therapy, mortality, South Africa, test and treat.

  • Becquet Valentine, Sacco Nicolás et Pardo Ignacio (2022) « Disparities in Gender Preference and Fertility: Southeast Asia and Latin America in a Comparative Perspective », Population Research and Policy Review (janvier 19). DOI : 10.1007/s11113-021-09692-1.
    Résumé : A preference for sons and a sex selection against females are widespread in vast regions of the world, including a great number of Asian and East European countries. However, while a robust son bias has been widely studied in several countries of these regions, much less attention has been given to other regions, such as Latin America. The aim of this paper is to compare gender preferences in twelve selected countries of Southeast Asia and Latin America at the beginning of the twenty-first century by calculating to what extent parents adapt their fertility behaviors to ensure the birth of a preferred sex. Using census data from Integrated Public Use Microdata Series-International (IPUMS-I), derived mostly from the 2010 round, we compute parity progression ratios with the Kaplan–Meier estimator and estimate Cox regressions to include control variables. The results focus on the probability of having a third child and show that a mixed composition of children (one boy and one girl) is the most widespread preference, except in Vietnam, where a heavy son preference can still be observed. The least preferred outcome varies between regions and countries, but it is most often two daughters.
    Mots-clés : Fertility, Gender preference, Latin America, Southeast Asia.

  • Berthod Delphine, Alvarez Dara, Perozziello Anne, Chabrol Fanny et Lucet Jean-Christophe (2022) « Are there reasons behind high Handrub consumption? A French National in-depth qualitative assessment », Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, 11 (1) (février 23), p. 42. DOI : 10.1186/s13756-022-01074-2.
    Résumé : BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene (HH) is the most important measure for preventing healthcare-associated infections. A significant correlation between alcohol-based handrub consumption (AHRC) and observed HH compliance rates has been established. In France, publicly reported AHRC displayed a large heterogeneity across healthcare facilities (HCFs). We aimed to describe programmes for promoting HH in the top and medium AHRC scorers and to assess factors and drivers leading to a high AHRC score in a panel of French HCFs. METHODS: We performed a nationwide qualitative comparative case study based on in-depth semi-structured interviews in 16 HCFs with high, 4-year AHRC scores, and a sample of seven university hospitals (UHs) with medium AHRC scores. Infection Prevention and Control Team (IPC) members (n = 62), quality managers/chief executive officers (n = 23) and frontline workers (n = 6) were interviewed, using a grounded theory approach and an iterative thematic approach. RESULTS: Ninety-one interviews were performed. There was a large heterogeneity in IPC structures and objectives, with specific patterns associated with high AHRC that were more organisational than technical. Four areas emerged: (1) strong cohesive team structure with supportive and outcome-oriented work attitude, (2) IPC structure within the organization, (3) active support from the institution, (4) leadership and role model. Among high AHRC scorers, a good core IPC organisation, a proactive and flexible management, a frequent presence in the clinical wards, and working in a constructive safety climate were prominent. CONCLUSION: We highlighted that IPC structure and activity is heterogeneous, with organisational and behavioural characteristics associated with high AHRC score. Beyond technical challenge, our work underlines the importance of strong structure of the IPC and behavioural approaches in implementing key IPC programmes.
    Mots-clés : Cross infection, Education, France, Hand disinfection, Health knowledge, attitude practice, Health personnel, Prevention and control, Qualitative research, Standards.

  • Bertuzzi Leticia, El Aarbaoui Tarik, Heron Mégane, Gosselin Anne, Roy-de-Lachaise Laurine, Fossi Larissa, Della Corte Francesco, Vignier Nicolas, Melchior Maria, Schreiber Merritt, Vandentorren Stephanie et Vuillermoz Cécile (2022) « Longitudinal survey on the Psychological Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Healthcare Workers (PsyCOVer) in France: study protocol », BMJ Open, 12 (1) (janvier), p. e053009. DOI : 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-053009.
    Résumé : Introduction In the pandemic, healthcare professionals face even higher levels of stress. It is therefore a priority to estimate the impact of the pandemic on mental health and to propose targeted strategies to improve resilience. The aims of the study were to (1) assess the mental health of healthcare professionals working with patients with COVID-19 and identify social determinants that may increase the risk of negative outcomes; and (2) test the effectiveness of an intervention to improve the resilience of healthcare professionals in France. Methods and analysis To evaluate the first objective, a national longitudinal study will be carried out among healthcare professionals working with patients with COVID-19. Participants will be recruited via an internet link that will be widely disseminated on social media, mailing lists, medical boards and French medical journals. Primary outcomes are mental health distress/symptoms and resilience. Secondary outcomes are burnout, social and occupational supports and substance use. To meet the second objective, an interventional study will be conducted. The main outcome is the effectiveness of the PsySTART-Responder and the Anticipate.Plan.Deter program. Qualitative analyses will be conducted to understand the strategies used to cope with the pandemic. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol was approved by the Sorbonne Université Ethical Committee (No 2020-CER-2020-27) and was declared to French Commission on Information Technology and Liberties, CNIL (N°2222413, 20-05-2021). The results of this study will provide a better understanding of mental health and social inequalities in mental health among healthcare professionals working in the pandemic; data about the effectiveness of the PsySTART-Responder and the Anticipate.Plan.Deter interventional program in France.

  • Bousmah Marwân-al-Qays, Iwuji Collins, Okesola Nonhlanhla, Orne-Gliemann Joanna, Pillay Deenan, Dabis François, Larmarange Joseph et Boyer Sylvie (2022) « Costs and economies of scale in repeated home-based HIV counselling and testing: Evidence from the ANRS 12249 treatment as prevention trial in South Africa », Social Science & Medicine, 305 (juillet 1), p. 115068. DOI : 10.1016/j.socscimed.2022.115068.
    Résumé : Universal HIV testing is now recommended in generalised HIV epidemic settings. Although home-based HIV counselling and testing (HB-HCT) has been shown to be effective in achieving high levels of HIV status awareness, little is still known about the cost implications of universal and repeated HB-HCT. We estimated the costs of repeated HB-HCT and the scale economies that can be obtained when increasing the population coverage of the intervention. We used primary data from the ANRS 12249 Treatment as Prevention (TasP) trial in rural South Africa (2012–2016), whose testing component included six-monthly repeated HB-HCT. We relied on the dynamic system generalised method of moments (GMM) approach to produce unbiased short- and long-run estimates of economies of scale, using the number of contacts made by HIV counsellors for HB-HCT as the scale variable. We also estimated the mediating effect of the contact quality – measured as the proportion of HIV tests performed among all contacts eligible for an HIV test – on scale economies. The mean cost (standard deviation) of universal and repeated HB-HCT was $24.2 (13.7) per contact, $1694.3 (1527.8) per new HIV diagnosis, and $269.2 (279.0) per appropriate referral to HIV care. The GMM estimations revealed the presence of economies of scale, with a 1% increase in the number of contacts for HB-HCT leading to a 0.27% decrease in the mean cost. Our results also suggested a significant long-run relationship between mean cost and scale, with a 1% increase in the scale leading to a 0.36% decrease in mean cost in the long run. Overall, we showed that significant cost savings can be made from increasing population coverage. Nevertheless, there is a risk that this gain is made at the expense of quality: the higher the quality of HB-HCT activities, the lower the economies of scale.
    Mots-clés : AIDS/HIV, Clinical trials, Cost of care, Economies of scale, Interventions, Prevention, South Africa.

  • Carillon Séverine, Chabrol Fanny, Couderc Mathilde et Girard Gabriel (2022) « L’art de captiver, de transmettre et de fédérer », Anthropologie & Santé. Revue internationale francophone d'anthropologie de la santé, 24 bis (hors-série) (juin 13). DOI : 10.4000/anthropologiesante.11349.
    Résumé : Quelques mots avant de retracer nos rencontres avec Sandrine Musso. Ce texte est issu d’un processus collectif d’écriture qui nous a semblé judicieux – compte tenu de la communauté d’expérience « générationnelle » et intellectuelle sur laquelle il s’appuie – mais qui nous paraît aussi un beau reflet de cet art qu’avait Sandrine de faire du lien entre les personnes. Si nos trajectoires se sont croisées au tournant des années 2010, nous (les quatre co-auteur·e·s) avons cheminé chacun·e dans des...

