Publications des membres du Ceped

2021

Article de revue


  • Jones Catherine M, Gautier Lara et Ridde Valéry (2021) « A scoping review of theories and conceptual frameworks used to analyse health financing policy processes in sub-Saharan Africa », Health Policy and Planning (mai 24), p. czaa173. DOI : 10.1093/heapol/czaa173. https://academic.oup.com/heapol/advance-article/doi/10.1093/heapol/czaa173/6283520.
    Résumé : Health financing policies are critical policy instruments to achieve Universal Health Coverage, and they constitute a key area in policy analysis literature for the health policy and systems research (HPSR) field. Previous reviews have shown that analyses of policy change in low- and middle-income countries are under-theorised. This study aims to explore which theories and conceptual frameworks have been used in research on policy processes of health financing policy in sub-Saharan Africa and to identify challenges and lessons learned from their use. We conducted a scoping review of literature published in English and French between 2000 and 2017. We analysed 23 papers selected as studies of health financing policies in sub-Saharan African countries using policy process or health policy-related theory or conceptual framework ex ante. Theories and frameworks used alone were from political science (35%), economics (9%) and HPSR field (17%). Thirty-five per cent of authors adopted a ‘do-it-yourself’ (bricolage) approach combining theories and frameworks from within political science or between political science and HPSR. Kingdon’s multiple streams theory (22%), Grindle and Thomas’ arenas of conflict (26%) and Walt and Gilson’s policy triangle (30%) were the most used. Authors select theories for their empirical relevance, methodological rational (e.g. comparison), availability of examples in literature, accessibility and consensus. Authors cite few operational and analytical challenges in using theory. The hybridisation, diversification and expansion of mid-range policy theories and conceptual frameworks used deductively in health financing policy reform research are issues for HPSR to consider. We make three recommendations for researchers in the HPSR field. Future research on health financing policy change processes in sub-Saharan Africa should include reflection on learning and challenges for using policy theories and frameworks in the context of HPSR.


  • Jones Forrest K, Mensah Keitly, Heraud Jean-Michel, Randriatsarafara Fidiniaina Mamy, Metcalf C Jessica E et Wesolowski Amy (2021) « The Challenge of Achieving Immunity Through Multiple-Dose Vaccines in Madagascar », American Journal of Epidemiology, 190 (10) (octobre 1), p. 2085-2093. DOI : 10.1093/aje/kwab145. https://academic.oup.com/aje/article/190/10/2085/6280147.
    Résumé : Abstract Administration of many childhood vaccines requires that multiple doses be delivered within a narrow time window to provide adequate protection and reduce disease transmission. Accurately quantifying vaccination coverage is complicated by limited individual-level data and multiple vaccination mechanisms (routine and supplementary vaccination programs). We analyzed 12,541 vaccination cards from 6 districts across Madagascar for children born in 2015 and 2016. For 3 vaccines—pentavalent diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-hepatitis B-Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (DTP-HB-Hib; 3 doses), 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10; 3 doses), and rotavirus vaccine (2 doses)—we used dates of vaccination and birth to estimate coverage at 1 year of age and timeliness of delivery. Vaccination coverage at age 1 year for the first dose was consistently high, with decreases for subsequent doses (DTP-HB-Hib: 91%, 81%, and 72%; PCV10: 82%, 74%, and 64%; rotavirus: 73% and 63%). Coverage levels between urban districts and their rural counterparts did not differ consistently. For each dose of DTP-HB-Hib, the overall percentage of individuals receiving late doses was 29%, 7%, and 6%, respectively; estimates were similar for other vaccines. Supplementary vaccination weeks, held to help children who had missed routine care to catch up, did not appear to increase the likelihood of being vaccinated. Maintaining population-level immunity with multiple-dose vaccines requires a robust stand-alone routine immunization program.

  • Kabbanji Lama (2021) « Exploration radiophonique de l’immigration en France, une série de podcasts à contre-courant de nos représentations. Entretien avec Perin Emel Yavuz [in : Annabel Desgrées du Loû & Anne Gosselin (dir.)] », De Facto (en ligne), 29 (décembre), p. 8. https://www.icmigrations.cnrs.fr/2021/11/18/defacto-029–05/.
    Résumé : Les travailleurs étrangers sont régulièrement présentés comme des personnes exerçant des activités sans grande valeur économique ni savoir-faire particulier. Exploration radiophonique de l’immigration en France, une série de podcasts, entend déconstruire cette idée reçue.
    Mots-clés : ⛔ No DOI found.


  • Kabbanji Lama (2021) « Enquête sonore des 20 premiers jours de l’intifada d’octobre 2019 au Liban », Ethnologie francaise, 51 (2) (août 18), p. 239-254. DOI : 10.3917/ethn.212.0239. https://www.cairn.info/revue-ethnologie-francaise-2021-2-page-239.htm.
    Résumé : « Tous veut dire tous ». Ce slogan a uni en 2019 plus de la moitié de la population libanaise dans la rue contre l’oligarchie au pouvoir, au-delà des clivages confessionnels, régionaux ou de classe. Cet article propose une exploration sonore des vingt premiers jours de l’intifada du 17 octobre. L’enquête sonore est proposée comme approche méthodologique permettant l’exploration d’un mouvement social à ses débuts. Les enregistrements sonores permettent à la fois de capter, de faire revivre, et d’analyser les ambiances et les émotions sur le vif puis de zoomer sur les mots de la révolte : discours, interactions, slogans. Au fil des enregistrements se dévoile le rôle clé des jeunes générations ainsi que le répertoire discursif que celles-ci mobilisent pour expliquer leur révolte : le refus de l’exil, l’accès à une éducation publique, gratuite et de qualité ainsi qu’à une offre de travail locale. Cette approche permet de préciser certaines dynamiques sociales qui sous-tendent l’intifada d’octobre, notamment la rencontre entre les classes rendue possible par la crise du système capitaliste au Liban, et les espoirs que cette rencontre a suscités.


  • Kabbanji Lama, Levatino Antonina et Toma Sorana (2021) « Mobilités étudiantes internationales : l’attractivité de la France », Plein droit, 130 (3) (décembre 31), p. 3-6. DOI : 10.3917/pld.130.0005. http://www.cairn.info/revue-plein-droit-2021-3-page-3.htm.


  • Kabbanji Lama et Scientifique » le collectif « Étrangèr-es et division internationale du travail (2021) « Ultra-sélection à l’université », Plein droit, 130 (3) (décembre 31), p. 15-18. DOI : 10.3917/pld.130.0017. http://www.cairn.info/revue-plein-droit-2021-3-page-15.htm.
    Résumé : Si elle s’inscrit dans la lignée des politiques de « maîtrise des flux migratoires », la réforme adoptée en 2019 ouvre la voie à la marchandisation de l’enseignement supérieur et, dans son sillage, à l’instauration d’un régime d’inégal accès à l’enseignement supérieur fondé sur une sélection tant géographique que financière des demandes d’admission au séjour pour études. La promotion d’une délocalisation des formations payantes à l’étranger, et en particulier dans les pays d’Afrique francophone, laisse présager une reconfiguration sans précédent de l’espace universitaire français.


  • Kameda Koichi (2021) « Molecular Sovereignty: Building a Blood Screening Test for the Brazilian Nation », Medicine Anthropology Theory, 8 (2) (novembre 3), p. 1-25. DOI : 10/gncwbr. http://www.medanthrotheory.org/article/view/5122.
    Résumé : This article interrogates the relationship between the development of national diagnostic technologies and the exercise of sovereignty, by analysing a Brazilian project to produce a nucleic acid test (NAT) for the country’s blood screening programme. The concept of ‘molecular sovereignty’ is proposed to demonstrate that exercising sovereignty demands not only technological resources but also a sufficiently powerful and national imaginary to support local knowledge production as a means of advancing national healthcare priorities. First, this research article contextualises the political importance of blood safety for Brazil during its transition to democracy in the 1980s and the creation of its universal healthcare system. Then, it investigates how adopting the NAT led the state to invest in the production of a national technology. Third, the article unpacks the diagnostic test to consider how certain aspects of the project might ultimately strengthen the ability of global capital to cross national boundaries and create new markets. Lastly, it discusses how the project ended up creating a centralised and ‘closed’ system to avoid leaving the country vulnerable to the entry of global diagnostic companies. This case demonstrates how the molecularisation of blood, through the construction of a unified healthcare system driven by the constitutional right to health, can be deployed to construct imagined communities on the scale of a nation.
    Mots-clés : Blood, Brazil, Diagnostic tests, Global health, Molecularisation, Sovereignty.