  • Chaudat Philippe et Leservoisier Olivier (2022) « De l’apprentissage du terrain au terrain comme apprentissage. L’expérience d’une pédagogie inversée », Emulations - Revue de sciences sociales, 39-40 (avril 1), p. 31-50. DOI : 10.14428/emulations.039-40.02.
    Résumé : Partant d’une expérience de plusieurs années d’encadrement de stages de terrain en ethnologie, cet article propose une réflexion sur les enjeux et les modalités de l’apprentissage de l’enquête ethnographique, tant du point de vue des enseignants que de celui des étudiants. Il s’interroge à la fois sur les recompositions que cet apprentissage a pu connaître au fil des ans et sur les transformations que celui-ci engendre dans les pratiques pédagogiques. L’examen des conditions d’enseignement de l’enquête de terrain conduit ainsi à analyser les effets d’une pédagogie inversée, tout en rendant compte de la portée heuristique du dialogue entre des dispositifs pédagogiques (enseignement et stage) complémentaires et essentiels dans la formation à la recherche par la recherche.

  • Clech Lucie, Meister Sofia, Belloiseau Maeva, Benmarhnia Tarik, Bonnet Emmanuel, Casseus Alain, Cloos Patrick, Dagenais Christian, De Allegri Manuela, du Loû Annabel Desgrées, Franceschin Lucas, Goudet Jean-Marc, Henrys Daniel, Mathon Dominique, Matin Mowtushi, Queuille Ludovic, Sarker Malabika, Turenne Charlotte Paillard et Ridde Valéry (2022) « Healthcare system resilience in Bangladesh and Haiti in times of global changes (climate-related events, migration and Covid-19): an interdisciplinary mixed method research protocol », BMC Health Services Research, 22 (1) (décembre), p. 340. DOI : 10.1186/s12913-021-07294-3.
    Résumé : Abstract Background Since climate change, pandemics and population mobility are challenging healthcare systems, an empirical and integrative research to studying and help improving the health systems resilience is needed. We present an interdisciplinary and mixed-methods research protocol, ClimHB, focusing on vulnerable localities in Bangladesh and Haiti, two countries highly sensitive to global changes. We develop a protocol studying the resilience of the healthcare system at multiple levels in the context of climate change and variability, population mobility and the Covid-19 pandemic, both from an institutional and community perspective. Methods The conceptual framework designed is based on a combination of Levesque’s Health Access Framework and the Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office’s Resilience Framework to address both outputs and the processes of resilience of healthcare systems. It uses a mixed-method sequential exploratory research design combining multi-sites and longitudinal approaches. Forty clusters spread over four sites will be studied to understand the importance of context, involving more than 40 healthcare service providers and 2000 households to be surveyed. We will collect primary data through questionnaires, in-depth and semi-structured interviews, focus groups and participatory filming. We will also use secondary data on environmental events sensitive to climate change and potential health risks, healthcare providers’ functioning and organisation. Statistical analyses will include event-history analyses, development of composite indices, multilevel modelling and spatial analyses. Discussion This research will generate inter-disciplinary evidence and thus, through knowledge transfer activities, contribute to research on low and middle-income countries (LMIC) health systems and global changes and will better inform decision-makers and populations.

  • Coulibaly Abdourahmane, Touré Laurence, Zinszer Kate et Ridde Valéry (2022) « La résilience de l’hôpital du Mali face à la Covid-19 dans un contexte de pénuries », Santé Publique, Prépublication, p. 935-945. DOI : 10.3917/spub.pr1.0935.
    Résumé : Objectif : L’objectif de cette recherche était de rendre compte des stratégies de résilience mobilisées par l’Hôpital du Mali face à la maladie à coronavirus (COVID-19).Méthode : Les données collectées ont concerné une période correspondant aux premiers mois de gestion de la pandémie à l’hôpital (avril - juillet 2020). Au total, 32 entretiens semi-directifs et 53 séances d’observation ont été réalisés. Les analyses se sont appuyées sur un cadre conceptuel et ont été menées selon l’approche déductive.Résultats : Les résultats montrent que, face aux multiples effets de la COVID-19 tels que l’aggravation de la pénurie du personnel et de la charge de travail, le besoin de créer des infrastructures dédiées, la baisse drastique des recettes liée à la baisse de fréquentation de l’hôpital, le personnel a mis en place de multiples stratégies (ex. réduction ou report de certaines dépenses, réquisition de bâtiment, recrutements de contractuels et le redéploiement du personnel fonctionnaire). La mise en place de ces stratégies a globalement permis de maintenir l’accès aux soins des patients, même si les restrictions ont été nombreuses pour les patients non COVID-19. L’hôpital a été en mesure de s’inscrire dans une résilience absorptive.Conclusion : Cette recherche qualitative a permis une meilleure compréhension des faits liés à la gestion de la COVID-19 en milieu hospitalier, et notamment de sa résilience. Les leçons tirées de la recherche devraient permettre de concevoir, à l’avenir, des réponses plus adaptées et plus efficaces pour faire face aux pandémies.

  • De Araujo Oliveira Sydia Rosana, Soares Sampaio Aletheia, Vasconcelos Ana Lucia, Cazarin Gisele, Zacarias Amanda, Furtado Betise, Andrade Andréa Carla, Paz de Sousa Karla Myrelle et Ridde Valéry (2022) « Mise en œuvre de la capacité de réponse à la Covid-19 dans un hôpital au Brésil: », Santé Publique, Prépublication (mars 23), p. 1h-8. DOI : 10.3917/spub.pr1.0008.

  • Diallo Amadou Ibra, Faye Adama, Tine Jean Augustin Diègane, Ba Mouhamadou Faly, Gaye Ibrahima, Bonnet Emmanuel, Traoré Z. et Ridde Valery (2022) « Factors associated with the acceptability of government measures to address COVID-19 in Senegal », Revue d'Épidémiologie et de Santé Publique (mars), p. S0398762022002930. DOI : 10.1016/j.respe.2022.03.123.
    Résumé : Introduction : Three months after the first appearance of the new coronavirus (COVID 19), Senegal recorded its first case on March 2, 2020. Faced with this pandemic, the State reacted quickly with public measures : instituting a curfew, placing a ban on travel between regions, and closing shops and places of worship. This research aims to study the acceptability of these non-pharmaceutical measures by the Senegalese population. Method : This study was a cross-sectional and analytical survey conducted in June and July 2020 among Senegalese over 18 years old. Sampling by the representative quota method was distributed proportionally to age, gender and region. We constructed the questionnaire using the theoretical framework of acceptability of health interventions. Through a telephone call center synchronised to an internet server, we collected data on personal characteristics, knowledge of the disease, trust in information sources, trust in government, concern about the pandemic, and the seven dimensions of acceptability. We performed descriptive analysis and structural equation with R software version 4.0.2. Results : This study included a total of 813 individuals. The average age was 34.7 years ( ± 14.2 years). They were predominantly male (54.6 %), with no education (42.6 %). The increased level of knowledge of the disease was associated with confidence in national media information sources provided by the administrative and health authorities (β=0.11**). The increase in the level of trust in the government in response to COVID-19 was positively related to the acceptability of curfew (β=0.16***), travel ban between regions (β=0.11***), and closure of places of worship (β=0.1**) and markets (β=0.09**). Conclusion : In Senegal, the acceptability of the measures depended on knowledge of the disease, perception of the risk of the disease, and trust in the government. There is a need to strengthen awareness and risk communication of COVID-19. Keywords Social acceptabilityGovernment measuresCOVID-19Senegal

  • Fillol Amandine, McSween-Cadieux Esther, Ventelou Bruno, Larose Marie-Pier, Kanguem Ulrich Boris Nguemdjo, Kadio Kadidiatou, Dagenais Christian et Ridde Valéry (2022) « When the messenger is more important than the message: an experimental study of evidence use in francophone Africa », Health Research Policy and Systems, 20 (1) (mai 26), p. 57. DOI : 10.1186/s12961-022-00854-x.
    Résumé : Abstract Background Epistemic injustices are increasingly decried in global health. This study aims to investigate whether the source of knowledge influences the perception of that knowledge and the willingness to use it in francophone African health policy-making context. Methods The study followed a randomized experimental design in which participants were randomly assigned to one of seven policy briefs that were designed with the same scientific content but with different organizations presented as authors. Each organization was representative of financial, scientific or moral authority. For each type of authority, two organizations were proposed: one North American or European, and the other African. Results The initial models showed that there was no significant association between the type of authority or the location of the authoring organization and the two outcomes (perceived quality and reported instrumental use). Stratified analyses highlighted that policy briefs signed by the African donor organization (financial authority) were perceived to be of higher quality than policy briefs signed by the North American/European donor organization. For both perceived quality and reported instrumental use, these analyses found that policy briefs signed by the African university (scientific authority) were associated with lower scores than policy briefs signed by the North American/European university. Conclusions The results confirm the significant influence of sources on perceived global health knowledge and the intersectionality of sources of influence. This analysis allows us to learn more about organizations in global health leadership, and to reflect on the implications for knowledge translation practices. , Résumé Contexte Les injustices épistémiques sont de plus en plus décriées dans le domaine de la santé mondiale. Cette étude vise à déterminer si la source des connaissances influence la perception de ces connaissances et la volonté de les utiliser. Méthodes L’étude suit un devis expérimental randomisé dans lequel les participant·es ont été assigné·es au hasard à l'une des sept notes politiques conçues avec le même contenu scientifique, mais avec différentes organisations présentées comme autrices. Chaque organisation était représentative d'une autorité financière, scientifique ou morale. Pour chaque type d'autorité, deux organisations étaient proposées : l'une nord-américaine ou européenne, l'autre africaine. Résultats Les résultats montrent que le type d’autorité et la localisation des organisations autrices ne sont pas significativement associés à la qualité perçue et à l’utilisation instrumentale déclarée. Toutefois, des interactions entre le type d’autorité et la localisation étaient significatives. Ainsi, les analyses stratifiées ont mis en évidence que pour la qualité perçue, les notes de politique signées par l'organisme bailleur (autorité financière) africain obtenaient de meilleurs scores que les notes de politique signées par l’organisme bailleur nord-américain / européen. Tant pour la qualité perçue que pour l'utilisation instrumentale déclarée, ces analyses stratifiées ont révélé que les notes de politique signées par l'université africaine (autorité scientifique) étaient associées à des scores plus faibles que les notes de politique signées par l'université nord-américaine/européenne. Interprétation Les résultats confirment l'influence significative des sources sur la perception des connaissances en santé mondiale et rappellent l’intersectionnalité de l’influence des sources d’autorité. Cette analyse nous permet à la fois d'en apprendre davantage sur les organisations qui dominent la scène de la gouvernance mondiale en santé et de réfléchir aux implications pour les pratiques d'application des connaissances.

  • Gagnon-Dufresne Marie-Catherine, Gautier Lara, Beaujoin Camille, Lamothe Ashley Savard, Mikanagu Rachel, Cloos Patrick, Ridde Valéry et Zinszer Kate (2022) « Considering social inequalities in health in large-scale testing for COVID-19 in Montréal: a qualitative case study », BMC Public Health, 22 (1), p. 749. DOI : 10.1186/s12889-022-13163-3.
    Résumé : Abstract Background Evidence continues to demonstrate that certain marginalised populations are disproportionately affected by COVID-19. While many studies document the impacts of COVID-19 on social inequalities in health, none has examined how public health responses to the pandemic have unfolded to address these inequities in Canada. The purpose of our study was to assess how social inequalities in health were considered in the design and planning of large-scale COVID-19 testing programs in Montréal (Québec, Canada). Methods Part of the multicountry study HoSPiCOVID, this article reports on a qualitative case study of large-scale testing for COVID-19 in Montréal. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 19 stakeholders involved in planning large-scale testing or working with vulnerable populations during the pandemic. We developed interview guides and a codebook using existing literature on policy design and planning, and analysed data deductively and inductively using thematic analysis in NVivo. Results Our findings suggest that large-scale COVID-19 testing in Montréal did not initially consider social inequalities in health in its design and planning phases. Considering the sense of urgency brought by the pandemic, participants noted the challenges linked to the uptake of an intersectoral approach and of a unified vision of social inequalities in health. However, adaptations were gradually made to large-scale testing to improve its accessibility, acceptability, and availability. Actors from the community sector, among others, played an important role in supporting the health sector to address the needs of specific subgroups of the population. Conclusions These findings contribute to the reflections on the lessons learned from COVID-19, highlighting that public health programs must tackle structural barriers to accessing healthcare services during health crises. This will be necessary to ensure that pandemic preparedness and response, including large-scale testing, do not further increase social inequalities in health.

  • Gautier Lara, Nguengang Wakap Stéphanie, Verrier Florian, da Silva Miranda Érica, Négré Victoria, Hamza Jalel, Poveda Juan-Diego et Bouchon Magali (2022) « Responding to Increasing Health and Social Needs of Unprotected Unaccompanied Minors in Paris in the Context of COVID-19: A Mixed Methods Case Study », Journal of Immigrant & Refugee Studies (janvier 19), p. 1-20. DOI : 10.1080/15562948.2022.2027057.
    Résumé : Unaccompanied minors (UMs) are children under the age of 18 who settle in a foreign country without a legal representative. In France, many UMs are left unprotected from child welfare services because assessment systems evaluate that they are not minors. In Paris, the non-governmental organization Médecins du Monde (MdM) offers unprotected UMs medical, psychological, and social care. In March 2020, the lockdown policy to contain COVID-19 constrained MdM to adapt its care provision model. This case study sought to answer the following question: how did volunteers and employees of MdM respond to the social and health needs of unprotected UMs during the spring 2020 lockdown in Paris? We analyzed a cohort of 58 UMs for eight weeks of lockdown using secondary quantitative data. We further explored the UMs’ needs and the experience of phone consultations, through 15 interviews with MdM’s program volunteers and employees. Time series showed a steady increase in UMs’ needs. The program’s adapted care provision likely contributed to reducing UMs’ feeling of isolation. It also had several negative consequences for unprotected UMs, volunteers, employees, and Médecins du Monde’s institution. This study highlights the role of non-governmental organizations in providing a particularly vulnerable migrant population – unprotected UMs – care and support, despite operational challenges in crisis times.
    Mots-clés : care provision, COVID-19 pandemic, France, mixed methods study, Unaccompanied Minors.

  • Gosselin Anne, Malroux Inès, Desprat Diane, Devetter François-Xavier, Memmi Sarah, Pannetier Julie, Valat Emmanuel et Melchior Maria (2022) « Prévalence des risques psychosociaux au travail et santé mentale parmi les immigrés et descendants d’immigrés : résultats de l’enquête nationale Conditions de Travail-Risques psychosociaux 2016 », Bull Epidémiol Hebd, 7, p. 141-9.
    Résumé : Objectifs – Peu d’études se sont penchées sur les risques psychosociaux parmi les immigrés et les descendants d’immigrés et leur association avec la santé mentale. Notre étude a pour objectif : 1) de décrire la prévalence de deux indicateurs qui recouvrent les dimensions d’exigence psychologique, de latitude décisionnelle et d’isolement au travail : le job strain (tension au travail : faible latitude/forte demande) et l’iso-strain (combinaison d’une situation de job strain et d’un faible soutien social) selon le statut migratoire et modéliser la probabilité d’être exposé ; 2) vérifier que les associations entre le job strain, l’iso-strain et l’anxiété sont similaires pour tous les groupes (immigrés, descendants d’immigrés). Méthodes – Nous avons utilisé l’enquête nationale transversale Conditions de Travail-Risques Psychosociaux 2016 (N=24 640). L’anxiété a été mesurée par le score GAD-Mini, outil diagnostique pour repérer le trouble anxieux généralisé. Les prévalences du job strain et de l’iso-strain ont été décrites selon le statut migratoire et le sexe. Des régressions de Poisson ont été utilisées pour modéliser la probabilité d’être exposé au job strain et à l’iso-strain. La prévalence de l’anxiété a été ensuite décrite selon le statut migratoire et le sexe. Dans chaque groupe de population, nous modélisons la probabilité de l’anxiété en fonction des caractéristiques sociodémographiques, des antécédents de santé mentale et de l’expérience du job strain ou de l’iso-strain. Résultats – Les prévalences de risques psychosociaux varient fortement selon le statut migratoire, avec des immigrés plus exposés que la population majoritaire (ni immigrée, ni descendante d’immigrés). Après ajustement, être un immigré d’Afrique reste associé au job strain (ratio incidence risque ajusté : IRRa=1,21 ; IC95%: [0,99-1,47]), et être un descendant d’immigré d’Afrique à l’iso-strain (IRRa=1,33 [1,05-1,69]). La prévalence de l’anxiété était particulièrement haute parmi les descendants d’immigrés d’Afrique (12%). Dans cette population, le job strain et l’iso-strain étaient associés à l’anxiété (IRRa job strain=2,70 [1,22-6,01] ; IRRa iso-strain=4,26 [2,29-7,92]). Conclusion – Dans la lignée des travaux internationaux, notre étude montre que les immigrés et descendants d’immigrés sont particulièrement exposés au job strain et à l’iso-strain, ce qui pourrait contribuer à détériorer leur santé mentale.
    Mots-clés : ⛔ No DOI found.