  • Kameda Koichi, Barbeitas Mady, Caetano Rosângela, Löwy Ilana, Oliveira Ana Claudia Dias de, Corrêa Marilena Cordeiro Dias Villela et Cassier Maurice (2021) « Testing COVID-19 in Brazil: fragmented efforts and challenges to expand diagnostic capacity at the Brazilian Unified National Health System », Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 37 (3), p. e00277420. DOI : 10.1590/0102-311x00277420. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-311X2021000306001&tlng=en.
    Résumé : Abstract: Since the first recorded case of COVID-19 on February 26, 2020, Brazil has seen an exponential growth in the number of cases and deaths. The national testing approach has been insufficient to correctly use this tool in the support of containing the epidemic in the country. In this communication, we discuss efforts and challenges to scale-up COVID-19 testing at the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS). This communication presents the initial results of the research project created to investigate the political, industrial, technological, and regulatory aspects that may affect the diagnostic and testing capacity for COVID-19 in Brazil. The paper draws on the review of academic literature, media publication, and collection of public data on tests purchase and regulation. It enlists initiatives to enhance PCR testing, national production and development of technologies, as well as regulatory measures to fast-track new tests. Our analysis indicates some points of reflection. Firstly, the lack of a consistent national strategy to fight COVID-19 exarcebated supply problems of diagnostic components. If the country was eventually able to circumvent this situation, it still faces a more structural dependency on the importation of diagnostic components. Secondly, the discontinued funding and distribution of tests may have implied health policy fragmentation and the growing importance of local governments and non-state actors to fighting the epidemics within SUS. Finally, initiatives established since the second semester of 2020 have expanded the testing capacity at SUS. However, it has not been sufficient to control the progress of the epidemic in the country. , Resumen: Desde que se registró el primer caso de COVID-19 el 26 de febrero de 2020, Brasil ha visto un crecimiento exponencial en el número de casos y muertes. La estrategia nacional para preconizar el test de diagnóstico ha sido insuficiente en el uso correcto de esta herramienta, con el fin de ayudar a contener la epidemia en el país. Se presentó los esfuerzos y los desafíos para ampliar la realización de pruebas de COVID-19 en el Sistema Único de Salud brasileño (SUS). Este artículo presenta los resultados iniciales del proyecto de investigación sobre los aspectos políticos, industriales, tecnológicos y regulatorios que pueden afectar la capacidad de diagnóstico para la COVID-19 en Brasil. El grupo de investigación realizó una revisión de la literatura académica, medios de comunicación y recogida de datos públicos respecto a la adquisición de tests y su regulación. Se haz referencia a iniciativas para promover la realización de pruebas de PCR, la producción nacional y el desarrollo de tecnologías, así como las medidas regulatorias fast-track para nuevas pruebas. Nuestro análisis indica algunos puntos de reflexión. Primero, la falta de una estrategia nacional consistente para luchar contra la COVID-19 que exacerbó los problemas de sumistro de los componentes de diagnóstico en un primer momento. Se solucionó posteriormente esta situación, aunque se coloque nuevamente en pauta la dependencia estructural del país en la importación de insumos de salud estratégicos. Segundo, la financiación y la distribución de tests de forma descontinuada pueden indicar la fragmentación de la política de salud, así como los gobiernos estaduales, municipales, y atores no estatales asumiendo un rol preponderante en acciones de combate a la epidemia en el SUS. En último, las iniciativas establecidas en el segundo semestre del 2020 contribuyeron para ampliar la capacidad de realización de tests moleculares en el SUS. Sin embargo, esa capacidad no fue suficiente para controlar la epidemia en Brasil. , Resumo: Desde que o primeiro caso de COVID-19 no Brasil foi notificado, em 26 de fevereiro de 2020, o país assiste a um crescimento exponencial no número de casos e mortes. A estratégia nacional de testagem tem sido insuficiente para usar essa ferramenta corretamente no apoio à contenção da epidemia no país. O artigo discute os esforços e desafios para escalonar a testagem para COVID-19 no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). O texto apresenta os resultados iniciais de um projeto de pesquisa sobre os aspectos políticos, industriais, tecnológicos e regulatórios que podem afetar a capacidade diagnóstica e de testagem para COVID-19 no Brasil. O estudo se apoia em revisão da literatura cientifica, artigos publicados na mídia e coleta de dados públicos sobre a compra e regulamentação de testes. O texto faz referência a iniciativas para ampliar a testagem de PCR, a produção nacional e o desenvolvimento de tecnologias, além de medidas regulatórias fast-track para novos testes. Nossa análise sugere alguns pontos para reflexão. Primeiro, a falta de uma estratégia nacional consistente para combater a COVID-19 agravou os problemas de fornecimento de reagentes de diagnostico num primeiro momento. Esta situação foi posteriormente resolvida, embora coloque novamente em pauta a dependência estrutural do país na importação de insumos de saúde estratégicos. Em segundo lugar, financiamento e a distribuição de testes, que ocorreram de forma descontinuada, podem indicar a fragmentação da política sanitária, assim como o papel de governos estaduais, municipais e atores não estatais no combate à epidemia no âmbito do SUS. Por último, iniciativas estabelecidas no segundo semestre de 2020 contribuíram para ampliar a capacidade de testagem molecular no SUS. Contudo, essa capacidade não foi suficiente para controlar a epidemia no Brasil.


  • Kameda Koichi, Kelly Ann H, Lezaun Javier et Löwy Ilana (2021) « Imperfect diagnosis: The truncated legacies of Zika testing », Social Studies of Science (août 31), p. 030631272110354. DOI : 10.1177/03063127211035492. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/03063127211035492.
    Résumé : When the Zika virus burst onto the international scene in the second half of 2015, the development of diagnostic tools was seen as an urgent global health priority. Diagnostic capacity was restricted to a small number of reference laboratories, and none of the few available molecular or serological tests had been validated for extensive use in an outbreak setting. In the early weeks of the crisis, key funders stepped in to accelerate research and development efforts, and the WHO took responsibility for steering diagnostic standardization, a role it had successfully played during the West Africa Ebola virus outbreak. Yet when the WHO declared the end of the Zika Public Health Emergency of International Concern in November 2016, diagnostic capacity remained patchy, and few tools were available at the scale required in the countries that bore the brunt of the epidemic, particularly Brazil. This article analyses the limited impact of global R&D efforts on the availability of Zika diagnostic options where they were most needed and for those most vulnerable: women who might have been exposed to the virus during their pregnancy and children born with suspected congenital Zika syndrome. The truncated legacies of testing during the Zika crisis reveal some of the fault lines in the global health enterprise, particularly the limits of ‘emergency R&D’ to operate in geopolitical contexts that do not conform to the ideal type of a humanitarian crisis, or to tackle technical issues that are inextricably linked to domestic struggles over the scope and distribution of biological citizenship. Diagnostic shortcomings, we argue, lie at the heart of the stunning transformation, in less than two years, in the status of Zika: from international public health emergency to neglected disease.


  • Kameda Koïchi et Kessel Nils (2021) « Quels consensus ?: La sécurité transfusionnelle en Allemagne et au Brésil », Cahiers Droit, Sciences & Technologies, 12, p. 97-115. DOI : 10.4000/cdst.3483. http://journals.openedition.org/cdst/3483.
    Résumé : Le présent article s’intéresse à l’émergence du consensus sur l’introduction du dépistage génomique viral (DGV ou nucleic acid based test - NAT) dans deux pays, l’Allemagne et le Brésil. L’introduction du DGV vers la fin des années 1990 en Europe puis une décennie plus tard au Brésil s’inscrit ainsi dans un ensemble de processus transnationaux : une menace virale identifiée, la disponibilité d’un ensemble de technologies mobilisant la polymerase-chain-réaction (PCR) ainsi que des normes scientifiques, technologiques et juridiques internationales relatives à la production et à la circulation du sang et à la transfusion de ses produits dérivés. L’article poursuit trois objectifs : d’abord il vise à décrire les formes et les contenus des consensus qui ont émergé dans les deux pays respectifs. Puis, nous nous intéressons à la manière dont le consensus est le résultat d’une coopération étroite entre acteurs établis. Enfin, en prolongement des questionnements de Marie-Angèle Hermitte, cet article analyse comment les processus « technoscientifiques » (Dominique Pestre) et l’évolution du droit sont intriqués et s’influencent mutuellement dans l’émergence d’un consensus.