  • Gosselin Anne, Warszawski Josiane, Bajos Nathalie et for the EpiCov Study Group (2022) « Higher risk, higher protection. COVID-19 risk among immigrants in France: results from the population-based EpiCov survey », European Journal of Public Health (avril 27), p. ckac046. DOI : 10.1093/eurpub/ckac046.
    Résumé : Immigrants and ethnic/racialized minorities have been identified as being at higher risk of COVID-19 infection, but few studies report on their exposures and prevention behaviours. This study aims to examine the social distribution of COVID-19 exposure (overcrowding, working outside the home, use of public transport to go to work) and prevention behaviours (use of face masks, washing hands, respect for physical distance) in France during the first wave of the epidemic.We used the EpiCov population-based survey from a random sample of individuals aged 15 years or more. We determined the distribution of the self-reported outcomes according to migratory status and sex, using chi2 tests. We modelled the probability of outcomes with logistic regression. Finally, we focused the analysis on the Greater Paris area and accounted for neighbourhood characteristics.A total of 111,824 participants were included in the study. Overall, immigrant groups from non-European countries were more exposed to COVID-19-related factors and more respectful of prevention measures. The probability of overcrowding and the use of public transport was higher for immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa (aOR=3.71 [3.19;4.32], aOR=6.36 [4.86; 8.32]) than for the majority population. Immigrant groups were less likely to have a non-systematic use of face masks and to breach physical distancing than the majority population (for immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa, aOR=0.32 [0.28; 0.37] and aOR=0.71 [0.61; 0.81], respectively). Living in a neighbourhood with a higher share of immigrants was associated with higher exposure and better prevention behaviours.In France, immigrants had a higher exposure to COVID-19-related factors and more systematic prevention behaviours.

  • Inghels Maxime, Kim Hae-Young, Tanser Frank, Hettema Anita, McMahon Shannon A., Oldenburg Catherine E., Matse Sindy, Kohler Stefan, Geldsetzer Pascal et Bärnighausen Till (2022) « PrEP uptake and delivery setting preferences among clients visiting six healthcare facilities in Eswatini », AIDS and Behavior (avril 16). DOI : 10.1007/s10461-022-03646-0.
    Résumé : Abstract Due to the high HIV incidence among the general population of Eswatini, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV-exposed individuals is recommended. However, little is known about PrEP uptake and preferences in PrEP delivery healthcare setting among the general population. We conducted a secondary analysis of a randomized trial that aimed to increase PrEP uptake. All clients eligible for PrEP in one of six public-sector healthcare facilities in Eswatini were included. PrEP uptake was stratified by initial reason for visit (e.g. outpatient). Preferences in PrEP delivery setting were collected among those clients who initiated PrEP. A total of 1782 clients had their HIV acquisition risk assessed. Of these, 72% (1277/1782) were considered at risk by healthcare providers and, among them, 40% (517/1277) initiated PrEP. Uptake was higher among clients visiting specifically to initiate PrEP (93%), followed by HIV testing visits (45.8%) and outpatient visits (40%). Among those who initiated PrEP, preferred delivery settings were outpatient services (31%), HIV testing services (26%), family planning (21%) and antenatal services (14%). Men or those at high risk of HIV acquisition were more likely to prefer HIV testing and outpatient services, while young women were more likely to visit and express a preference for antenatal and family planning services. Outpatient services and HIV testing services could be preferable choices for PrEP delivery integration, due to the high PrEP uptake and delivery setting preferences of the populations who use these services. Antenatal and family planning could also be considered with a view to targeting the youngest women. , Resumen Debido a la alta incidencia del VIH entre la población general de Eswatini, se recomienda la profilaxis previa a la exposición (PrEP) para las personas expuestas al VIH. Sin embargo, se sabe poco sobre la aceptación de la PrEP y las preferencias en el ámbito de la atención sanitaria de la PrEP entre la población general. Se realizó un análisis secundario de un ensayo clínico que pretendía aumentar la aceptación de la PrEP. Se incluyó a todos los clientes elegibles para la PrEP en uno de los seis centros sanitarios del sector público de Eswatini. La aceptación de la PrEP se estratificó según el motivo inicial de la visita (por ejemplo, paciente externo). Se recogieron las preferencias en el entorno de administración de la PrEP entre aquellos clientes que iniciaron la PrEP. Se evaluó el riesgo de adquisición del VIH de un total de 1.782 clientes (de 2.238 contactados, el 80%). De ellos, el 72% (1277/1782) fueron considerados de riesgo por los profesionales sanitarios y, entre ellos, el 40% (517/1277) iniciaron la PrEP. El consumo fue mayor entre los clientes que acudieron específicamente para iniciar la PrEP (93%), seguido de las visitas para realizar la prueba del VIH (45,8%) y las visitas ambulatorias (40%). Entre los que iniciaron la PrEP, los entornos de prestación preferidos fueron los servicios ambulatorios (31%), los servicios de pruebas del VIH (26%), la planificación familiar (21%) y los servicios prenatales (14%). Los hombres o las personas con alto riesgo de contraer el VIH tenían más probabilidades de preferir las pruebas del VIH y los servicios ambulatorios, mientras que las mujeres jóvenes tenían más probabilidades de acudir a los servicios prenatales y de planificación familiar y expresar su preferencia por ellos. Los servicios ambulatorios y los servicios de pruebas del VIH podrían ser opciones preferibles para la integración de la entrega de la PrEP, debido a la alta aceptación de la PrEP y a las preferencias del entorno de entrega de las poblaciones que utilizan estos servicios. Los servicios prenatales y de planificación familiar también podrían considerarse con vistas a dirigirse a las mujeres más jóvenes.

  • Inghels Maxime, Kouassi Arsène Kra, Niangoran Serge, Bekelynck Anne, Carilon Séverine, Sika Lazare, Koné Mariatou, Danel Christine, Loû Annabel Degrées du, Larmarange Joseph et for the research team ANRS 12323 DOD-CI (2022) « Preferences and access to community-based HIV testing sites among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Côte d’Ivoire », BMJ Open, 12 (6) (juin), p. e052536. DOI : 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-052536.
    Résumé : Objective Measuring access and preferences to Men who have Sex with Men focused community-based HIV testing sites (MSM-CBTS) in Côte d’Ivoire. Design A respondent-driven sampling telephone survey. Setting National survey conducted in 2018 in Côte d’Ivoire. Participants 518 MSM aged over 18 years old. Primary and secondary outcome measures Knowledge, practices, satisfaction and preferences regarding MSM-CBTS. Factors associated with MSM-CTBS access or knowledge and with HIV testing venue preferences were examined. Results Only half of the respondents (47%) reported knowing of an MSM-CBTS. Of these, 79% had already attended one. Both knowing of and ever visiting an MSM-CBTS were significantly associated with a higher number of HIV tests performed in the past 12 months and having disclosed sexual orientation to one family member.In terms of preferences, 37% of respondents said they preferred undifferentiated HIV testing sites (ie, ‘all patients’ HIV testing sites), 34% preferred MSM-CBTS and 29% had no preference.Those who reported being sexually attracted to women, being bisexual and those who did not know an MSM non-governmental organisation were less likely to prefer MSM-CBTS. MSM who preferred undifferentiated HIV testing sites mentioned the lack of discretion and anonymity of community-based sites and the desire to avoid the gaze of others. Conclusion Community-based HIV testing is well suited for MSM who identify as homosexual and those close to the MSM community, while maintaining undifferentiated HIV testing is essential for others. Both types of activities need to be maintained and developed. Healthcare professionals in undifferentiated HIV testing sites need to be properly trained in the non-judgemental reception of MSM.
    Mots-clés : HIV & AIDS, International health services, SEXUAL MEDICINE.

  • Jessani Nasreen S., Williamson R. Taylor, Choonara Shakira, Gautier Lara, Hoe Connie, Jafar Sakeena K., Khalid Ahmad Firas, Rodríguez Salas Irene, Turcotte-Tremblay Anne-Marie et Rodríguez Daniela C. (2022) « Evidence attack in public health: Diverse actors’ experiences with translating controversial or misrepresented evidence in health policy and systems research », Global Public Health (janvier 7), p. 1-17. DOI : 10.1080/17441692.2021.2020319.
    Résumé : Bringing evidence into policy and practice discussions is political; more so when evidence from health studies or programme data are deemed controversial or unexpected, or when results are manipulated and misrepresented. Furthermore, opinion and misinformation in recent years has challenged our notions about how to achieve evidence-informed decision-making (EIDM). Health policy and systems (HPS) researchers and practitioners are battling misrepresentation that only serves to detract from important health issues or, worse, benefit powerful interests. This paper describes cases of politically and socially controversial evidence presented by researchers, practitioners and journalists during the Health Systems Research Symposium 2020. These cases cut across global contexts and range from public debates on vaccination, comprehensive sexual education, and tobacco to more inward debates around performance-based financing and EIDM in refugee policy. The consequences of engaging in controversial research include threats to commercial profit, perceived assaults on moral beliefs, censorship, fear of reprisal, and infodemics. Consequences for public health include research(er) hesitancy, contribution to corruption and leakage, researcher reflexivity, and ethical concerns within the HPS research and EIDM fields. Recommendations for supporting researchers, practitioners and advocates include better training and support structures for responding to controversy, safe spaces for sharing experiences, and modifying incentive structures.
    Mots-clés : censorship, controversy, Evidence-informed decision-making, health policy and systems research, infodemic, knowledge translation, misinformation.

  • Ky-Zerbo Odette, Desclaux Alice, Boye Sokhna, Vautier Anthony, Rouveau Nicolas, Kouadio Brou Alexis, Fotso Arlette Simo, Pourette Dolorès, Maheu-Giroux Mathieu, Sow Souleymane, Camara Cheick Sidi, Doumenc-Aïdara Clémence, Keita Abdelaye, Boily Marie Claude, Silhol Romain, d’Elbée Marc, Bekelynck Anne, Gueye Papa Alioune, Diop Papa Moussa, Geoffroy Olivier, Kamemba Odé Kanku, Diallo Sanata, Ehui Eboi, Ndour Cheick Tidiane, Larmarange Joseph et for the ATLAS team (2022) « Willingness to use and distribute HIV self-test kits to clients and partners: A qualitative analysis of female sex workers’ collective opinion and attitude in Côte d’Ivoire, Mali, and Senegal », Women's Health, 18 (avril 17), p. 1-11. DOI : 10.1177/17455057221092268.
    Résumé : Background:In West Africa, female sex workers are at increased risk of HIV acquisition and transmission. HIV self-testing could be an effective tool to improve access to and frequency of HIV testing to female sex workers, their clients and partners. This article explores their perceptions regarding HIV self-testing use and the redistribution of HIV self-testing kits to their partners and clients.Methods:Embedded within ATLAS, a qualitative study was conducted in Côte-d?Ivoire, Mali, and Senegal in 2020. Nine focus group discussions were conducted. A thematic analysis was performed.Results:A total of 87 participants expressed both positive attitudes toward HIV self-testing and their willingness to use or reuse HIV self-testing. HIV self-testing was perceived to be discreet, confidential, and convenient. HIV self-testing provides autonomy from testing by providers and reduces stigma. Some perceived HIV self-testing as a valuable tool for testing their clients who are willing to offer a premium for condomless sex. While highlighting some potential issues, overall, female sex workers were optimistic about linkage to confirmatory testing following a reactive HIV self-testing. Female sex workers expressed positive attitudes toward secondary distribution to their partners and clients, although it depended on relationship types. They seemed more enthusiastic about secondary distribution to their regular/emotional partners and regular clients with whom they had difficulty using condoms, and whom they knew enough to discuss HIV self-testing. However, they expressed that it could be more difficult with casual clients; the duration of the interaction being too short to discuss HIV self-testing, and they fear violence and/or losing them.Conclusion:Overall, female sex workers have positive attitudes toward HIV self-testing use and are willing to redistribute to their regular partners and clients. However, they are reluctant to promote such use with their casual clients. HIV self-testing can improve access to HIV testing for female sex workers and the members of their sexual and social network.
    Mots-clés : ATLAS, female sex workers, HIV self-testing, partners, perception, secondary distribution, West Africa.

  • Lefort-Rieu Claire (2022) « Increasing or diverting control? Refugee self-reliance, political stakes, and international aid to forcibly displaced people in Cameroon », Routed Magazine, Oxford Migration Conference 2022 Special Issue (juin 4), p. [en ligne].

  • Meyer J. B., Benguerna M., Pellegrini C., Alazali M. et Benbouzid K. (2022) « Higher education in North Africa: comparative evolution of Algeria and Morocco », The Journal of North African Studies (janvier 18), p. 1-18. DOI : 10/gn92j9.
    Résumé : The Maghreb countries share a similar demographic profile: around 40% of the population is under twenty-five years of age. The recent upsurge in the birth rate also implies, in the medium term, a large and lasting proportion of young people being in post-school phase and at the point of entry into working life. Considering these structural similarities, is the evolution of higher education going the same path among countries of North Africa? This article explores this question by examining detailed statistics for Algeria and Morocco. They reveal that the two countries have made different university policy choices, but that they are both affected by comparable transformations: the massification and feminisation of their enrolments; a relative emergence of the private sector, occurring recently but at different times; and substantial investments to generalise access for young people to university education, which is considered essential for development. These observations lead to a regional perspective with a prospective vision. A projection of recent trends over the coming decades, linked to demographic forecasts, is proposed. This exercise proves to be highly instructive in assessing the challenges that the situation poses to policymakers.

  • Niang Marietou, Moha Mahaman, Ridde Valéry et Gautier Lara (2022) « La pérennité d’un projet de prévention et de prise en charge de la malnutrition au Niger », Canadian Journal of Public Health (avril 18). DOI : 10.17269/s41997-022-00631-x.

  • Ost Katarina, Duquesne Louise, Duguay Claudia, Traverson Lola, Mathevet Isadora, Ridde Valéry et Zinszer Kate (2022) « Large-scale infectious disease testing programs have little consideration for equity: findings from a scoping review », Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 143 (mars), p. 30-60. DOI : 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2021.11.030.
    Mots-clés : COVID-19, Ebola, equity, H1N1, HIV, inequity, PROGRESS-Plus framework, Scoping review, testing programs, TIDieR-PHP.

  • Paul Elisabeth et Ridde Valéry (2022) « Le financement basé sur les résultats (FBR) en Afrique: Mise en débat d’un modèle voyageur », Revue internationale des études du développement, 248 (mars 24), p. 169-204. DOI : 10.4000/ried.334.

  • Porfilio-Mathieu Lyann, Pigeon-Gagné Émilie, Dagenais Christian et Ridde Valéry (2022) « Prevalence and determinants of mental health among an indigent population in rural Burkina Faso: a cross-sectional study », Journal of Global Health Reports, 6 (avril 25). DOI : 10.29392/001c.33820.

  • Pourette Dolorès (2022) « Penser ensemble les objets sida et immigration », Anthropologie & Santé, 24 bis. N° dédié à Sandrine Musso (juin 13). DOI : 10.4000/anthropologiesante.10874.
    Résumé : La scène du sida est donc aussi un observatoire de choix des évolutions contemporaines du traitement de l’altérité dans la société française. Qu’il s’agisse de la production sociale des dynamiques de l’épidémie, de polémiques relatives à l’invisibilité statistique et à la gestion « postcoloniale » des populations immigrées, de l’adaptation socioculturelle des messages et politiques préventifs, la lutte contre le sida constitue un observatoire de tout premier choix des enjeux attachés à l’inte...