  • Klein Armelle et Sandron Frédéric (2021) « La mobilité résidentielle comme cause et conséquence de vulnérabilité chez les personnes âgées à La Réunion », Populations vulnérables, 7 (décembre 1), p. 34-49. DOI : 10.4000/popvuln.850. https://journals.openedition.org/popvuln/850.
    Résumé : Sur la base d’une revue de la littérature et d’un corpus de quatorze entretiens semi-directifs, l’objet de cet article est de mettre en relation les facteurs de vulnérabilité du territoire réunionnais, ceux des personnes âgées de ce département français d’outre-mer ainsi que ceux éventuellement issus d’une mobilité résidentielle. Pour cela, une analyse macroscopique et une analyse individuelle sont proposées autour des facteurs de vulnérabilité dans les registres économiques, sanitaires, sociaux et environnementaux. Ces deux niveaux d’analyse indiquent la nécessité d’une approche territoriale fine pour mieux comprendre la vulnérabilité des personnes âgées et ses liens avec la mobilité résidentielle.


  • Kouassi Arsène Kra, Colin Géraldine, Diop Papa Moussa, Simo Fotso Arlette, Rouveau Nicolas, Hervé Kouakou Kouamé, Geoffroy Olivier, Diallo Bakary, Kabemba Odé Kanku, Dieng Baidy, Diallo Sanata, Vautier Anthony, Larmarange Joseph et ATLAS Team (2021) « Introducing and Implementing HIV Self-Testing in Côte d'Ivoire, Mali, and Senegal: What Can We Learn From ATLAS Project Activity Reports in the Context of the COVID-19 Crisis? », Frontiers in Public Health (juillet 20), p. 1-14. DOI : 10.3389/fpubh.2021.653565. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpubh.2021.653565/full.
    Résumé : Background: The ATLAS program promotes and implements HIVST in Côte d’Ivoire, Mali, and Senegal. Priority groups include members of key populations – female sex workers (FSW), men having sex with men (MSM), and people who use drugs (PWUD) – and their partners and relatives. HIVST distribution activities, which began in mid-2019, were impacted in early 2020 by the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This article, focusing only on outreach activities among key populations, analyzes quantitative and qualitative program data collected during implementation to examine temporal trends in HIVST distribution and their evolution in the context of the COVID-19 health crisis. Specifically, we investigated the impact on, the adaptation of, and the disruption of field activities. Results: In all three countries, the pre-COVID-19 period was marked by a gradual increase in HIVST distribution. The period corresponding to the initial emergency response (March-May 2020) witnessed an important disruption of activities: a total suspension in Senegal, a significant decline in Côte d’Ivoire, and a less pronounced decrease in Mali. Secondary distribution was also negatively impacted. Peer educators showed resilience and adapted by relocating from public to private areas, reducing group sizes, moving night activities to the daytime, increasing the use of social networks, integrating hygiene measures, and promoting assisted HIVST as an alternative to conventional rapid testing. From June 2020 onward, with the routine management of the COVID-19 pandemic, a catch-up phenomenon was observed with the resumption of activities in Senegal, the opening of new distribution sites, a rebound in the number of distributed HIVST kits, a resurgence in larger group activities, and a rebound in the average number of distributed HIVST kits per primary contact. Conclusions: Although imperfect, the program data provide useful information to describe changes in the implementation of HIVST outreach activities over time. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on HIVST distribution among key populations was visible in the monthly activity reports. Focus groups and individual interviews allowed us to document the adaptations made by peer educators, with variations across countries and populations. These adaptations demonstrate the resilience and learning capacities of peer educators and key populations.
    Mots-clés : Côte d'Ivoire, COVID-19, HIV self-testing, Key populations, Mali, Senegal, West Africa.


  • Ky-Zerbo Odette, Desclaux Alice, Kouadio Alexis Brou, Rouveau Nicolas, Vautier Anthony, Sow Souleymane, Camara Sidi Cheick, Boye Sokhna, Pourette Dolorès, Sidibé Younoussa, Maheu-Giroux Mathieu, Larmarange Joseph et on behalf of the ATLAS Team (2021) « Enthusiasm for Introducing and Integrating HIV Self-Testing but Doubts About Users: A Baseline Qualitative Analysis of Key Stakeholders' Attitudes and Perceptions in Côte d'Ivoire, Mali and Senegal », Frontiers in Public Health, 9 (octobre 18). DOI : 10.3389/fpubh.2021.653481. https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fpubh.2021.653481.
    Résumé : Since 2019, the ATLAS project, coordinated by Solthis in collaboration with national AIDS programs, has introduced, promoted and delivered HIV self-testing (HIVST) in Côte d'Ivoire, Mali and Senegal. Several delivery channels have been defined, including key populations: men who have sex with men, female sex workers and people who use injectable drugs. At project initiation, a qualitative study analyzing the perceptions and attitudes of key stakeholders regarding the introduction of HIVST in their countries and its integration with other testing strategies for key populations was conducted. The study was conducted from September to November 2019 within 3 months of the initiation of HIVST distribution. Individual interviews were conducted with 60 key informants involved in the project or in providing support and care to key populations: members of health ministries, national AIDS councils, international organizations, national and international non-governmental organizations, and peer educators. Semi structured interviews were recorded, translated when necessary, and transcribed. Data were coded using Dedoose© software for thematic analyses. We found that stakeholders' perceptions and attitudes are favorable to the introduction and integration of HIVST for several reasons. Some of these reasons are held in common, and some are specific to each key population and country. Overall, HIVST is considered able to reduce stigma; preserve anonymity and confidentiality; reach key populations that do not access testing via the usual strategies; remove spatial barriers; save time for users and providers; and empower users with autonomy and responsibility. It is non-invasive and easy to use. However, participants also fear, question and doubt users' autonomy regarding their ability to use HIVST kits correctly; to ensure quality secondary distribution; to accept a reactive test result; and to use confirmation testing and care services. For stakeholders, HIVST is considered an attractive strategy to improve access to HIV testing for key populations. Their doubts about users' capacities could be a matter for reflective communication with stakeholders and local adaptation before the implementation of HIVST in new countries. Those perceptions may reflect the West African HIV situation through the emphasis they place on the roles of HIV stigma and disclosure in HIVST efficiency.

  • Lange Marie-France (2021) « Une discrète révolution sociale : la progression massive de la scolarisation des filles et des jeunes filles dans les pays du Sud », Presses de Scinces Po, 87, p. 3-33. (Autrepart). https://www.cairn.info/revue-autrepart-2018-3-page-3.htm.


  • Larzillière Pénélope, Chiara Calabrese Erminia, Grajales Jacobo, Manrique Gabriela, Napolitano Valentina et Ruiz de Elvira Laura (2021) « Engagements et désengagements combattants. Les émotions comme outil d’analyse: », Critique internationale, 91 (2) (avril 27), p. 163-181. DOI : 10.3917/crii.091.0166. https://www.cairn.info/revue-critique-internationale-2021-2-page-163.htm?ref=doi.


  • Larzillière Pénélope et Grajales Jacobo (2021) « Les émotions politiques des (ex-)combattants. Pour une sociologie des sentiments moraux », Critique internationale, 91 (2) (juin 3), p. 9-22. DOI : 10/gpffps. https://www.cairn.info/revue-critique-internationale-2021-2-page-9.htm?ref=doi.


  • Le Guen Mireille, Schantz Clémence, Régnier-Loilier Arnaud et de La Rochebrochard Elise (2021) « Reasons for rejecting hormonal contraception in Western countries: A systematic review », Social Science & Medicine, 284 (septembre), p. 114247. DOI : 10/gmdh9v. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0277953621005797.
    Résumé : Over the past decade, women in Western countries have taken to various social media platforms to share their dissatisfactory experiences with hormonal contraception, which may be pills, patches, rings, injectables, implants or hormonal intrauterine devices (IUDs). These online testimonials have been denounced as spreading “hormonophobia”, i.e. an excessive fear of hormones based on irrational causes such as an overestimation of health risks associated with their use, that was already aroused by the recurring media controversies over hormonal contraception. In order to move toward a reproductive justice framework, we propose to study the arguments that women and men (as partners of female users) recently put forward against hormonal contraception to see whether they are related to hormonophobia. The aim of this article is to conduct a systematic review of the recent scientific literature in order to construct an evidence-based typology of reasons for rejecting hormonal contraception, in a continuum perspective from complaints to choosing not to use it, cited by women and men in Western countries in a recent time. The published literature was systematically searched using PubMed and the database from the French National Institute for Demographic Studies (Ined). A total of 42 articles were included for full-text analysis. Eight main categories emerged as reasons for rejecting hormonal contraception: problems related to physical side effects; altered mental health; negative impact on sexuality; concerns about future fertility; invocation of nature; concerns about menstruation; fears and anxiety; and the delegitimization of the side effects of hormonal contraceptives. Thus, arguments against hormonal contraception appeared complex and multifactorial. Future research should examine the provider-patient relationship, the gender bias of hormonal contraception and demands for naturalness in order to understand how birth control could better meet the needs and expectations of women and men in Western countries today.