  • Pourette Dolorès, Cripps Amber, Guerrien Margaux, Desprès Caroline, Opigez Eric, Bardou Marc et Dumont Alexandre (2022) « Assessing the Acceptability of Home-Based HPV Self-Sampling: A Qualitative Study on Cervical Cancer Screening Conducted in Reunion Island Prior to the RESISTE Trial », Cancers, 14 (6), p. 1380. DOI : 10.3390/cancers14061380.
    Résumé : Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates are 2 to 3 times higher in the overseas department of Reunion compared with mainland France. RESISTE’s cluster-randomized controlled trial aims to test the effectiveness of home-based self-sampling (HBSS) through a high-risk oncogenic papillomavirus test sent out by post to women who have not been screened in the past 3 years, despite having been invited to do so through a reminder letter. Prior to the trial, qualitative research was carried out to understand screening barriers and assess anticipated acceptability. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 35 women and 20 healthcare providers. Providers consider HBSS a viable method in reaching women who tend not to visit a doctor regularly, or who are reluctant to undergo a smear pap, as well as those who are geographically isolated. They considered, however, that women would require support, and that outreach was necessary to ensure more socially isolated women participate. The majority of the women surveyed were in favour of HBSS. However, two-thirds voiced concerns regarding the test’s efficiency and their ability to perform the test correctly, without harming themselves. Based on these findings, recommendations were formulated to reassure women on usage and quality, and to help reach socially isolated women.
    Mots-clés : cervical cancer screening, home-based self-sampling, HPV testing, qualitative study, Reunion Island, social disadvantage, social isolation, socio-economic insecurity.

  • Ravalihasy Andrainolo, Kardaś-Słoma Lidia, Yazdanpanah Yazdan et Ridde Valéry (2022) « Quantitative methods used to evaluate impact of health promotion interventions to prevent HIV infections: a methodological systematic review protocol », Systematic Reviews, 11 (1) (mai 6), p. 87. DOI : 10.1186/s13643-022-01970-z.
    Résumé : Combination prevention is currently considered the best approach to combat HIV epidemic. It is based upon the combination of structural, behavioral, and biomedical interventions. Such interventions are frequently implemented in a health-promoting manner due to their aims, the approach that was adopted, and their complexity. The impact evaluation of these interventions often relies on methods inherited from the biomedical field. However, these methods have limitations and should be adapted to be relevant for these complex interventions. This systematic review aims to map the evidence-based methods used to quantify the impact of these interventions and analyze how these methods are implemented.
    Mots-clés : Combination HIV prevention, Evidence-based impact evaluation, Health promotion, Mathematical methods, Statistical methods, Study design.

  • Ridde Valéry, Ba Mouhamadou Faly, Guyot Marion, Kane Babacar, Mbow Ndeye Bineta, Senghor Ibrahima et Faye Adama (2022) « Factors that foster and challenge the sustainability of departmental health insurance units in Senegal », International Social Security Review, 75 (2) (avril), p. 97-117. DOI : 10.1111/issr.12300.
    Résumé : In an effort to establish universal health coverage (UHC), Senegal set up two departmental health insurance units (UDAM) to scale-up health insurance to rural communities. Part of this innovation meant that health insurance was no longer managed by volunteers, but by professionals. Several years after the conclusion of the project in 2017 that supported their initial development, both UDAMs still operate successfully. This mixed methods research aims to understand the factors that have contributed to the sustainability of both UDAMs, as well as discuss the remaining challenges. The factors deemed favourable to sustainability are actions undertaken to ensure financial stability and organizational risk taking. However, the mobilization of the population, relationships with health professionals and the role of the State have been more difficult to organize. Challenges concern the payment of subsidies and the supply of medicines by the State and partnership with the health care system, the maintenance of contributions, the digitalization of administration, as well as fraud and abuse.

  • Ridde Valéry et Faye Adama (2022) « Policy response to COVID-19 in Senegal: power, politics, and the choice of policy instruments », Policy Design and Practice (avril 28), p. 1-20. DOI : 10.1080/25741292.2022.2068400.
    Résumé : The objective of the paper is to understand how Senegal formulated its policy response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The response was rapid, comprising conventional policy instruments used previously for containing Ebola. The policymaking process involved several agencies, which resulted in significant leadership and coordination problems. In addition, community participation and engagement with relevant scientific communities were limited, despite their recognized importance in fighting medical crises. Instead, international donors had a significant influence on the choice of policy tools. The paper contributes to contemporary thinking on the autonomy of policy instruments-the idea that preferences for policy instruments are stable, independent of the particular policy problems being addressed and goals being pursued-which has recently been applied to policies in Africa. The study calls for a review of how academics, civil society, and decision-makers must collaborate to design public policies and policy tools based on evidence and context, not only politics.

  • Ridde Valéry, Kane Babacar, Gaye Ibrahima, Ba Mouhamadou Faly, Diallo Amadou, Bonnet Emmanuel, Traoré Zoumana et Faye Adama (2022) « Acceptability of government measures against COVID-19 pandemic in Senegal: A mixed methods study », éd. par Yodi Mahendradhata, PLOS Global Public Health, 2 (4) (avril 25), p. e0000041. DOI : 10.1371/journal.pgph.0000041.
    Résumé : While the first case of COVID-19 was declared on March 2 2020 in Senegal, the government banned the attendance of places of worship on 14 March, as a first measure. On March 23, it introduced a curfew, a ban on movement between regions, and the closure of markets. The objective of this study is to measure and understand the acceptability of these four governmental measures as well as the level of public trust in the state to fight the pandemic. We carried out a mixed-method research. The acceptability variables were defined using the theoretical framework of acceptability (TFA). At the quantitative level, we carried out a telephone survey (June/July 2020) at the national level (n = 813) with a sampling strategy by marginal quotas. We conducted a qualitative survey (August/September 2020) with a nested sample (n = 30). The results show a relatively high acceptability of the measures but a heterogeneity of responses. People considered curfews to be much more important (85.7% [83.2%; 88.0%]) than the closure of places of worship (55.4%; [51.9%; 58.7%]), which is least in line with the values and positive affective attitude. Several positive unintended effects of the curfew were stated (security and social/family cohesion). People over the age of 60 have more confidence in the government to fight the pandemic than people under the age of 25, although not significant (7.72 ± 3.12 vs. 7.07 ± 3.11, p = 0.1); and they are more in favour of the closure of places of worship. The more regions are affected by the pandemic, the less confidence respondents report in the government and the less they perceive the measures as effective. The results confirm the importance of government communication and trust in the state to strengthen the acceptability of pandemic measures. Important differences in acceptability show the need to adapt measures and their explanations, instead of unqualified universal action.

  • Rikap Cecilia (2022) « Becoming an intellectual monopoly by relying on the national innovation system: the State Grid Corporation of China's experience », Research Policy, 51 (4) (mai), p. 104472. DOI : 10/gn4dhg.
    Résumé : This paper examines the origins of global leaders under intellectual monopoly capitalism. State Grid Corporation of China (SGCC), the leading firm in artificial intelligence applications for the energy sector, became an intellectual monopoly relying heavily on China's national innovation system –particularly public research organizations and public funding, and innovation and energy policies. SGCC is unique because it did not rely on technology transfer from global leaders, unlike other national champions from developing or emerging countries. We provide evidence that contributes to thinking that SGCC first became a national intellectual monopoly and only afterwards expanded that monopoly globally. We empirically study SGCC's innovation networks. We proxy them using big data techniques to analyze the content, co-authors and co-owners of its publications and patents. Results also suggest that SGCC is capturing intellectual rents from its increasingly transnational and technologically diverse innovation networks by leveraging its national innovation system.