  • Lefort-Rieu Claire et Minfegue Calvin (2021) « Quand l’aide internationale renforce la présence de l’État aux marges de son territoire. Le cas de l’assistance aux réfugiés centrafricains à l’Est-Cameroun », Cahiers d'études africaines, 244 (novembre 29), p. 777-797. DOI : 10/gnpdzj. http://journals.openedition.org/etudesafricaines/35599.
    Résumé : Dans la région frontalière entre le Cameroun et la République centrafricaine (RCA), les mouvements de population ont longtemps fait partie intégrante du paysage politique et économique. Avec la formalisation des frontières — coloniales puis nationales —, ces mouvements acquièrent le statut de migrations internationales, sujettes à des formes de contrôle et de régulation. Pourtant, ces dynamiques ne se trouvent remises en cause que récemment, via une conjonction de facteurs liés aux violences en RCA et à « l’humanitarisation » des flux migratoires que celles-ci provoquent. L’aide internationale en faveur des réfugiés dans la zone, initiée en 2013, permet ainsi de renforcer et de rendre visible une frontière longtemps poreuse et d’intégrer des marges périphériques au sein du territoire national camerounais.


  • Legrand Florian, Eychene Jean-Marc, Audiffren Julien, Klein Armelle, Labourdette C., Nicolaï Alice, Sandron Frederic et Vidal Piere-paul (2021) « Description of Participants in the “Atout Age Mobility” Prevention Workshops at the University Hospital Center of La Reunion: A Prospective Study », The journal of nutrition, health & aging (février 16). DOI : 10.1007/s12603-021-1604-8. http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s12603-021-1604-8.
    Résumé : Introduction As the population ages, loss of autonomy is becoming a priority public health issue. "Atout Age Mobility" prevention interventions for seniors aim to limit frailty, which is a predictive and reversible factor in the loss of autonomy and disability. Objectives The objective of this study is to describe the impact of these interventions on the physical performance and quality of life of a pilot sample of participants. Design We conducted a prospective study named 5P PILOT with 3 months of follow up. Settings Subjects were recruited by convenience sampling from participants in the "Atout Age Mobility" workshops at Saint Joseph from 04/09/2017 to 29/01/2019. Participants Retired people over 55 years old with no contraindications to physical activity recruited from participants in the "Atout Age Mobility" workshops in Saint Joseph. Intervention(s) (for clinical trials) or Exposure(s) (for observational studies): All participants completed 12 weeks of physical exercise called the "Atout Age Mobility" workshop, which lasted 60 minutes each week and was supervised by physical activity coaches. Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s) Physical performance was assessed by Short physical performance battery (SPPB), 10-m gait speed and grip strength measurement. Quality of life through the SF-36 test. Results Ninety-six patients were included and 55 (57.3%) completed the study. There was a significant improvement in gait speed (1.35 +/- 0.26m/s vs. 1.27 +/- 0.24m/s; p=0.008). There was no significant change in SF-36, grip strength dominant arm and SPPB at the 0.01 significance level. Conclusion The "Atout Ages Mobility" workshops seem to significantly improve gait speed but not other aspects of physical performance or quality of life.


  • Legrand Florian, Eychene Jean-Marc, Audiffren Julien, Klein Armelle, Labourdette Christophe, Nicolaï Alice, Sandron Frédéric et Vidal Pierre-Paul (2021) « The 5P program, personalized and participatory primary prevention pathway: Rational and design of a clinical trial in general practice », Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications, 22 (juin), p. 100786. DOI : 10.1016/j.conctc.2021.100786. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S2451865421000879.
    Résumé : The aging of the population is leading to an increase in the number of people with loss of autonomy, placing a strain on the health care system. Its prevention at early stages such as the frailty stage would allow an improvement in the quality of life of seniors while limiting health care expenses. The “Atout Age” prevention program set up by the health public authorities of Reunion Island for retired people and the new frailty assessment tools based on mathematical machine learning algorithms could improve the ambulatory care of senior citizens. At present, referral care remains hospital with comprehensive geriatric assessment and there is a lack of evidence of the effectiveness of a prevention pathway for loss of autonomy in primary care. For these reasons, the 5P program “Personalized and Participative Primary Prevention Pathway” has been started in order to obtain scientific evidence. In this article, we present the objectives, design and first results, used in the 5P program up to the implementation of a clinical trial in general practice. The program is articulated in 3 phases. A first phase to evaluate the acceptability of innovative screening tools for frailty. A second pilot phase evaluates the feasibility of a large-scale ambulatory clinical trial in general practice. The last phase described in this article, is a multisite, pseudo-randomized, controlled clinical trial measuring the impact of the “Atout Age” workshops on the physical performance and the quality of life of seniors compared with their usual ambulatory follow-up.


  • Lim Jacqueline K., Carabali Mabel, Edwards Tansy, Barro Ahmed, Lee Jung-Seok, Dahourou Desire, Lee Kang Sung, Nikiema Teguewende, Shin Mee Young, Bonnet Emmanuel, Kagone Therese, Kaba Losseni, Namkung Suk, Somé Paul-André, Yang Jae Seung, Ridde Valery, Yoon In-Kyu, Alexander Neal et Seydou Yaro (2021) « Estimating the Force of Infection for Dengue Virus Using Repeated Serosurveys, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso », Emerging Infectious Diseases, 27 (01) (janvier), p. 130-139. DOI : 10.3201/eid2701.191650. https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/27/01/19-1650_article.htm.
    Résumé : Because of limited data on dengue virus in Burkina Faso, we conducted 4 consecutive age-stratified longitudinal serologic surveys, ≈6 months apart, among persons 1–55 years of age, during June 2015–March 2017, which included a 2016 outbreak. The seroconversion rate before the serosurvey enrollment was estimated by binomial regression, taking age as the duration of exposure, and assuming constant force of infection (FOI) over age and calendar time. We calculated FOI between consecutive surveys and rate ratios for potentially associated characteristics based on seroconversion using the duration of intervals. Among 2,897 persons at enrollment, 66.3% were IgG-positive, and estimated annual FOI was 5.95%. Of 1,269 enrollees participating in all 4 serosurveys, 438 were IgG-negative at enrollment. The annualized FOI ranged from 10% to 20% (during the 2016 outbreak). Overall, we observed high FOI for dengue. These results could support decision-making about control and preventive measures for dengue.


  • Loenzien Myriam de, Mac Quoc Nhu Hung et Dumont Alexandre (2021) « Women’s empowerment and elective cesarean section for a single pregnancy: a population-based and multivariate study in Vietnam », BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 21 (1) (janvier 4), p. 1-12. DOI : 10.1186/s12884-020-03482-x. https://bmcpregnancychildbirth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12884-020-03482-x.
    Résumé : Background Women’s empowerment, and maternal and neonatal health are important targets of the Sustainable Development Goals. Our objective is to examine the relationship between women’s empowerment and elective cesarean section (ECS), focusing on Vietnam, a country where the use of CS has increased rapidly in recent decades, which raises public health concerns. Methods We hypothesized that in the context of the developing biomedicalization of childbirth, women’s empowerment increases the use of ECS due to a woman’s enhanced ability to decide her mode of delivery. By using microdata from the 2013–2014 Multiple Indicator Clusters Survey, we conducted a multivariate analysis of the correlates of ECS. We studied a representative sample of 1343 institutional single birth deliveries. Due to higher ECS rates among multiparous (18.4%) than primiparous women (10.1%) and the potential interaction between parity and other correlates, we used separate models for primiparous and multiparous women. Results Among the indicators of women’s external resources, which include a higher level of education, having worked during the previous 12 months, and having one’s own mobile phone, only education differed between primiparous and multiparous women, with a higher level among primiparous women. Among primiparous women, no resource indicator was significantly linked to ECS. However, considering women’s empowerment facilitated the identification of the negative impact of having had fewer than 3 antenatal care visits on the use of ECS. Among multiparous women, disapproval of intimate partner violence (IPV) was associated with a doubled likelihood of undergoing ECS (odds ratio = 2.415), and living in an urban area also doubled the likelihood of ECS. The positive association with living in the richest household quintile was no longer significant when attitude towards IPV was included in the model. In both groups, being aged 35 or older increased the likelihood of undergoing ECS, and this impact was stronger in primiparous women. Conclusions These results underline the multidimensionality of empowerment, its links to other correlates and its contribution to clarifying the influence of these correlates, particularly for distinguishing between medical and sociocultural determinants. The results advocate for the integration of women's empowerment into policies aimed at reducing ECS rates.


  • Louart Sarah, Bonnet Emmanuel, Kadio Kadidiatou et Ridde Valéry (2021) « How could patient navigation help promote health equity in sub-Saharan Africa? A qualitative study among public health experts », Global Health Promotion, 28 (1_suppl) (mars), p. 75-85. DOI : 10.1177/1757975920980723. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1757975920980723.
    Résumé : The indigents have long been excluded from health policies in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite recent efforts by some countries to allow them free access to health services, they face a multitude of non-financial barriers that prevent them from accessing care. Interventions to address the multiple patient-level barriers to care, such as patient navigation interventions, could help reverse this trend. However, our scoping review showed that no navigation interventions in low-income countries targeted the indigents. The objective of this qualitative study is, therefore, to go beyond the lack of evidence and discuss relevant approaches to act in favor of health care equity. We interviewed 22 public health experts with the objective of finding out which actions related to patient navigation programs (identified in the scoping review for other target groups) could be relevant and/or adapted for the indigents. For each ability to access care described by Levesque and colleagues, we were thus able to list the potential opportunities and challenges of implementing each type of action for the indigents in sub-Saharan Africa. Overall, the experts all felt that patient navigation programs were very relevant to implement for the indigents. They emphasized the need for personalized follow-up and for holistic actions to consider the whole context of the situation of indigence. The recommendations made by the experts are valuable in guiding political decision-making, while leaving room for adaptation of the proposed guidelines according to different contexts.


  • Manac'h Léopoldine (2021) « Christophe Broqua (dir.). "Se mobiliser contre le sida en Afrique : sous la santé globale, les luttes associatives", Paris, L’Harmattan, 2018, 372 pages. », Critique Internationale, 90 (1), p. 197-200. DOI : 10.3917/crii.090.0200. http://www.cairn.info/revue-critique-internationale-2021-1-page-197.htm?ref=doi.
  • Manac'h Léopoldine (2021) « La police des migrants. Filtrer, disperser, harceler », Carnets de géographes - Babels, 15.
  • Manac'h Léopoldine et Yahiaoui Amira (2021) « L’enfermement des personnes étrangères en France : une clinique du hors-lieu ? Perspectives comparatives entre psychanalyse et anthropologie », Recherches en psychanalyse, 31.


  • Manoufi D., Kabore W.C., Yahannon C.N., Dumont Alexandre et Ridde Valery (2021) « Amélioration de l’offre et de la demande de soins de santé maternelle et infantile au Tchad : une étude quasi-expérimentale », Revue d'Épidémiologie et de Santé Publique (mai), p. S0398762021002157. DOI : 10.1016/j.respe.2021.04.137. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0398762021002157.


  • Martin-Fernandez Judith, Aromatario Olivier, Prigent Ollivier, Porcherie Marion, Ridde Valéry et Cambon Linda (2021) « Evaluation of a knowledge translation strategy to improve policymaking and practices in health promotion and disease prevention setting in French regions: TC-REG, a realist study », BMJ Open, 11 (9), p. e045936. DOI : 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-045936. https://bmjopen.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-045936.
    Résumé : Objective This paper presents the results of a realist evaluation of a knowledge translation (KT) intervention implemented in the field of health promotion and disease prevention at the local level in France. Design Realist evaluation study. Setting The target population comprised decision-makers and field professionals working in prevention and public health services operating in regions of France (ie, ARS (Agence Régionale de Santé: regional health agency), IREPS (Instance Régionale d'Education et de Promotion de la Santé pour tous: regional organisation for health promotion and education) and their partners). Participants This evaluation was based on data collected from 2 seminars, 82 interviews, 18 observations and 4 focus groups over 18 months. Intervention The TC-REG intervention aimed to increase the use of evidence in cancer prevention, health promotion and disease prevention across four geographical regions in France. The intervention combined various activities: Supporting access to and adaptation of usable evidence, strengthening professionals’ skills in analysing, adopting and using policy briefs, and facilitating the use of evidence in organisations and processes. Results The collected data was used to define favourable/unfavourable contexts for the use of scientific data and mechanisms to be activated to encourage the use of scientific knowledge. From these raw results eight final refined middle-range theories were defined. Organised around the mechanisms to be activated, these middle-range theories illustrate how to activate knowledge and under what conditions. These analyses provided a basis for the production of seven operational and contextualised recommendations to develop KT to inform regional policymaking regarding health promotion and disease prevention. Conclusion The results obtained from the analyses led us to formulate two perspectives of an operational nature for the benefit of those involved in prevention and health promotion.


  • Mathevet Isadora, Ost Katarina, Traverson Lola, Zinszer Kate et Ridde Valéry (2021) « Accounting for health inequities in the design of contact tracing interventions: a rapid review », International Journal of Infectious Diseases (mars 11), p. S1201971221002277. DOI : 10.1016/j.ijid.2021.03.010. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1201971221002277.
    Résumé : Context Contact tracing has been a central COVID-19 transmission control measure. However, without the consideration of the needs of specific populations, public health interventions can exacerbate health inequities. Purpose The purpose of this rapid review was to determine if and how health inequities were included in the design of contact tracing interventions in epidemic settings. Method We conducted a search of the electronic databases MEDLINE and Web of Science. Our inclusion criteria included articles that: (i) described the design of contact tracing interventions, (ii) have been published between 2013 and 2020 in English, French, Spanish, Chinese, or Portuguese, (iii) and included at least 50% of empiricism, according to the Automated Classifier of Texts on Scientific Studies (ATCER) tool. We relied on various tools to extract data. Result Following the titles and abstracts screening of 230 articles, 39 articles met the inclusion criteria. Only seven references were retained after full text review. None of the selected studies considered health inequities in the design of contact tracing interventions. Conclusion The use of tools/concepts for incorporating health inequities, such as the REFLEX-ISS tool, and “proportionate universalism” when designing contact tracing interventions, would enable practitioners, decision makers, and researchers to better consider health inequities.


  • Mc Sween-Cadieux Esther, Chabot Catherine, Fillol Amandine, Saha Trisha et Dagenais Christian (2021) « Use of infographics as a health-related knowledge translation tool: protocol for a scoping review », BMJ Open, 11 (6) (juin), p. e046117. DOI : 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-046117. https://bmjopen.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-046117.
    Résumé : Introduction Efforts to bridge the know–do gap have paved the way for development of the field of knowledge translation (KT). KT aims to understand how evidence use can best be promoted and supported through different activities. For dissemination activities, infographics are gaining in popularity as a promising KT tool to reach multiple health research users (eg, health practitioners, patients and families, decision-makers). However, to our knowledge, no study has yet mapped the available evidence on this tool using a systematic method. This scoping review will explore the depth and breadth of evidence on infographics use and its effectiveness in improving research uptake (eg, raising awareness, influencing attitudes, increasing knowledge, informing practice and changing behaviour). Methods and analysis We will use the scoping review methodological framework first proposed by Arksey and O’Malley (2005), improved by Levac et al , and further refined by the Joanna Briggs Institute (2020). The search will be conducted in MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycINFO, Social Science Abstracts, Library and Information Science Abstracts, Education Resources Information Center, Cairn and Google Scholar. We will also search for relevant literature from the reference lists of the included publications. Two independent reviewers will select the studies. All study designs will be eligible for inclusion, with no date or publication status restrictions. The included studies will have evaluated infographics that disseminate health research evidence and target a non-scientific audience. A data extraction form will be developed and used to extract and chart the data, which will then be synthesised to present a descriptive summary of the results. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval is not required. To inform the research and KT communities, various dissemination activities will be developed, including user-friendly KT tools (eg, webinars, fact sheets and infographics), open-access publication and presentations at KT events and conferences.