  • Robert Emilie, Zongo Sylvie, Rajan Dheepa et Ridde Valéry (2022) « Contributing to collaborative health governance in Africa: a realist evaluation of the Universal Health Coverage Partnership », BMC Health Services Research, 22 (1) (décembre), p. 753. DOI : 10.1186/s12913-022-08120-0.
    Résumé : Abstract Background Policy dialogue, a collaborative governance mechanism, has raised interest among international stakeholders. They see it as a means to strengthen health systems governance and to participate in the development of health policies that support universal health coverage. In this context, WHO has set up the Universal Health Coverage Partnership. This Partnership aims to support health ministries in establishing inclusive, participatory, and evidence-informed policy dialogue. The general purpose of our study is to understand how and in what contexts the Partnership may support policy dialogue and with what outcomes. More specifically, our study aims to answer two questions: 1) How and in what contexts may the Partnership initiate and nurture policy dialogue? 2) How do collaboration dynamics unfold within policy dialogue supported by the Partnership?  Methods We conducted a multiple-case study realist evaluation based on Emerson’s integrative framework for collaborative governance to investigate the role of the Partnership in policy dialogue on three policy issues in six sub-Saharan African countries: health financing (Burkina Faso and Democratic Republic of Congo), health planning (Cabo Verde, Niger, and Togo), and aid coordination for health (Liberia). We interviewed 121 key informants, analyzed policy documents, and observed policy dialogue events. Results The Partnership may facilitate the initiation of policy dialogue when: 1) stakeholders feel uncertain about health sector issues and acknowledge their interdependence in responding to such issues, and 2) policy dialogue coincides with their needs and interests. In this context, policy dialogue enables stakeholders to build a shared understanding of issues and of the need for action and encourages collective leadership. However, ministries’ weak ownership of policy dialogue and stakeholders’ lack of confidence in their capacity for joint action hinder their engagement and curb the institutionalization of policy dialogue. Conclusions Development aid actors wishing to support policy dialogue must do so over the long term so that collaborative governance becomes routine and a culture of collaboration has time to grow. Public administrations should develop collaborative governance mechanisms that are transparent and intelligible in order to facilitate stakeholder engagement.

  • Rudasingwa Martin, Yeboah Edmund, Ridde Valéry, Bonnet Emmanuel, De Allegri Manuela et Muula Adamson Sinjani (2022) « How equitable is health spending on curative services and institutional delivery in Malawi? Evidence from a quasi-longitudinal benefit incidence analysis », International Journal for Equity in Health, 21 (1) (décembre), p. 25. DOI : 10.1186/s12939-022-01624-5.
    Résumé : Abstract Background Malawi is one of a handful of countries that had resisted the implementation of user fees, showing a commitment to providing free healthcare to its population even before the concept of Universal Health Coverage (UHC) acquired global popularity. Several evaluations have investigated the effects of key policies, such as the essential health package or performance-based financing, in sustaining and expanding access to quality health services in the country. Understanding the distributional impact of health spending over time due to these policies has received limited attention. Our study fills this knowledge gap by assessing the distributional incidence of public and overall health spending between 2004 and 2016. Methods We relied on a Benefit Incidence Analysis (BIA) to measure the socioeconomic inequality of public and overall health spending on curative services and institutional delivery across different health facility typologies. We used data from household surveys and National Health Accounts. We used a concentration index (CI) to determine the health benefits accrued by each socioeconomic group. Results Socioeconomic inequality in both public and overall health spending substantially decreased over time, with higher inequality observed in overall spending, non-public health facilities, curative health services, and at higher levels of care. Between 2004 and 2016, the inequality in public spending on curative services decreased from a CI of 0.037 (SE 0.013) to a CI of 0.004 (SE 0.011). Whiles, it decreased from a CI of 0.084 (SE 0.014) to a CI of 0.068 (SE 0.015) for overall spending in the same period. For institutional delivery, inequality in public and overall spending decreased between 2004 and 2016 from a CI of 0.032 (SE 0.028) to a CI of -0.057 (SE 0.014) and from a CI of 0.036 (SE 0.022) to a CI of 0.028 (SE 0.018), respectively. Conclusions Through its free healthcare policy, Malawi has reduced socioeconomic inequality in health spending over time, but some challenges still need to be addressed to achieve a truly egalitarian health system. Our findings indicate a need to increase public funding for the health sector to ensure access to care and financial protection.

  • Salje Henrik, Kyungah Lim Jacqueline, Ridde Valery, Todagbe Agnandji Selidji, Lell Bertrand, Yaro Seydou, Seung Yang Jae, Hoinard Damien, Weaver Scott, Vanhomwegen Jessica et Yoon In-Kyu (2022) « Seroepidemiological reconstruction of long-term chikungunya virus circulation in Burkina Faso and Gabon », Journal of Infectious Diseases (juin 15). DOI : 10.17863/CAM.85546.
    Résumé : Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a major public health concern worldwide. However, infection levels are rarely known, especially in Africa. We recruited individuals from Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso and Lambaréné, Gabon (age range: 1-55), tested their blood for CHIKV antibodies and used serocatalytic models to reconstruct epidemiological histories. In Ouagadougou, 291/999 (29.1%) individuals were seropositive, ranging from 2% among those &lt;10y to 66% in those 40-55y. We estimated there were 7 outbreaks since the 1970s but none since 2001 resulting in 600,000 infections in the city, none of which were reported. However, we could not definitively conclude whether infections were due to CHIKV or o’nyong-nyong, another alphavirus. In Lambaréné, 117/427 (27%) participants were seropositive. Our model identified a single outbreak sometime since 2007, consistent with the only reported CHIKV outbreak in the country. These findings suggest sporadic outbreaks in these settings and that the burden remains undetected or incorrectly attributed.
    Note Note
    <h2>Other</h2> European Research Council

  • Schantz Clémence, Rozée Virginie et Molinier Pascale (2022) « Introduction: Un nouvel axe de recherche pour les études de genre, un nouveau défi pour le soin et la société », Cahiers du Genre, 71 (2) (mars 7), p. 5-24. DOI : 10.3917/cdge.071.0005.
    Résumé : Les violences obstétricales constituent un nouvel axe de recherche pour analyser l’expérience et le vécu de certaines femmes lors de leur suivi médical de grossesse et de leur accouchement. Si ce concept est utilisé par des chercheur·es et des militant·es en Amérique latine depuis les années 2000, ce n’est qu’à partir des années 2010 qu’il est repris en Europe et notamment en France, en particulier sur les réseaux sociaux. Le concept de « violences obstétricales » entend dénoncer différentes pratiques telles que l’absence de consentement, l’insuffisance de communication, de respect de la pudeur ou de prise en compte de la douleur, au cours d’actes médicaux parfois non médicalement justifiés (certaines césariennes ou épisiotomies, par exemple). Mais ce concept est loin de faire l’unanimité dans l’espace public et politique.

  • Schultz Émilien, Touzani Rajae, Mancini Julien et Ward Jeremy K. (2022) « From contact tracing to COVID-19 pass holder; the tortured journey of the French TousAntiCovid contact tracing app », Public Health, 206 (mai), p. 5-7. DOI : 10.1016/j.puhe.2022.02.009.
    Résumé : Objectives: Our study aimed to provide an updated overview of the use of the French contact tracing application, TousAntiCovid, and identify evolutions since the beginning of the pandemic. Study design: We conducted a survey study on a representative sample of the French adult population. Methods: Our data were collected by the Obervatoire Re = gional de la Sante = (ORS) using a selfadministered online questionnaire. This was completed by a sample of 2,022 people stratified to match French official census statistics for gender, age, occupation, and area of housing. We conducted statistical analysis using Python (Pandas Scipy Statsmodels) with chi-squared and Wilcoxon rank sum tests to control for statistical significance. Results: A small majority of respondents used TousAntiCovid (55.5%), while 41.0% had never downloaded it. Only one-quarter of the respondents (23.3%) used it for contact tracing with Bluetooth, while a third (32.2%) used it only for storing their health pass. The app's use increased with education level, income, and younger age. A large majority (85%) of non-vaccinated respondents had never downloaded TousAntiCovid. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the role and use of France's official COVID-19 app TousAntiCovid has evolved in line with the government's strategy; while initially focusing on contact tracing, its development has led to the possibility to store test and vaccination documentation. The survey also confirmed previous results pointing to the lasting differences in socio-economic status in terms of adoption of the app. This is problematic because the long-term nature of the pandemic could require the government to keep a range of strategies open, including contact tracing. Public discussion of the current and future roles of the French contact tracing app is therefore needed. (c) 2022 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • Simo Fotso Arlette, Kra Arsène Kouassi, Maheu-Giroux Mathieu, Boye Sokhna, d’Elbée Marc, Ky-zerbo Odette, Rouveau Nicolas, N’Guessan Noel Kouassi, Geoffroy Olivier, Vautier Anthony, Larmarange Joseph et for the ATLAS Team (2022) « Is it possible to recruit HIV self-test users for an anonymous phone-based survey using passive recruitment without financial incentives? Lessons learned from a pilot study in Côte d’Ivoire », Pilot and Feasibility Studies, 8 (4) (janvier 6), p. 1-7. DOI : 10/gn3cjj.
    Résumé : Background:  Due to the discreet and private nature of HIV self-testing (HIVST), it is particularly challenging to moni‑tor and assess the impacts of this testing strategy. To overcome this challenge, we conducted a study in Côte d’Ivoire to characterize the profile of end users of HIVST kits distributed through the ATLAS project (AutoTest VIH, Libre d’Accéder à la connaissance de son Statut). Feasibility was assessed using a pilot phone-based survey. Methods:  The ATLAS project aims to distribute 221300 HIVST kits in Côte d’Ivoire from 2019 to 2021 through both primary (e.g., direct distribution to primary users) and secondary distribution (e.g., for partner testing). The pilot survey used a passive recruitment strategy—whereby participants voluntarily called a toll-free survey phone number—to enrol participants. The survey was promoted through a sticker on the HIVST instruction leaflet and hotline invitations and informal promotion by HIVST kit-dispensing agents. Importantly, participation was not financially incentivized, even though surveys focussed on key populations usually use incentives in this context. Results:  After a 7-month period in which 25,000 HIVST kits were distributed, only 42 questionnaires were completed. Nevertheless, the survey collected data from users receiving HIVST kits via both primary and secondary distribution (69% and 31%, respectively). Conclusion:  This paper provides guidance on how to improve the design of future surveys of this type. It discusses the need to financial incentivize participation, to reorganize the questionnaire, the importance of better informing and training stakeholders involved in the distribution of HIVST, and the use of flyers to increase the enrolment of users reached through secondary distribution.

  • Tanguy-Domingos Simonella (2022) « Du « confiage » traditionnel d’enfant à l’adoption internationale: Les transformations autour du placement d’enfants au Bénin », Annales de démographie historique, 142 (2) (janvier 18), p. 165-194. DOI : 10.3917/adh.142.0165.
    Résumé : La circulation des enfants d’une famille à l’autre est une pratique que l’on retrouve dans la plupart des sociétés africaines. L’adoption dans son acception moderne s’est progressivement implantée dans les pays africains, notamment au Bénin où différentes formes de placements d’enfants ont jusque-là été utilisées pour répondre aux normes de solidarité en vigueur. Cet article retrace l’historicité des pratiques adoptives et assimilées dans un contexte social marqué par une vision biologiste de la filiation, sous l’influence de la globalisation et des transformations sociopolitiques internes.

  • Traoré Metogara, Badiane Kéba, Vautier Anthony, Simo Fotso Arlette, Kanku Kabemba Odé, Rouveau Nicolas, Maheu-Giroux Mathieu, Boily Marie-Claude, Larmarange Joseph, Terris-Prestholt Fern, d’Elbée Marc et for the ATLAS Team (2022) « Economic analysis of low volume interventions using real-world data: Costs of HIV self-testing distribution and HIV testing services in west Africa from the ATLAS project », Frontiers in Health Services, 2 (juin 27), p. 886513. DOI : 10.3389/frhs.2022.886513.
    Résumé : Achieving the first 95 of the UNAIDS targets requires the implementation of innovative approaches to knowing one's HIV status. Among these innovations is the provision of HIV self-testing (HIVST) kits in west Africa by the international partner organization Solthis (IPO). In order to provide guidance for the optimal use of financial resources, this study aims to estimate the program and site level costs of dispensing HIVST as well as HIV testing services (HTS) - excluding HIVST - in health facilities in Côte d'Ivoire, Mali and Senegal as part of the ATLAS project. We estimated from the provider’s perspective, HIVST and HTS incremental costs using top-down and bottom-up costing approaches and conducted a time and motion study. We identified costs at the program level for HIVST (including IPO central costs) and at the site level for HIVST and HTS. The economic costs of distributing HIVST kits were assessed in 37 health facilities between July 2019 and March 2021 (21 months). Sensitivity analyses were also performed on unit costs to examine the robustness of our estimates related to key assumptions. In total, 16,001 HIVST kits were dispensed for 32,194 HTS sessions carried out. Program level HIVST average costs ranged $12-$286, whereas site level costs ranged $4-$26 across distribution channels and countries. Site level HTS costs ranged $7-$8 per testing session, and ranged $72-$705 per HIV diagnosis. Across countries and channels, HIVST costs were driven by personnel (27%-68%) and HIVST kits (32%-73%) costs. The drivers of HTS costs were personnel costs ranging between 65% and 71% of total costs across distribution channels and countries, followed by supplies costs between 21% and 30%. While program level HIVST average costs were high, site level HIVST average costs remained comparable to HTS costs in all countries. Health facility-based distribution channels operating at low volume exhibit high proportion of central costs which should be considered carefully for financial planning when run alongside high volumes mobile outreach distribution channels. HIVST can diversify the HIV testing offer at health facilities, thus improving access to screening for target populations not reached by HTS services.
    Mots-clés : ⚠️ Invalid DOI, ⛔ No DOI found.

  • Warszawski Josiane, Meyer Laurence, Franck Jeanna-Eve, Rahib Delphine, Lydié Nathalie, Gosselin Anne, Counil Emilie, Kreling Robin, Novelli Sophie, Slama Remy, Raynaud Philippe, Bagein Guillaume, Costemalle Vianney, Sillard Patrick, Fourie Toscane, Lamballerie Xavier de, Bajos Nathalie et Team Epicov (2022) « Trends in social exposure to SARS-Cov-2 in France. Evidence from the national socio-epidemiological cohort–EPICOV », PLOS ONE, 17 (5) (mai 22), p. e0267725. DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0267725.
    Résumé : Background We aimed to study whether social patterns of exposure to SARS-CoV-2 infection changed in France throughout the year 2020, in light to the easing of social contact restrictions. Methods A population-based cohort of individuals aged 15 years or over was randomly selected from the national tax register to collect socio-economic data, migration history, and living conditions in May and November 2020. Home self-sampling on dried blood was proposed to a 10% random subsample in May and to all in November. A positive anti-SARS-CoV-2 ELISA IgG result against the virus spike protein (ELISA-S) was the primary outcome. The design, including sampling and post-stratification weights, was taken into account in univariate and multivariate analyses. Results Of the 134,391 participants in May, 107,759 completed the second questionnaire in November, and respectively 12,114 and 63,524 were tested. The national ELISA-S seroprevalence was 4.5% [95%CI: 4.0%-5.1%] in May and 6.2% [5.9%-6.6%] in November. It increased markedly in 18-24-year-old population from 4.8% to 10.0%, and among second-generation immigrants from outside Europe from 5.9% to 14.4%. This group remained strongly associated with seropositivity in November, after controlling for any contextual or individual variables, with an adjusted OR of 2.1 [1.7–2.7], compared to the majority population. In both periods, seroprevalence remained higher in healthcare professions than in other occupations. Conclusion The risk of Covid-19 infection increased among young people and second-generation migrants between the first and second epidemic waves, in a context of less strict social restrictions, which seems to have reinforced territorialized socialization among peers.
    Mots-clés : Body weight, COVID 19, Europe, France, Medical risk factors, Professions, SARS CoV 2, Virus testing.
Chapitre de livre

  • Beaudevin Claire, Lang Claudia et Chabrol Fanny (2022) « Persistent Hospitals », in Global health for all: knowledge, politics, and practices, par Claire Beaudevin, Jean-Paul Gaudillière, Claudia Lang, et Andy McDowell, USA : Rutgers University Press, p. 248. ISBN : 978-1-978827-41-7 978-1-978827-40-0.
    Résumé : Global Health for All trains a critical lens on global health to share the stories that global health’s practices and logics tell about 20th and 21st century configurations of science and power. An ethnography on multiple scales, the book focuses on global health’s key epistemic and therapeutic practices like localization, measurement, triage, markets, technology, care, and regulation. Its roving approach traverses policy centers, sites of intervention, and innumerable spaces in between to consider what happens when globalized logics, circulations, and actors work to imagine, modify, and manage health. By resting in these in-between places, Global Health for All simultaneously examines global health as a coherent system and as a dynamic, unpredictable collection of modular parts.

  • Charbit Yves, ss la dir. de (2022) « Population et questions de développement », in Population et questions de développement, London : ISTE Editions. ISBN : 978-1-78948-051-1.

  • Chaudat Philippe (2022) « Alcohol and Religious Practices in Meknes (Morocco): Between Rejection and Compromise », in Alcohol in the Maghreb and the Middle East since the Nineteenth Century Disputes, Policies and Practices, Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN : 978-3-030-84000-6.
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