  • Melchior M., Desgrées du Loû Annabel, Gosselin Anne, Datta G. D., Carabali M., Merckx J. et Kaufman J. S. (2021) « À quand une prise en compte des disparités ethnoraciales vis-à-vis de l’infection à COVID-19 en France ? », Revue d'Épidémiologie et de Santé Publique (février). DOI : 10.1016/j.respe.2021.01.006. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0398762021000456.


  • Mensah Keitly, Kaboré Charles, Zeba Salifou, Bouchon Magali, Duchesne Véronique, Pourette Dolorès, DeBeaudrap Pierre et Dumont Alexandre (2021) « Implementation of HPV-based screening in Burkina Faso: lessons learned from the PARACAO hybrid-effectiveness study », BMC Women's Health, 21 (1) (décembre), p. 251. DOI : 10.1186/s12905-021-01392-4. https://bmcwomenshealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12905-021-01392-4.
    Résumé : Abstract Background Cervical cancer screening in sub-Saharan countries relies on primary visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA). Primary human papillomavirus (HPV)-based screening is considered a promising alternative. However, the implementation and real-life effectiveness of this strategy at the primary-care level in limited-resource contexts remain under explored. In Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, free HPV-based screening was implemented in 2019 in two primary healthcare centers. We carried out a process and effectiveness evaluation of this intervention. Methods Effectiveness outcomes and implementation indicators were assessed through a cohort study of screened women, observations in participating centers, individual interviews with women and healthcare providers and monitoring reports. Effectiveness outcomes were screening completeness and women’s satisfaction. Logistic regression models and concurrent qualitative analysis explored how implementation variability, acceptability by women and the context affected effectiveness outcomes. Results After a 3-month implementation period, of the 350 women included in the cohort, 94% completed the screening, although only 26% had their screening completed in a single visit as planned in the protocol. The proportion of highly satisfied women was higher after result disclosure (95%) than after sampling (65%). A good understanding of the screening results and recommendations increased screening completeness and women’s satisfaction, while time to result disclosure decreased satisfaction. Adaptations were made to fit healthcare workers’ workload. Conclusion Free HPV-based screening was successfully integrated within primary care in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, leading to a high level of screening completeness despite the frequent use of multiple visits. Future implementation in primary healthcare centers needs to improve counseling and reduce wait times at the various steps of the screening sequence.


  • Meyer Jean-Baptiste (2021) « La diaspora est-elle (vraiment) un creuset de créativité ? », Hommes & migrations, 1332 (janvier 1), p. 127-133. DOI : 10/gntt9b. http://journals.openedition.org/hommesmigrations/12269.


  • Mick Carola, Bisio Natalia, Kleiche-Dray Mina et Oraisón Mercedes (2021) « Introducción: Dossier Metodologías participativas alternativas o contrahegemónicas: otros modos de vivir, hacer y conocer », De prácticas y discursos. Cuadernos de ciencias sociales, 10 (15), p. 1-8. DOI : 10.30972/dpd.10154805. http://revistas.unne.edu.ar/index.php/dpd/issue/view/531/showToc.
    Résumé : En 1960 y 1970, en el contexto de las teorías de la liberación y el pensamiento crítico latinoamericano, surgen diversas propuestas de hacer ciencia y construir conocimiento, alternativas a las formas hegemónicas, que se fueron consolidando como una contracorriente a las explicaciones dominantes de los procesos económicos y sociales. Bajo el lema acuñado por Fals Borda: “O ciencia rebelde, nueva, constructiva, o ciencia de segunda clase, imitativa y desadaptada”, lxs investigadorxs comprometidxs con el cambio social buscaron producir conocimiento práctico y socialmente útil, al margen de los temas impuestos por las agencias de ciencia y tecnología. Se planteó un acercamiento a la cultura y los conocimientos populares y se incorporó a lxs actorxs sociales como co-responsables de los procesos de investigación. El efecto que se quería producir era la toma de conciencia y la reflexión crítica sobre las relaciones de dominación y dependencia que involucraban tanto a lxs actorxs sociales como a lxs académicxs.


  • Mora Marion, Rincon Giovanna, Bourrelly Michel, Maradan Gwenaëlle, Freire Maresca Anaenza, Michard Florence, Rouveix Elisabeth, Pannetier Julie, Leriche Diane, Alain Tristan, Yazdanpanah Yazdan, Michels David et Spire Bruno (2021) « Living conditions, HIV and gender affirmation care pathways of transgender people living with HIV in France: a nationwide, comprehensive, cross-sectional, community-based research protocol (ANRS Trans&HIV) », BMJ Open, 11 (12), p. e052691. DOI : 10/gn83fz. https://bmjopen.bmj.com/lookup/doi/10.1136/bmjopen-2021-052691.
    Résumé : Introduction Transgender identity is poorly accepted in France, and data on living conditions and the daily difficulties transgender people encounter are scarce. This lack of data reinforces their invisibility in social life, contributes to their stigmatisation and probably increases the burden of HIV infection, especially for HIV-positive transgender people (TRHIV). The main objective of the community-based research study ANRS Trans&HIV is to identify personal and social situations of vulnerability in TRHIV, the obstacles they encounter in terms of access to and retention in medical care, and their gender affirmation and HIV care needs. Methods and analysis ANRS Trans&HIV is a national, comprehensive, cross-sectional survey of all TRHIV currently being followed in HIV care units in France. TRHIV women are exclusively included in the quantitative component, and TRHIV men in the qualitative component. Data are collected by community-based interviewers and will be analysed to explore patient care pathways and living conditions in the TRHIV population with regard to gender affirmation and HIV. Data collection began in October 2020 and should be completed in December 2021. The statistical analyses techniques used will be adapted to each of the study’s objectives and to the type of data collected (cross-sectional ( questionnaires ) and retrospective ( biographical trajectory )). The study’s results will provide a greater understanding of TRHIV health needs in order to suggest possible national recommendations for comprehensive HIV and gender affirmation medical care. Ethics and dissemination ANRS Trans&HIV was approved by Inserm’s Ethical Evaluation Committee (no 20-694 on 12 May 2020) and is registered with the National Commission on Informatics and Liberty under number 2518030720. Potential participants are informed about the study through an information note provided by their attending HIV physician. All results published in peer-reviewed journals will be disseminated to the HIV transgender community, institutional stakeholders and healthcare providers. Trial registration number NCT04849767 .
    Pièce jointe Texte intégral 389.1 ko (source)


  • Niangaly Hamidou, Ridde Valéry et Thuilliez Josselin (2021) « Introduction : repenser la santé en Afrique à l’aune de la crise sanitaire: », Revue internationale des études du développement, N° 247 (3) (novembre 10), p. 7-33. DOI : 10.3917/ried.247.0007. https://www.cairn.info/revue-internationale-des-etudes-du-developpement-2021-3-page-7.htm?ref=doi.


  • Njatosoa Ammy Fiadanana, Mattern Chiarella, Pourette Dolorès, Kesteman Thomas, Rakotomanana Elliot, Rahaivondrafahitra Bakoly, Andriamananjara Mauricette, Harimanana Aina, Razafindrakoto Jocelyn, Raboanary Emma, Andrianasolo Andry et Rogier Christophe (2021) « Family, social and cultural determinants of long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) use in Madagascar: secondary analysis of three qualitative studies focused on children aged 5–15 years », Malaria Journal, 20 (1) (mars 26), p. 168. DOI : 10.1186/s12936-021-03705-2. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-021-03705-2.
    Résumé : Although it is accepted that long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) use is an effective means to prevent malaria, children aged 5 to 15 years do not appear to be sufficiently protected in Madagascar; the malaria prevalence is highest in this age group. The purpose of this research is to summarize recent qualitative studies describing LLIN use among the Malagasy people with a focus on children aged 5–15 years.
    Mots-clés : Children over five, LLIN use, Madagascar, Malaria, Sociocultural factors.


  • Ouedraogo Wendkouni A. S., Biau Sandrine, Bonnet Emmanuel et Ridde Valéry (2021) « Telephones in public health policy processes in sub-Saharan Africa: a scoping review », Journal of Global Health Reports (juillet 21). DOI : 10.29392/001c.24167. https://www.joghr.org/article/24167-telephones-in-public-health-policy-processes-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-scoping-review.
    Résumé : Background The telephone is being put to work in the quest for universal health coverage in sub-Saharan Africa. Multiple mobile health pilot projects are being deployed. The use of mobile technologies including citizens in the formulation, analysis, and revision of public health policies in sub-Saharan Africa is recent. This citizen m-participation could influence the democratic engagement of citizens and leaders in the planning, budgeting, and transparency of local governance processes of health systems. Methods We conducted a scoping review. A total of 995 papers were initially identified, 37 documents were finally included in the final synthesis after a review of the abstract and full text by two researchers. Results Despite multiple challenges, the social, technological, and instrumental feasibility of citizen m-participation in health decision-making processes is real. The documents highlight the contribution of m-Citizen Participation to the ongoing construction of a robust health democracy. However, government commitment and leadership for this innovation remain weak. This slows down the processes of inclusion and empowerment of patients on their health needs. Conclusions Evidence suggests that citizen m-participation is relevant to the inclusion of citizens in health decision-making processes. However, research is limited. We recommend participatory action research mechanisms focused on citizen inclusion in health decision-making processes in sub-Saharan Africa to expand the knowledge base on this innovation.
  • Passanti Cecilia (2021) « Contesting the Electoral Register during the 2019 Elections in Senegal. Why Allegations of Fraud Did not End with the Introduction of Biometrics », Jan Thorbecke Verlag, 48, p. 515-525. (FRANCIA).


  • Paul Elisabeth, Bodson Oriane et Ridde Valéry (2021) « What theories underpin performance-based financing? A scoping review », Journal of Health Organization and Management, ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) (janvier 20). DOI : 10.1108/JHOM-04-2020-0161. https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/JHOM-04-2020-0161/full/html.
    Résumé : Purpose The study aims to explore the theoretical bases justifying the use of performance-based financing (PBF) in the health sector in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted a scoping review of the literature on PBF so as to identify the theories utilized to underpin it and analyzed its theoretical justifications. Findings Sixty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Economic theories were predominant, with the principal-agent theory being the most commonly-used theory, explicitly referred to by two-thirds of included studies. Psychological theories were also common, with a wide array of motivation theories. Other disciplines in the form of management or organizational science, political and social science and systems approaches also contributed. However, some of the theories referred to contradicted each other. Many of the studies included only casually alluded to one or more theories, and very few used these theories to justify or support PBF. No theory emerged as a dominant, consistent and credible justification of PBF, perhaps except for the principal-agent theory, which was often inappropriately applied in the included studies, and when it included additional assumptions reflecting the contexts of the health sector in LMICs, might actually warn against adopting PBF. Practical implications Overall, this review has not been able to identify a comprehensive, credible, consistent, theoretical justification for using PBF rather than alternative approaches to health system reforms and healthcare providers' motivation in LMICs. Originality/value The theoretical justifications of PBF in the health sector in LMICs are under-documented. This review is the first of this kind and should encourage further debate and theoretical exploration of the justifications of PBF.


  • Paul Elisabeth, Brown Garrett W., Dechamps Mélanie, Kalk Andreas, Laterre Pierre-François, Rentier Bernard, Ridde Valéry et Zizi Martin (2021) « Covid-19: An extra-terrestrial disease? », International Journal of Infectious Diseases (juillet), p. S1201971221006093. DOI : 10.1016/j.ijid.2021.07.051. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1201971221006093.
    Résumé : Background : Since the beginning of the pandemic, Covid-19 has been regarded as an exceptional disease. Control measures have exclusively focused on “the virus”, failing to account for other biological and social factors that determine severe forms of the disease. Aim : We argue that if it is understandable that Covid-19 was initially considered a form of exceptionalism, justifying extraordinary response measures, this situation has changed – and so should our response. Main arguments : We now know that Covid-19 shares many features of common infectious respiratory diseases, and better understand that SARS-CoV-2 has not invented new problems out of the blue. Instead, it has unveiled and exacerbated existing problems in health systems and underlying population health. Of course, Covid-19 is not an extra-terrestrial disease. It is a complex zoonotic disease, and it needs to be managed as such, following long proven principles of medicine and public health. Conclusion : A complex disease cannot be solved through a simple, magic bullet cure or vaccine. The heterogeneity of population profiles susceptible to develop a severe form of Covid-19 suggests adopting varying, targeted measures, enabled to reach risk profiles in an appropriate way. The critical role of comorbidities in disease severity calls for complementing short-term virus-targeted interventions with medium-term policies aimed at reducing the burden of comorbidities, as well as mitigating the risk of “transition” from infection to disease. Complementary strategies are needed including upstream prevention, early treatment, and the consolidation of the health system. Keywords Covid-19 health policy public health treatment health promotion Background Although the threat of a pandemic had been expected for years, Covid-19 triggered frantic and uncoordinated reactions worldwide (Independent Panel for Pandemic 2021; Paul et al., 2020b). Since being declared a public health emergency in January 2020, Covid-19 has been regarded as an exceptional disease, as if it came from outer space. For the first time in history, billions of people were locked down, denied the right to go to school or to earn their living, and/or to see their loved ones, while an unprecedented race for treatment and vaccine discovery was launched. The collateral damage of these response measures were largely ignored, even if they may be greater than the positive effects of the counter-measures (Hrynick et al., 2021). The collateral damage ranged from economic recession and loss of education, to increased domestic violence, mental health problems, and the worsening of chronic conditions from a lack of access to care (Bavli et al., 2020). They weigh particularly heavily on young people and hit the most vulnerable disproportionately, aggravating inequities (Chakrabarti et al., 2021). In many countries, primary healthcare professionals have been denied the right to treat their patients and, without effective primary healthcare, hospitals were left with the task of treating severe cases, notwithstanding the absence of a specific recommended drug. This led to the further exacerbation of existing disparities in health systems and services, especially in low- and middle-income countries (Baral, 2021). Despite the fact that Covid-19 could be categorised a ‘syndemic’ (Horton, 2020) – a synergy of epidemics that ‘co-occur in time and place, interact with each other to produce complex sequelae, and share common underlying societal drivers’ (Swinburn et al., 2019) – control measures were exclusively focused on “the virus” and delay tactics, not taking into account other biological and social factors that contribute to determining severe forms of the disease (Paul et al., 2020a). After several inconclusive results, it is only in July 2020 that one of the two large international randomised control trials aimed at testing the efficacy of existing treatments against Covid-19 published a preliminary report showing that dexamethasone (a glucocorticoid) resulted, on average, in lower mortality rates in patients requiring supplemental oxygen or invasive mechanical ventilation (The RECOVERY Collaborative Group 2020). The lack of evidence on more effective medical treatments, coupled with projections suggesting high disease loads and death tolls, led to a perception that this was a one-off disease, which, unfortunately, translated into largely ignoring proven, traditional medical and public health practices. For instance, the longstanding concept of “herd immunity” which has always stood for an objective, or an achievement, is now considered by many as a “strategy”, yet not to be followed if acquired naturally, but only by means of vaccination (World Health Organization 2020, p.). In spite of all its potential risks, limitations and considerable uncertainties regarding long-term side effects, the duration of protection and its effectiveness against viral variants, vaccination quickly became the only salvation option promoted by key governments and international institutions (Paul et al., 2021). Although it is understandable that Covid-19 was considered a form of ‘exceptionalism’ in early 2020, which justified exceptional response measures – particularly since SARS-CoV-2 can trigger a variety of symptoms, some of them extremely severe (Hu et al., 2020; Wiersinga et al., 2020) – the situation has changed. So should our response (Paul et al., 2020a). In this piece, we argue that now that we far better understand the complex functioning of Covid-19, we should adapt our response strategy in a way that responds to its heterogeneity, and embraces proven, traditional medical and public health practices.


  • Paul Elisabeth, Brown Garrett W., Kalk Andreas et Ridde Valéry (2021) « Playing vaccine roulette: Why the current strategy of staking everything on Covid-19 vaccines is a high-stakes wager », Vaccine (juillet), p. S0264410X21009233. DOI : 10.1016/j.vaccine.2021.07.045. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0264410X21009233.


  • Pérez Dennis, Robert Emilie, Pérez Elsury J., Vanlerberghe Veerle, Lefèvre Pierre et Ridde Valéry (2021) « A Realist Synthesis of Community-Based Interventions in Vector-Borne Diseases », The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (mars 1). DOI : 10.4269/ajtmh.20-0944. https://www.ajtmh.org/view/journals/tpmd/aop/article-10.4269-ajtmh.20-0944/article-10.4269-ajtmh.20-0944.xml.
    Résumé : Randomized control trials have provided evidence that some community-based interventions (CBIs) work in vector-borne diseases (VBDs). Conversely, there is limited evidence on how well those CBIs succeed in producing specific outcomes in different contexts. To conduct a realist synthesis for knowledge translation on this topic, we examined the extent to which realist concepts (context, mechanisms, and outcomes) and their relationships are present in the existing literature on CBIs for VBDs. Articles on CBIs were identified from prior scoping reviews of health interventions for VBDs. Content of the articles was extracted verbatim if it referred either to realist concepts or CBI features. The number of articles and the average number of words extracted per category per CBI were quantified. Content of the articles was scrutinized to inductively gather qualitative evidence on the interactions between realist concepts. We reviewed 41 articles on 17 CBIs from 12 countries. The average number of words used for mechanisms was much lower than those used for outcomes and context (309,474, and 836, respectively). The average number of words used for mechanisms increased when a CBI was described in three or more articles. There were more extensive accounts on CBI features than on mechanisms. It was difficult to gather evidence on the interactions among realist concepts from the content of the articles. Scarce reporting on mechanisms in published articles limits conducting a realist synthesis of CBIs in VBDs. More transdisciplinary research that goes beyond the biomedical paradigm is needed to boost the development of intervention mechanisms in this field.


  • Petit Véronique, Robin Nelly et Martin Nelly (2021) « Spatialité et temporalité de l’épidémie de la Covid-19 au Sénégal. Le processus de production des données sanitaires au regard des discontinuités territoriales », Revue francophone sur la santé et les territoires (juin 11). DOI : 10.4000/rfst.1150. http://journals.openedition.org/rfst/1150.


  • Petitfour Laurène, Bonnet Emmanuel, Mathevet Isadora, Nikiema Aude et Ridde Valéry (2021) « Out-of-pocket payments and catastrophic expenditures due to traffic injuries in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso », Health Economics Review, 11 (1), p. 46. DOI : 10.1186/s13561-021-00344-w. https://healtheconomicsreview.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13561-021-00344-w.
    Résumé : Abstract Objective To estimate the out-of-pocket expenditures linked to Road Traffic Injuries in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, as well as the prevalence of catastrophic expenditures among those out-of-pocket payments, and to identify the socio-economic determinants of catastrophic expenditures due to Road Traffic Injuries. Methods We surveyed every admission at the only trauma unit of Ouagadougou between January and July 2015 at the time of their admission, 7 days and 30 days later. We estimate a total amount of out-of-pocket expenditures paid by each patient. We considered an expense as catastrophic when it represented 10% at least of the annual global consumption of the patient’s household. We used linear models to determine if socio-economic characteristics were associated to a greater or smaller ratio between out-of-pocket payment and global annual consumption. Findings We surveyed 1323 Road injury victims three times (admission, Days 7 and 30). They paid in average 46,547 FCFA (83.64 US dollars) for their care, which represent a catastrophic expenditure for 19% of them. Less than 5% of the sample was covered by a health insurance scheme. Household economic status is found to be the first determinant of catastrophic health expenditure occurrence, exhibiting a significant and negative on the ratio between road injury expenditures and global consumption. Conclusion Our findings highlight the importance of developing health insurance schemes to protect poor households from the economic burden of road traffic injuries and improve equity in front of health shocks.


  • Petitprez Karine, Mattuizzi Aurélien, Guillaume Sophie, Arnal Maud, Artzner France, Bernard Catherine, Caron François-Marie, Chevalier Isabelle, Daussy-Urvoy Claude, Ducloy-Bouthorsc Anne-Sophie, Garnier Jean-Michel, Keita-Meyer Hawa, Lavillonnière Jacqueline, Lejeune-Sadaa Valérie, Le Ray Camille, Morandeau Anne, Nadjafizade Marjan, Pizzagalli Franck, Schantz Clemence, Schmitz Thomas, Shojai Raha, Hédon Bernard et Sentilhes Loïc (2021) « Normal delivery: physiologic support and medical interventions. Guidelines of the French National Authority for Health (HAS) with the collaboration of the French College of Gynecologists and Obstetricians (CNGOF) and the French College of Midwives (CNSF) », The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine (mai 12), p. 1-10. DOI : 10.1080/14767058.2021.1918089. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14767058.2021.1918089.
    Résumé : Objective: To define for women at low obstetric risk methods of management that respect the rhythm and the spontaneous course of giving birth as well as each woman’s preferences. Methods: These clinical practice guidelines were developed through professional consensus based on an analysis of the literature and of the French and international guidelines available on this topic. Results: Labor should be monitored with a partograph (professional consensus). Digital cervical examination should be offered every 4 h during the first stage of labor, hourly during the second. The choice between continuous (cardiotocography) or discontinuous (by cardiotocography or intermittent auscultation) monitoring should be left to the woman (professional consensus). In the active phase of the first stage of labor, dilation speed is considered abnormal if it is less than 1 cm/4 h between 5 and 7 cm or less than 1 cm/2 h after 7 cm. In those cases, an amniotomy is recommended if the membranes are intact, and the administration of oxytocin if the membranes are already broken and uterine contractions are judged insufficient (professional consensus). It is recommended that pushing not begin when full dilation has been reached; rather, the fetus should be allowed to descend (grade A). Umbilical cord clamping should be delayed beyond the first 30 s in newborns who do not require resuscitation (grade C). Conclusion: The establishment of these clinical practice guidelines should enable women at low obstetric risk to receive better care in conditions of optimal safety while supporting physiologic birth.
  • Pierce L, Zahreddine C, Abreu K, Dantas M. A., Caprara A, Ridde Valéry et Zinszer K (2021) « Dengue knowledge, attitudes, and practices : baseline data from the COESA study », AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE, 105 (5) (novembre), p. 326-326.


  • Pison Leslie (2021) « La dissonance dans le dissensus : manifestations et conséquences argumentatives d’une attaque psychologisante », Argumentation et analyse du discours, 27 (octobre 14). DOI : 10/gnsxxw. http://journals.openedition.org/aad/5820.
    Résumé : L’objectif de cet article est de décrire le fonctionnement argumentatif de l’expression « dissonance cognitive » sur le réseau social Twitter. La démarche descriptive proposée s’attache à rendre compte de l’usage de ce lexème dans le cadre d’échanges polémiques. La spécificité de l’expression « dissonance cognitive », contrairement à d’autres attaques psychiatrisantes, réside dans le fait qu’elle est également une critique méta-argumentative. En effet, « dissonance cognitive » désigne initialement en sciences cognitives une incohérence entre deux éléments perçus par le cerveau. Les analyses menées dans cet article, en portant notamment une attention particulière au contre-discours, montrent que cette théorisation est réinvestie lors de l’usage argumentatif de « dissonance cognitive », qui produit un double mouvement de réfutation-disqualification. L’argument de la dissonance cognitive est par conséquent assimilable à un ad hominem tu quoque.


  • Quet Mathieu (2021) « Fakeness, Human-Object Fluidity and Ethnic Suspicion on the Kenyan Pharmaceutical Market », Journal of African Cultural Studies, 33 (3) (juillet 3), p. 359-363. DOI : 10.1080/13696815.2021.1886057. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13696815.2021.1886057.


  • Ravalihasy Andrainolo, Rude Nathalie, Yazdanpanah Yazdan, Kardas-Sloma Lidia, Desgrées du Loû Annabel, Gosselin Anne et Ridde Valéry (2021) « Development and Validation of an HIV/AIDS Empowerment Scale for Impact Intervention Evaluation. An Example from the MAKASI Intervention », American Journal of Health Education (août 6), p. 1-11. DOI : 10.1080/19325037.2021.1955230. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/19325037.2021.1955230.
    Résumé : Background The MAKASI intervention aimed to empower sub-Saharan immigrants living in the Paris metropolitan area regarding sexual health and reduce their HIV exposure. The intervention was developed based upon a theoretical model of individual empowerment. Purpose A scale was developed using sixteen 4-point Likert items adapted from existing tools to measure HIV/AIDS empowerment as an intervention outcome. This study describes the psychometric validation of this scale. Methods Data from 433 participants were used. Construct validity and internal consistency were assessed using factor analysis and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (α). The scale’s predictive validity for health and social outcomes was assessed using bivariable logistic regressions. Results Five dimensions were identified: i) sexual communication; ii) perceived control at the individual level; iii) knowledge of HIV treatment and social resources; iv) ability to find and understand healthcare information; and v) ability to understand and use disease prevention messages. The internal consistency (α = 0.71) and predictive validity (p < .05) were satisfactory.
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